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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
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Ice cliff retreat and sea-ice formation observed around King Sejong Station in King George Island, West Antarctica
Chung, Ho-Sung ; Lee, Bang-Yong ; Chang, Soon-Keun ; Kim, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Yea-Dong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.001
Ice cliff retreat and sea-ice formation around King Sejong Station in King George Island were analysed and compared with air temperature change. Analysis of 33-year (1969-2001) air temperature records at Bellingshausen Station has revealed regional atmospheric warming, and the increasing rate of air temperature Is equivalent to a warming of
for 27-year period. Here we present time-series of observations for the areal extent of the ice cliff and ice sheet, showing that they have retreated dramatically in the past 45 years (1956-2001). Retreat of 1,050 m in length of the ice clifr has changed the Marian Cove into a low rectangular form of 4 km in length and 1 to 1.3km in width. The retreat rates have since increased from 6 m/yr of the Primary investigated Period to 54 and 81m/yr in the recent years. Exceptionally, the ice cliff had been advanced of 21m in length for a year between 1987 and 1988 of cold winters. Ice sheet in King George Island also shows a similar decrease, and the decreasing extent is much larger at the southern part of the Main Cove, relatively more exposed to the sun, than at the northern part. Comparing sea-ice formation in winter with air temperature data shows a pattern starting to freeze below
and to thaw over
. It is conclusively estimated that the patterns and magnitudes of ice cliff retreat and sea-ice formation are consistent with fluctuations of the air temperature, and that the recent rapid retreat of ice cliff and less formation of sea-ice are caused especially by the warming trends in autumn accompanied with expansion of summer thawing period.
Benthic Pollution Assessment Based on Macrobenthic Community Structure in Gamak Bay, Southern Coast of Korea
Koo, Bon-Joo ; Je, Jong-Geel ; Shin, Sang-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 11~22
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.011
Benthic pollution assessment based on macrobenthic community structure with environmental variables was carried out at twelve stations during two periods on a presumed pollution gradient in Gamak Bay. Univariate and multivariate methods were applied to investigate structural changes in the benthic communities. A clear gradient of pollution effects on the macrobenthic community was observed from the interior to the exterior of the bay. The community on the northwestern basin was severely disturbed due to a low level of hydrodynamics and a large amount of pollutant input from nearby cities. Exterior regions on the southern basin appeared to have the best benthic environmental characteristics among all stations according to most methods of analysis. Central ridge regions and two stations around the islets in the mouth of the bay exhibited intermediate levels of perturbation when compared to the more disturbed interior and undisturbed exterior regions. Pollution effects on the communities were attenuated at the southern area of the central ridge during spring compared to those of summer, where aquacultural farming was densely distributed. The environmental variables primarily correlated to the macrobenthic community structure were total organic carbon (C), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and tributyltins (TBTs), contents found on the surface sediment, as anthropogenic variables indicating organic materials.
Distribution Pattern of Deschampsia antarctica, a Flowering Plant Newly Colonized around King Sejong Station in Antarctica
Kim, Ji-Hee ; Chung, Ho-Sung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 23~32
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.023
As a baseline survey for long-term monitoring on environmental change around the Antarctic King Sejong Station, distribution pattern of Deschampsia antarctica Desv., a flowering plant newly colonized were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in both austral summer 2002 and 2003. Dispersal of the seeds and vegetative leaves by skuas might lead to the colonization into this area from neighbors in Maxwell Bay. The pioneer populations were observed around ponds and a stream of the Sejong Point in January 2002, and the maximum dispersal area was four times expanded after a year. Most of the populations were formed on the stable and well-drained substrate, which consisted of moss carpet of Sanionia georgico-uncinata (65%) and pebbles (25%), while only a few young individuals were observed on the unstable and watertight silt-sandy area. Especially, S. georgico-uncinata was being effectively utilized as their primary substrate with the soft, coarse and water-contained leaves. Also the perennial mature plants of D. antarctica were mainly formed on the moss carpet rather than pebbles. A few individuals were grown on other mosses of Polytrichastrum alpinum, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Pohlia cruda, and Conostomum magellanicum and on a liverwort of Cephaloziella varians. We expect that dispersal of D. antarctica and the following succession to grass field will be countinuously and dynamically proceeded in this area, with the characteristics of ecological niche against the initial moss populations, on the similar continuity of environmental conditions. The continuous observations are needed with establishment of database on environmental change of micro-habitats, e.g. the water content and nutrients of soil and the underground temperature and permafrost.
