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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 25, Issue spc3 - Sep 2003
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Effect of Solar Irradiances on Growth and Pigmentation of Antarctic Red Algae, Kallymenia antarctica and Palmaria decipiens
Han, Tae-Jun ; Han, Young-Seok ; Lee, Min-Soo ; Park, Jin-Hee ; Cho, Man-Gi ; Koo, Jae-Gun ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 427~435
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.427
Growth and pigment responses to different levels of solar radiation with or without ultraviolet (UV)-B component
were investigated in Antarctic rhodophytes, Kallymenia antarctica and Palmaria decipiens, collected around King George Island during the summer of 2000. In K. antarctica specific growth rate, based on thallus area or fresh weight, decreased with increasing solar irradiances while P. decipiens were relatively insensitive to the effects of light. It is noticeable that the presence or absence of UV-B had no significant effect on growth for either species. However, K. antarctica showed a more pronounced reduction in chlorophyll (Chl a) concentrations at higher irradiances in the presence of UV-B. In P. decipiens, Chl a concentrations did not differ despite radiation level fluctuations being lower albeit than initial measurements. Thallus thickness was greater in K. antarctica than in P. decipiens. There were higher relative amounts of UV-absorbing pigments (UVAPs) in P. decipiens than in K, antarctica. The single absorbance peak obtained from the methanol extracts was resolved into three (316,332 and 346nm) in K. antarctica and four peaks (315,326,333 and 349 nm) in Palmaria as a result of the fourth-derivative. After 7 days exposure to solar radiation, the amount of UVAPs in K. antarctica was significantly reduced to a similar degree at all light levels, whereas that of P. decipiens remained unchanged except at 5% of surface irradiance. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of purified extracts indicated that P. decipiens possesses porphyra-334 in addition to three other mycosporine-like anlino acids (MAAs; asterina-330, palythine, shinorine), which are commonly present in K. antarctica. Significantly lower tolerance of K. antarctica to high levels of solar radiation may be connected with its usual absence in the eulittoral, while the active growth and elastic pigment responses of P. decipiens over a wide range of solar irradiance levels up to full sunlight seems to correspond well with its wide vertical distribution from rock pools down to 25-30m.
Field Measurements of Wave Directionality in Water of Finite Depth
Memos, Constantine ; Ziros, Athanassios ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 437~446
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.437
Field measurements of directional waves were carried out during the summer of 2002 at two coastal sites in water of finite depth. A couple of general purpose instruments were used employing acoustic Doppler technology. The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial behavior of the directional movement of waves as they come ashore. In total,74 tests were carried out during which sea states of low to moderate intensity were recorded. A great number of these runs displayed bimodal characteristics of the spreading function at high frequencies. It was found that in general, the frequency-integrated directional width tends to broaden as the water shoals and when refraction effects are negligible. This is attributed to wave-wave interactions that become pronounced in shallow water. The same directional width showed, also, a tendency to increase with increasing peak frequency of the sea state spectrum. The behavior of the kurtosis of the spreading function was also examined. It was found that for higher frequencies this index tends to increase in wave spectra above a certain sea severity threshold.
Change of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments of the Lake Shihwa and Its Tributaries
Kim, Kyung-Tae ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Cho, Sung-Rok ; Park, Jun-Kun ; Park, Chung-Kil ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 447~457
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.447
In order to understand the distribution of changes of geochemical characteristics in surface sediments according to various environmental changes around the artificial Lake Shihwa, surface sediments were sampled at
sites form 1997 to 1999 and analyzed by C/S analyzer, ICP/MS and AAS. The average
ratio was 0.35 in the surface sediments, which is similar to 0.36, the characteristic ratio of marine sediments. Heavy metal contents and enrichment factors in the surface sediments tended to be decreasing from the head to the mouth of the Lake Shihwa. With the deposition of fine-grained sediments in the central part of lake, anoxic water column induced the sulfides compounds with Cu, Cd and Zn. Metals such as Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd except for Mn and Pb showed relatively high correlation coefficients among them. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in the surface sediments of the lake were two to five times higher than those in the lake before dike construction and also in outer part of the dike. These are mainly due to the Input of untreated industrial and municipal waste-waters into the lake, and the accumulation of heavy metals by limitation of physical mixing. Although metal contents of the surface sediments at the sites near the water-gate due to outer seawater inflow tended to be lower than those during the desalination, heavy metals were deposited in areas around the new industrial complex in the evidence of spatial distribution of heavy metals in the sediments. This is mainly due to the input of untreated waste-waters from tributaries.
