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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
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Mode Change of Deep Water Formation Deduced from Slow Variation of Thermal Structure: One-dimensional Model Study
Chae, Yeong-Ki ; Seung, Young-Ho ; Kang, Sok-Kuh ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 115~123
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.115
Recently, it has been observed in the East Sea that temperature increases below the thermocline, and dissolved oxygen increase in the intermediate layer but decrease below it. The layer of minimum dissolved oxygen deepens and the bottom homogeneous layer in oxygen becomes thinner. It emerges very probably that these changes are induced by the mode change of deep water formation associated with global warming. To further support this hypothesis, a one-dimensional model experiment is performed. First, a thermal profile is obtained by injecting a cold and high oxygen deep water into the bottom layer, say the bottom mode. Then, two thermal profiles are obtained from the bottom mode profile by assuming that either all the deep water introduce into the intermediate layer has been initiated, say the intermediate mode, or that only a part of the deep water has been initiated into the intermediate layer, say the intermediate-bottom mode. The results, from the intermediate-bottom mode experiment are closest to the observed results. They show quite well the tendency for oxygen to increase in the intermediate layer and the simultaneous thinning of the bottom homogeneous layer in oxygen. Therefore, it can be said that the recently observed slow variation of the thermal structure might be associated with changes in the deep water formation from the bottom mode to the intermediate-bottom mode.
Reproductive Phenology of Four Korean Seagrasses, Zostera caespitosa, Z. caulescens, Z. japonica and Z. marina
Lee, Sung-Mi ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Choi, Chung-Il ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 125~133
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.125
This study described the phonology and reproductive potential of four species of Korean seagrasses, Zostera caespitosa, Z. caulescem, Z. Japonica and Z. marina. Z. caespitosa and Z. caulescens sampled from a mixed stand at the subtidal area of Yulpo Bay, Geojedo of the South Sea of Korea in November 2002 and August 2003. Z japonica and Z. marina occurred at the depth between the middle intertidal and shallow subtidal (<1m below mean sea level) of Seungbongdo (in Yellow Sea) samples collected in February and October 2003. The sexual reproductive phase of the four Zostera species was apparently different in timing of flowering, reproductive period, fruiting and seed maturing. Z. caespitosa flowered from February to early May
, and its seed production completed in early May. The reproductive shoots of Z. caulescens began to appear in January
, and its flowering followed from February to June
. The flowers of Z. japonica were observed from July to September
, and its seeds matured from August to September. The most commonly I marina flowered from April to August
and developed into seeds in July. Z. caulescens, the largest plant, had the highest number of seeds per shoot and longest spadix length. Z. marina, which was intermediate In size, recorded the highest reproductive potential. The study indicates that the reproductive phase and potential of the four species of seagrass from Korea are highly related to water temperature, and the populations of these species show a perennial lifespan with a low sexual reproductive input.
Spatial Characteristics of the Macrobenthos Community Near the Nakdong River Estuary, on the Southeast Coast of Korea
Lee, Hyung-Gon ; Lee, Jae-Hac ; Yu, Ok-Hwan ; Kim, Chong-Kwan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 135~148
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.135
Macrobeilthic fauna were collected using a van Veen grab
to investigate the spatial characteristics of the macrobenthos community at 28 stations near the Nakdong River estuary, Southeast Korea, in September 2001. A total of 203 species were sampled with a mean density of
and a biomass of
. Annelids were the dominant faunal group in terms of species and density, with 68 species and a mean density of
, which comprised 33.5% and 66.3% of the total benthic animals, respectively. Based on density, three Polychaetes were dominant Tharyx sp·
, Lumbrineris longifolia
, and Sternaspis scutata
, along with a bivalve Theora fragilis
. On cluster analysis, the benthic community was classified into four groups based on the species composition: Group-1 occurred in disturbed areas, Group-II in coastal regions, Group-III in central mariculture grounds, and Group-IV offshore. Environmental factors (mean gain size, organic carbon, and depth) were primarily correlated with the macrobenthos community structure. A benthic pollution assessment based on the macrobenthos community structure showed that Group-I and Group-II were located in a coastal area that had been severely disturbed by construction of Busan new port and various pollutants, Group-III was gradually polluted, while offshore Group-IV was the most stable.
Seasonal Characteristics of Phytoplankton Distribution in Asan Bay
Yi, Sang-Hyon ; Sin, Yong-Sik ; Yang, Sung-Ryull ; Park, Chul ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 149~159
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.149
Samples were collected from five stations in February, May, July, and September 2004 to investigate seasonal variations in the phytoplankton community and the relationship between dominant genera and environmental factors in Asan Bay. In February, microphytoplankton contributed 80% to the total chlorophyll a. Diatom dominated the phytoplankton community, accounting for 85.9% of the total cell number, followed by dinoflagellates (6%). Dominant species were Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira spp. Abundant diatom, including S. costatum and Thalassiosira spp., may be affected by water temperature and silicate at Station 1 and 2 in February 2004. In May, the nanophytoplankton contribution to total phytoplankton was higher than in other seasons. However, abundance of S. costatum and Thalassiosira spp. decreased, since the growth of S. costatum and Thalassiosira spp. might be limited by phosphates (P) resulting from low P concentration and a high DIN:DIP ratio in the outer region. In July, dominant phytoplankton groups were diatom (39%), cryptophyceae (28%), and cyanophyceae (20%). Dominant genera were Oscillatoria spp. and phytoflagellate of a monad type in the inner region (Station 1 and 2), whereas S. costatum was dominant in the outer region (Station 4 and 5). In September, dominant phytoplankton were diatom (69%) and cryptophyceae (28%). Dominant genera were phytoflagellate of the monad type, S. costatum in the inner region, while Chaetoceros spp. was dominant in the outer region.