Analytical Model of Salt Budget in the Upper Indian River Lagoon, Florida USA
Kim, Young-Taeg ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 33~42
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.033
Effect of freshwater discharge on the long-term salt balance in the Northern and Central Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is successfully simulated by a new analytical solution to a water balance-based one-dimensional salt conservation equation. Sensitivity tests show that the salinity levels drop abruptly even during the dry season (November to May) due to the high surface runoff discharge caused by tropical storms, depressions, and passage of cold fronts. Increasing surface runoff and direct precipitation has risen by ten times, lowering the salinity level down to 12psu in the Northern Central zone, and to 17 psu in the Northern zone. However, the salinity level in the Southern Central zone has decreased to 25 psu. High sensitivity of the Northern Central zone to freshwater discharge can be partially explained by a rapid urbanization in this zone. During the dry season, less sensitivity of the Southern Central zone to the increased surface runoff is attributed to the proximity of the zone to the Sebastian Inlet and a strong diffusion condition possibly resulting from the seawater intrusion to the surficial aquifer at the Vero Beach. During the wet season, however, the whole study area is highly sensitive to freshwater discharge due to the weak diffusion conditions. High sensitivity of the IRL to the given diffusion conditions guarantees that the fresh-water release occurs during strong wind conditions, achieving both flood control in the drainage basin and a proper salinity regime in the IRL.
Analysis of Chloride Ion Penetraion for Marine Concrete Structure with Cyclic Humidity Environment
Han, Sang-Hun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.043
The diffusion model, which considers diffusion and sorption, is proposed. The FEM program developed on the basis of the diffusion model provides the estimation of chloride concentration according to cyclic humidity and sorption. After the humidity diffusion analysis is carried out, the chloride ion diffusion and sorption analysis are conducted on the basis of the preestimated humidity data in each element. Each element has different analysis variables at different ages and locations. At early ages, the difference between inner and outer relative humidity causes the chloride ion penetration by sorption. As the humidity diffusion reduces the difference with age, the effect of sorption on the chloride ion penetration decreases. By the way, the cyclic humidity increases the effect of sorption on the chloride ion penetration at early ages, and the quantity of chloride ion around steel at later ages. Therefore, the in situ analysis of chloride ion penetration for marine concrete structures must be performed considering the cyclic humidity condition and the long term sorption.
Phylogenetic Analysis of Culturable Arctic Bacteria
Lee, Yoo-Kyung ; Kim, Hyo-Won ; Cho, Kyeung-Hee ; Kang, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Hong-Kum ; Kim, Yea-Dong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.051
We isolated and identified culturable Arctic bacteria that had inhabited soils around the Korean Arctic Research Station Dasan located at Ny-Alsund, Svalbard, Norway
. The collected soils were diluted in distilled water; the diluted soil-water was spread on 3M petri-films at Dasan Station. The petri-films were transported to the laboratory at KORDI, and cultured at
. Colonies grown on the petri-films were subsequently cultured on nutrient agar plates at
every 7 days. The pure colonies were inoculated into nutrient liquid media, genomic DNA was extracted, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the basis of 165 rDNA sequences. A total of 227 strains of bacteria were isolated. Among them, 16S rDNA sequences of 185 strains were identical with those of known strains isolated in this study, and 42 strains were finally identified. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA indicated that the 30 strains belonged to Pseudomonas, 7 strains to Arthrobacter, two strains to Flavobacterium, and the remaining to Achromobacter, Pedobacter, and Psychrobacter. Among the 42 strains, 14 bacteria produced protease: they were 6 strains of Pseudomonax, 4 strains of Arthrobater, an Achromobacter strain, 2 strains of Flavobacterium, and a Pedohacter strain. We expect these Arctic bacteria can be used for screening to develop new industrial enzymes that are active at low temperatures.
Studies on Screening of Seaweed Extracts for Peroxynitrite and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activities
Lee, Hee-Jung ; Kim, You-Ah ; Park, Ki-Eui ; Jung, Hyun-Ah ; Yoo, Jong-Su ; Ahn, Jong-Woong ; Lee, Burm-Jong ; Seo, Young-Wan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 59~64
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.059
As a part of our search for novel antioxidants from the seaweeds, we have investigated radical scavenging effect for their crude extracts using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, authentic peroxynitrite, and 3-morpholinsydnonimine (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-generating species in vitro. Thirty-four seaweeds were screened for
and DPPH radical scavenging activities. A potent inhibitory effect against peroxynitrite generated by SIN-1 at
of methanol extracts was observed in order of Ishige okamurae(95.3%), Sargassum hemiphyllum(90.2%), Symphyocladia latiuscula(89.6%), Porphyra suborbiculata(86.7%), and Gelidium amamsii(85.9%), Also, a significant scavenging effect against direct authentic peroxynitrite was revekaled for methanol extracts of Ishige okamurae(66.2%) and Sargassum hemiphyllum(55.2%) and the acetone/methylene chloride(1:1) extract of Gigatina tenella (61.0%). In our measurement for evaluating the capacity to scavenge the stable free radical of DPPH, acetone/methylene chloride(1:1) extracts of Symphyocladia latiuscula, Gloiopeltis furcata, and Sargassum thunbergii and the methanol extract of Sargassum sp. showed an inhibitory potency of 85.8%, 82.8%, 74.1%, and 64.0%, respectively.