Annual Variation of Water Qualities in the Shihwa Lake
Park, Jun-Kun ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Cho, Sung-Rok ; Kim, Kyung-Tae ; Park, Yong-Chul ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 459~468
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.459
Annual variation of water qualities in the Shihwa Lake were observed 18 times from June 1996 to October 2001. We studied at the station of the upper streams and near the water gate of lake. After the flow of the outer seawater through the water gate, the surface salinity in Shihwa Lake increased to the range of 25-30 psu in both stations after October 1998. Due to the declination of the salinity differences between the surface and the bottom water, the pycnocline in which had existed until 1997 has weakened, and made the water column mix vertically. This led to the improvement of anoxic/hypoxic environment at bottom waters after April 1998. However, despite the continuous flow of the outer seawater, the concentrations of chlorophyll-a at surface layer were varied from
, and these values indicated the eutrophication. The following organic matter load was greatly influencing the surface layer's COD concentration. During the rainy season, the salinity at the surface layer to the below 15 psu resulting in stratification between the surface and bottom layer. Organic matters that were provided from the surface layer to the bottom layer due to active primary production in the year exhausted dissolved oxygen at the bottom layer, and the bulks of organic matters at bottom gave rise to hypoxic or anoxic environment. It was observed that the enrichment of ammonia and phosphate were main factors to worsen the water quality of the Shihwa Lake. The results of examining the annual variations in Shiwha Lake through principal component analysis shown that water characteristics in the rainy season were similar with those before input of outer sea water.
The Development Strategy for the Aquaculture of Marine Fishes in Korea
Kim, Sung-Gwi ; Lee, Seung-Woo ; Hong, Jang-Won ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 469~481
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.469
This study is to suggest strategies for the aquaculture of marine fishes in Korea through the analysis of current domestic states and case studies of the advanced countries to enhance the competitiveness of the industry. To reveal the current state, a questionnaire study to the producers was carried out, and cases in Norway, China, Japan, USA were analysed in terms of national development strategies. From those analyses, 3 strategies for the improvement of the competitive edge in the industry were induced as followings. First, it is necessary to implement restructuring such as upsizing through consolidation of small units, networking, etc. Second, it is required to introduce the state-of-the-art technology with the newly-designed equipments to save energy and cost in the operation. Third, it is also required to implement programs to select the national strategic species and concentrate R&D resources on the selected ones.
A Bioeconomic Analysis of the Management Policies for the United States Gulf of Mexico Red Grouper Fishery
Kim, Do-Hoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 483~491
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.483
Since the red grouper was declared overfished, the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council must prepare a rebuilding plan considering the following alternative management policies: a Total Allowable Catch (TAC), 5-month season closure, 1800-pound trip limit, and a 50-fathom longline boundary. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of proposed policies for rebuilding the red grouper stock in a 10-year period by developing a bioeconomic model. Under the assumption that the recreation sector was held to its share of TAC (24% of the total quota), the target stock biomass goal was attained in all policies. The NPV was the largest in the 5-month season closure policy if the output price did not fall. There were distributional effects on the different components of the fleets in the 1800-pound trip limit and the 50-fathom longline boundary policy.
Performance of a Lab-Scale Closed Seawater Recirculating System for Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli Culture
Peng, Lei ; Oh, Sung-Yong ; Jo, Jae-Yoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 493~501
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.493
Performance of a laboratory scale closed seawater recirculating aquaculture system was evaluated. Twenty-kg of korean rockfish (130 fish) with an average body weight of 153.8g was stocked. Over a 107-day culture period, fish reached final density of
) on the basis of the culture tank volume. On a daily basis, added water amounted to 3.4% of the total water volume in the system. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations were below 1mg/l and nitrite nitrogen
concentrations were within the range of 1-3mg/l on most sampling days. TAN was removed from bead and sand filters and it was removed or produced in the sedimentation basin. Basically,
was removed in the bead and sand filters, while it was either removed or produced in the sedimentation basin. Nitrate nitrogen
was produced in the bead filters and removed from the sand filter and sedimentation basin. The foam fractionator performed well in the recirculating system. The maximal daily removal values for total suspended solids (755) and protein were 10.9g and 1.4g, respectively. Whole water quality parameters were within the levels commonly recommended for fish culture on most of the sampling days. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the commercial feasibility of this system because of the smallscale system used in present experiment. At least, the present study still provides some basic information for further studies of this kind of system.
Change of Regional Atmospheric Circulation Related with Recent Warming in the Antarctic Peninsula
Lee, Jeong-Soon ; Kwon, Tae-Yong ; Lee, Bang-Yong ; Yoon, Ho-Il ; Kim, Jeong-Woo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 503~518
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.503
This study examines the relationship among temperature, wind, and sea level pressure to understand recent warming in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula. To do this, the surface air temperature, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind data and sea level pressure data for the period of 40 years are analyzed. The 40-year surface air temperature data in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals relatively the larger warming trends for autumn and winter than other seasons. The variability of the surface air temperature in this region is compared with that of the regional atmospheric circulation. The surface air temperature is positively correlated with frequency of northwesterlies and negatively correlated with frequency of southeasterlies. This relation is more evident in the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula for autumn and winter. The trend analysis of wind frequency in the study area shows increasing and decreasing trends in the frequency of northwesterlies and southeasterlies, respectively, in the northwestern part of the Weddell Sea for autumn and winter. And also it is found that these winds are closely related with decreasing of sea level pressure in the southeastern region of the Antarctic Peninsula. Furthermore from the seasonal variation of sea level pressure in this area, it may be presumed that decreasing of sea level pressure in the southeastern region of the Antarctic Peninsula is related with warming in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula for autumn and winter. Therefore it can be explained that recent warming in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula is caused by positive feedback mechanism, that is, the process that warming in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula can lead to the decrease of sea level pressure in the southeastern region of the Antarctic Peninsula and these pressure decrease in turn lead to the variation of wind direction in northwestern part of Weddell Sea, again the variation of wind direction enhances the warming in the Antarctic Peninsula.
Seasonal Dynamics of Marine Benthic Communities in Intertidal Zone of Gwangyang Bay, Southern Coast of Korea
Yoo, Jong-Su ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 519~528
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.519
Species composition and community structure of marine benthic community were studied in the intertidal zone of Jijindo Island, Gwangyang Bay. A total of 85 species of benthic marine plants including the 5 Cyanophyta, 9 Chlorophyta, 13 Phaeophyta, 56 Rhodophyta and 2 Magnoliophyta that were listed. The community structure was represented by Gelidium divaricatum in the upper zone, Celidium divalicatum and Ulva pertusa in the middle, and Ulva pertusa, Chondria crassicaulis, Chondracanthus intermedia and Sargassum thunbergii in the lower intertidal zone. The dominant species in the rnscro-zoobenthic community were Chthamalux challengeri in the upper and middle, Littorina brevicula between the upper and middle, and Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas in the middle and lower intertidal zones. The economic benthic organisms such as Undaria pinnatifida, Mytilus edulis, and Crassostrea gigas found in the lower intertidal zone were frequently disturbed due to their collection by local resident. Therefore, it is necessary to record the correct information pertaining to these cases. The species diversity indices estimated kom different sources were quite different. They were 2.22 derived from frequency, 1.67 based on coverage, 2.17 based on sum of frequency and coverage and 2.04 derived from importance value. Species diversity and number of algal species in Gwangyang Bay have noticeably decreased, compared with their previously reported status. It is estimated that their decreases were caused by changes in the marine environment, especially pertaining to the polychaete community resulting from reclamation and dredging activity undertaken for the industrial development.
Classification of Deep-sen Sediment by Geotechnical Properties from the KODOS Area in the C-C Zone of the Northeast Equatorial Pacific
Chi, Sang-Bum ; Hyeong, Ki-Seong ; Kim, Jong-Uk ; Kim, Hyun-Sub ; Lee, Gun-Chang ; Son, Seung-Kyu ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 529~543
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.529
Deep-sea surface sediments, acquired from 1997 to 2002 in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone of the northeast equatorial Pacific, were analyzed for index and geotechnical properties to provide background information for the design of manganese nodule minor. The sediments were classified into 16 types based on the measured properties and evaluated in terms of miner maneuverabillity and potential environmental impacts arising from mining activities. It was found that the middle part of the study area covered with coarse siliceous sediments is more favorable to the commercial production than the northern part of pelagic red clay. In particular, Area B2 in the middle part is considered the best mining site since it shows the highest abundance as well as it consists mostly of normally to over consolidated (types B, C, D) coarse siliceous sediments that are appropriate for effective minor movement and accompany weak environmental impacts. Taking account of all the analyzed core logs, the average shear-strength values are proposed as a practical guideline fur movements of a manganese nodule miner: 6.0 kPa at 10cm and 7.0kPa at 40cm below the seabed.