Water Masses and Salinity in the Eastern Yellow Sea from Winter to Spring
Park, Moon-Jin ; Oh, Hee-Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 65~75
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.065
In order to understand the water masses and their distribution in the eastern Yellow Sea from winter to spring, a cluster analysis was applied to the temperature and salinity data of Korea Oceanographic Data Center from 1970 to 1990. From December to April, Yellow Sea Cold Water (YSCW) dominates the eastern Yellow Sea, whereas Eastern Yellow Sea Mixed Water (MW) and Yellow Sea Warm Water (YSWW) are found in the southern part of the eastern Yellow Sea. MW appears at the frontal region around
between YSCW in the north and YSWW in the south. On the other hand, Tshushima Warm Water (TWW) is found around Jeju Island and the South Sea of Korea. These water masses are relatively well-mixed throughout the water column due to the winter monsoon. However, the water column begins to be stratified in spring due to increased solar heating, the diminishing winds and fresh water discharge, and the water masses in June may be separated into surface, intermediate and bottom layers of the water column. YSWW advances northwestward from December to February and retreats southeastward from February to April. This suggests a periodic movement of water masses in the southern part of the eastern Yellow Sea from winter to spring. YSWW may continue to move eastward with the prevailing eastward current to the South Sea from April to June. Also, the front relaxes in June, but the mixed water advances to the north, increasing salinity. The salinity is also higher in the nearshore region than offshore. This indicates an influx of oceanic water to the north in the nearshore region of the eastern Yellow Sea in spring in the form of mixed water.
Estimating the Economic Value of Ecotourism in Anmyeondo Tidal Wetlands Using the Contingent Valuation Method
Pyo, Hee-Dong ; Chae, Dong-Ryul ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 77~86
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.077
The paper is to estimate the economic value of ecotourism in Anmyeondo tidal wetlands using a double-bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) model of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). For the reliability and the validity of CVM a survey was conducted for 511 visitors by personal interview method in Anmyeondo during August 2000, and respondents were asked for maximum Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) to buy a ticket fer the tidal flat's ecotourism. Overall, respondents answered that they would be willing to pay 55,879 won for a ticket under the study. All equations and results estimated are statistically significant at the 1% or 5% level. For the aggregation of WTP estimates, the sample values are extended to the total annual number of visitors in Anmyeondo area during 1998. A conservative estimate, which considers the calibration factor (0.5) recommended by NOAA (1994) and a positive response rate (83.17%), is 73 billion won.
Preliminary Report on the Ecology of the Penguins Observed in the Cold Years and a Less Cold Year in the Vicinity of King Sejong Station, King George Island off the Antarctic Peninsula
Chang, Soon-Keun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 87~101
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.087
This paper delineated the ecology including movement (departure from the rookery and returning to the rookery), egg-laying, and hatch of the penguins occurred in the cold years and a less cold year in the vicinity of King Sejong Station, King George Island off the Antarctic Peninsula. The years of 1988, 1991, 1992, and 1995 were selected as cold years and the year of 2001 was selected as a less cold year based on the mean annual temperature of the years. Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) left their rookery in May, meanwhile some remained around the station. They returned in middle-September in the less cold .year, and returned in late-September to early-October in the cold years. Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) left their rookery in early-April in the cold years as well as in the less cold year without exception. They returned to the rookery in late-October to early-November in cold years, meanwhile in early-October in the less cold year. This difference in the returning of this bird seems to be related with the exposed sea water, i.e., sea ice condition to feed in the sea. The global warming will lead to the appearance of birds which breed in the Sub-Antarctic. For example, one pair of King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) was observed in the Maxwell Bay in austral summer. And a pair of snide-like bird was recently observed for the first time in November 2001 at the penguin rookery located in the Barton Peninsula, King George Island. And it will also lead to the disappearance of an Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) which appeared in the full winter when Maxwell Bay and Marian Cove were frozen. It seems that the behaviour of the penguins observed around the station shows the complex effects of the ecology of the birds in combination with the natural environments, which include feeding strategy and areas, animal Instincts, exposed terrain related to weather conditions, and globa1 warming. It is necessary to take further observation and carry out systematic researches on the birds including penguins around the station which show the ecology of the birds as well as the environmental changes.
Design of Closed Seawater Recirculating Aquaculture System for Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli Culture
Peng, Lei ; Oh, Sung-Yong ; Jo, Jae-Yoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2004, Pages 102~111
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2004.26.1.102
Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consists of different treatment compartments that maintain water quality within the ranges commonly recommended for fish cultures. However, common RASs still exert considerable environmental impact since concentrations of organic matter and nutrients in their effluents are high. Compared with the traditional RAS, the model RAS developed here use a sedimentation basin for digestion purposes and then use the released volatile organic matter to stimulate a denitrification process. Different treatment compartments for solids, total ammonia nitrogen, and nitrate removal have been reviewed. This paper provides the basic information on designing different treatment compartments as well as the engineering criteria in closed seawater RAS, consisting of circular tanks for fish cultures; dual drain systems, sedimentation basins and foam fractionators for removal of solids; nitrification biofilters for TAN removal; denitrification biofilters for nitrate removal; and aerators for aeration. The main purpose is to outline a common procedure in designing of closed RAS for marine fish culture with an emphasis on easy management and low expense, as well as reduction of the environmental impact.