A Study on the Application of the Mitigation System for Efficient Management of Coastal Wetlands in Korea -Enhancement of Legal Regime-
Park Seong-Wook ; Kwon Moon-Sang ; Lee Yong-Hee ; Lee Charity Mi-Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 545~555
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.545
It is widely known that compare to many other countries, the U.S.A. has a strong framework for efficient implementation of mitigation policy to protect wetlands. As indicated in many strong mitigation initiatives, mitigation policy primary requires avoidance rule for wetland damage and if a developer inevitability damages wetlands, the development should be minimize, and as a last resort, the policy impose legal duty that a developer should compensate wetland corresponding to the damaged wetlands. However, the legal system fur Korea's mitigation system does not provide any legal duty for the compensatory mitigation, although the possibility of creation of tidal flat is casually expressed in several Korean legal systems. Therefore, without any strong and enforceable legal system, Korean mitigation system cannot efficiently protect Korea's vast and productive wetlands. To introduce mitigation policy similar to the U.S.A. in Korea, we suggest that there (a) should be a strongly policy which regulate legal duty for the compensatory mitigation, (b) should be an improve management system for actively corresponding to special knowledge relating to environment, and lastly, (c) should be a system which consider a class action introduced in environmental regime for a long term protection of tidal wetlands for future generation.
High-Resolution (3.5kHz) Echo Characters of the Northern South Shetland Continental Margin and the South Scotia Sea, Antarctica
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Jin, Young-Keun ; Kim, Kyu-Jung ; Nam, Sang-Heon ; Kim, Yea-Dong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 557~567
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.557
High-resolution (3.5 kHz) subbottom profiles were analyzed in order to reveal sedimentation pattern of late Quaternary in the northern South Shetland continental margin and the South Scotia Sea, Antarctica. On the basis of clarity, continuity and geometry of surface and subbottom echoes together with seafloor topography, high-resolution echo characters are classified into eight echo types which represent rock basements (echo type III-1), coarse-grained subglacial till or moraine (echo type I-1), slides/slumps (echo type IV), debris-flow deposits (echo types II-3 and III-2), and bottom-current deposits (echo types I-2, II-1 and II-2). Subglacial till or moraine (echo type I-1) is mostly present in the lower continental shelf and upper continental slope of the northern South Shetland continental margin, which changes downslope to slides/slumps (echo type IV) and debris-flow deposits (echo types II-3 and III-2) in the middle to lower continental slope. This distribution suggests that the continental slopes of the northern South Shetland continental margin were mostly affected by downslope gravitational processes. Further downslope, bottom-current sediments (echo type I-2) deposited by the southwestward flowing Antarctic Deep Water (ADW) occur at the South Shetland Trench, reflecting an Interaction between mass flows and bottom currents in the area. In contrast to the northern South Shetland continental margin, the South Scotia Sea is dominated by bottom-current deposits (echo types II-1 and II-2), indicating that the sedimentation was mostly controlled by the westward flowing ADW. Flow intensity of the ADW has increased in the relative topographic highs, forming thin covers of coarse-grained contourites (echo type II-1), whereas it has decreased in the relative topographic lows, depositing thick, fine-grained contourites (echo type II-2). The poor development of wave geometry in the fine-grained bottom-current deposits (echo type II-2) is suggestive of the unsteady nature of the ADW flow.
Macroalgal Flora of Kongsfjorden in Svalbard Islands, the Arctic
Kim, Ji-Hee ; Chung, Ho-Sung ; Choi, Han-Gu ; Kim, Yea-Dong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 569~591
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.569
Marine benthic flora was investigated in an Arctic bay. Specimens of chlorophyte, phaeophyte, and rhodophyte were collected and examined over the period from July to August 2003 from Kongsfjorden Spitsbergen in Svalbard Islands. A total of 28 genera and 32 species (5 chlorophytes, 18 phaeophytes, and 9 rhodophytes) was identified and described. A green alga Enteromorpha linza(Linnaeus) J. Agardh, a brown alga Asperococcus compresus Griffiths ex Hooker, and three red algae Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft et al., Rhodymenia pacifica Kylin and Schizochlaenion rhodotrichum Wynne et Norris were recorded in Svalbard Islands for the first time.
Analyzing an Economic Feasibility for Restoration/Creation of Artificial Tidal Flats
Nam, Kwang-Hyun ; Oh, Wee-Yeong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 593~601
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.593
The purpose of this paper is to investigate economic feasibility of creating artificial tidal flats using cost-benefit analyses. We assumed that the cost factors are associated with designing, construction and monitoring, and the benefit factors are associated with fisheries production, habitation, prevention of disasters, water purification, aesthetic value and existence value. First, for analyzing economic feasibility, the scenario suggests that a design can be made in a year, construction can be completed in three years and monitoring must be made for 20 years. Assuming the discount rate of 7.5%, economic feasibility analyses showed that B/C was 2.26 and IRR was 14.50. This study indicated there is economic validity of implementing creation of artificial tidal flat. In addition, we carried out a sensitivity analysis at the change of discount rate and restoration rate. The result of sensitivity analysis clearly showed that economic validity is low when discount rate is over 15%, and changes in restoration rate did not significantly effect on the economic validity.
Biochemical Adaptation to the Freezing Environment - the Biology of Fish Antifreeze Proteins
Li, Zhengjun ; Li, n Qingsong ; Low Woon-Kai ; Miao Megan ; Hew Choy L. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 607~615
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.607
Many organisms are known to survive in icy environments. These include both over wintering terrestrial insects and plants as well the marine fish inhabiting high latitudes. The adaptation of these organisms is both a fascinating and important topic in biology. Marine teleosts in particular, can encounter ice-laden seawater that is approximately
colder than the colligative freezing point of their body fluids. These animals produce a unique group of proteins, the antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) that absorb the ice nuclei and prevent ice crystal growth. Presently, there are at least four different AFP types and one AFGP type that are isolated from a wide variety of fish. Despite their functional similarity, there is no apparent common protein homology or ice-binding motifs among these proteins, except that the surface-surface complementarity between the protein and ice are important for binding. The remarkable diversity of these proteins and their odd phylogenetic distribution would suggest that these proteins might have evolved recently in response to sea level glaciations just 1-2 million years ago in the northern hemisphere and 10-30 million years ago around Antarctica. Winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, has been used as a popular model to study the regulation of AFP gene expression. It has a built-in annual cycle of AFP expression controlled negatively by the growth hormone. The signal transduction pathways, transcription factors and promoter elements involved in this process have been studied in our laboratory and these studies will be presented.
The Oxygen-Transport System of Polar Fish: The Evolution of Hemoglobin
Verde Cinzia ; Prisco Guido di ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 617~623
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.617
Organisms living in the Arctic and Antarctic regions are exposed to strong constraints, of which temperature is a driving factor. Evolution has led to special adaptations, some with important implications at the biochemical, physiological, and molecular levels. The northern and southern polar oceans have very different characteristics. Tectonic and oceanographic events have played a key role in delimiting the two polar ecosystems and influencing evolution. Antarctica has been isolated and cold longer than the Arctic; its ice sheet developed at least 10 million years earlier. As an intermediate system, the Arctic is a connection between the more extreme, simpler Antarctic system and the very complex temperate and tropical systems. By studying the molecular bases of cold adaptation in polar fish, and taking advantage of the information available on hemoglobin structure and function, we analysed the evolutionary history of the
of Antarctic and Arctic hemoglobin using the molecular clock hypothesis as a basis for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships among species.
Distribution of Alexandrium tamarense in Drake Passage and the Threat of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Antarctic Ocean
Ho, King-Chung ; Kang, Sung-Ho, ; Lam Ironside H.Y. ; Ho, dgkiss I.John ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 625~631
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.625
While phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the Southern Ocean has been widely studied in recent years, most attention has been given to elucidating environmental factors that affect the dynamics of micro-plankton (mainly diatoms) and nano-plankton (mainly Phaeocystis antarctica). Only limited effects have been given to studying the occurrence and the potential risks associated with the blooming of dinoflagellates in the relevant waters. This study focused on the appearance and toxicological characteristics of a toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense, identified and isolated from the Drake Passage in a research cruise from November to December 2001 The appearance of A. tamarense in the Southern Ocean indicates the risk of a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreak there and is therefore of scientific concern. Results showed that while the overall quantity of A. tamarense in water samples from 30meters below the sea surface often comprised less than 0.1% of the total population of phytoplankton, the highest concentration of A. tamarense (20 cells
) was recorded in the portion of the Southern Ocean between the southern end of South America and the Falkland Islands. Waters near the Polar Front contained the second highest concentrations of 10-15 cells
. A. tamarense was however rarely found in waters near the southern side of the Polar Front, indicating that cold sea temperatures near the Antarctic ice does not favor the growth of this dinoflagellate. One strain of A. tamarense from this cruise was isolated and cultured for further study in the laboratory. Experiments showed that this strain of A. tamarense has a high tolerance to temperature variations and could survive at temperatures ranging from
. This shows the cosmopolitan nature off. tamarense. With regard to the algal toxins produced, this strain of A. tamarense produced mainly C-2 toxins but very little saxitoxin and gonyailtoxin. The toxicological property of this A. tamarense strain coincided with a massive death of penguins in the Falkland Islands in December 2002 to January 2003.
Krill and Currents-Physical and Biological Interactions Influencing the Distribution of Euphausia superba
Nicol, Stephen ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 633~644
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.633
The distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), particularly in the South Atlantic, has traditionally been viewed as primarily determined by the flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Krill are viewed as being particles on a conveyor belt that carries them around the Antarctic continent resulting in a single circumpolar population. The evidence to support this viewpoint is largely circumstantial and there is very little direct evidence available of krill being moved by the currents-krill flux. There is also considerable biological and physical evidence which suggests that other factors may play a dominant role in the life history and distribution of krill. This review examines the evidence fur krill flux and also examines evidence that does not accord with this theory. The management implications of assuming krill flux are outlined and some lines for future research are suggested.
Heavy Metal Pollution Monitoring at King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica
Ahn, In-Young ; Choi, Hee-Seon ; Kim, Ko-Woon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 645~652
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.645
The coastal environment of King George Island is potentially subject to contamination by pollutants arising from station operations, such as emissions from fossil fuel burning, oil spills, waste disposal, etc. As a preparatory step to assess such impacts on the marine environment and living organisms of this island, two molluscan species (the bivalve Laternula elliptica and the gastropod Nacella concinna) were selected as biomonitors for metal pollution monitoring, and their baseline levels have been investigated for the past several years at King Sejong Station. In this review, variability of the baseline levels is discussed in relation to body size, tissue type, and sex. Natural elevations of some metals are also discussed with respect to the environmental characteristics of this region.
Functioning of the Geoecosystem for the West Side of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica): Outline of Research at Arctowski Station
Rakusa-Suszczewski, Stanislaw ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2003, Pages 653~662
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.4.653
Changes in the area of geo-ecosystem
reflect climatic changes in the South Shetland Islands. Air temperature and deglaciation will increase. The ice-free space area at the SSSS 8- (ASPA 121) site has enlarged threefold during the last 21 years, thus creating conditions for inhabitation and succession. Wind, water and snow play important roles in transportation of geochemical components. They distribute nutrients, mineral substances, seeds, fragments of plants and animals, etc. Plant and animal colonization is patchy and it happens at random in an 'island' - like manner. The colonization pattern is dependant, to a high degree on physical factors. The newly uncovered ice-free areas are at first inhabited by a vascular plant known as the Deschampsia antarctica. The border of the land-oasis with Admiralty Bay is the place where the processes related to animal feeding at the sea and reproduction on the land take place. Bird colonies and pinniped lairs form centers of fertilization surrounded by high chemical gradients dependent on the direction of the flow of nutrients
. During the last 25 years, the numbers of penguins in this region have decreased, and thus the amount of materials excreted on land has diminished. The numbers of fur seals change in multi-annual cycles, and their migration into this area is related to the E1
phenomenon. The numbers of elephant seals in the area did not change. Organic matter deposited by the sea onto the shore are a source of nutrients and deficient chemical elements on land. Mineral matter is washed out into the waters of Admiralty Bay. These processes change seasonally, and multi annually. Negative effects on the environment at Arctowski Station induced by man are slight, but noticeable nevertheless. Physical processes have the largest influence on the living conditions and distribution of plants and animals, and as a consequence, on the functioning of the geo-ecosystem in the coastal-shore zone of the Maritime Antarctic.