Measuring the Conservation Value of Lagoons: The Case of Songji Lagoon
Kwak, Seung-Jun ; Yoo, Seung-Hoon ; Chang, Jeong-In ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 161~169
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.161
In recent days, most of the lagoons in Korea have been lost on account of indiscreet development and pollution. Thus, this study measures the conservation value of the Songji lagoon, a representative lagoon in Korea by using the contingent valuation (CV) method and specifies the non-use value of Songji lagoon. The survey was carefully desigrled and implemented to meet a number of recommendation rules suggested in the literature. The overall results show that the respondents well accepted the contingent market and would be willing to pay a significant amount for the proposed program to conserve Songii lagoon. Total Conservation value of Songji lagoon amounted to approximately 21.2 billion Korean won per year. Moreover, the non-use value of Songji lagoon amounted 15.7 billion Korean won per yew. The results of measuring the conservation value provide decision-makers with data indispensable to devising a conservation and management policy.
A Study for Improving Direction of Legal Regime and Policy for Protecting our Underwater Cultural Heritages
Park, Seong-Wook ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 171~179
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.171
Korea has many underwater cultural heritages within the east, west and south seas surrounding the Peninsula that indicate historically important sealanes for trade and transportation. As these underwater cultural heritages are the objects of despoilment because of their relatively easy access through modern technology, their often high historical and priceless value demands strong protection similar to or better than the land cultural properties. Currently, Korea does not have any concrete laws or regulations for the protection of underwater cultural heritages. Thus, these heritages iu, somewhat temporary and inappropriately subjected to laws and regulations relating to provisions of individual Laws concerning protection of cultural properties act, and statute of excavation of material fir buried national property, lost articles act etc.. Internationally, the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage was adopted but not yet entered into force. Therefore, the protection of underwater cultural heritage has become an urgent matter. In this regard, this article's main purpose is to provide recommendations for improving direction of legal regime and policy for protecting our underwater cultural heritages. These legal regimes need provisions for definition of the underwater cultural heritage, scope of application, ownerships, jurisdictions and protection measures. And suggestions are provided in regard to policies for the protection of underwater cultural heritages that may improve organization and cooperation among concerned ministries and agencies, compensation system, restrictions for excavation of underwater relics, efficiency of survey of underwater surface and information system.
Water Masses and Flow Fields of the Southern Ocean Measured by Autonomous Profiling Floats (Argo floats)
Park, Young-Gyu ; Oh, Kyung-Hee ; Suk, Moon-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 183~188
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.183
Using data from Argo floats collected in the Southern Ocean, we describe water mass prop erties and flow fields at intermediate levels (1000m and 2000m levels). Water mass properties from Argo floats, which are consistent with those from previous hydrographic surveys, reflect the movement of the floats well even without quality control on the Argo data. Since the flow fields from the Argo floats do not cover the entire Southern Ocean, we could not obtain a general circulation pattern, especially at the 2000m level. We, however, can confirm the general eastward tendency due to ACC largely following the topography.
Errors in Estimated Temporal Tracer Trends Due to Changes in the Historical Observation Network: A Case Study of Oxygen Trends in the Southern Ocean
Min, Dong-Ha ; Keller, Klaus ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.189
Several models predict large and potentially abrupt ocean circulation changes due to anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions. These circulation changes drive-in the models-considerable oceanic oxygen trend. A sound estimate of the observed oxygen trends can hence be a powerful tool to constrain predictions of future changes in oceanic deepwater formation, heat and carbon dioxide uptake. Estimating decadal scale oxygen trends is, however, a nontrivial task and previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions. One key potential problem is that changes in the historical observation network might introduce considerable errors. Here we estimate the likely magnitude of these errors for a subset of the available observations in the Southern Ocean. We test three common data analysis methods south of Australia and focus on the decadal-scale trends between the 1970's and the 1990's. Specifically, we estimate errors due to sparsely sampled observations using a known signal (the time invariant, temporally averaged, World Ocean Atlas 2001) as a negative control. The crossover analysis and the objective analysis methods are for less prone to spatial sampling location biases than the area averaging method. Subject to numerous caveats, we find that errors due to sparse sampling for the area averaging method are on the order of several micro-moles
. for the crossover and the objective analysis method, these errors are much smaller. For the analyzed example, the biases due to changes in the spatial design of the historical observation network are relatively small compared to the tends predicted by many model simulations. This raises the possibility to use historic oxygen trends to constrain model simulations, even in sparsely sampled ocean basins.
Dimethylsulfide and Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Production in the Antarctic Pelagic Food Web
Kasamatsu, Nobue ; Odate, Tsuneo ; Fukuchi, Mitsuo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 197~203
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.197
Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the most abundant form of volatile sulfurs in the ocean. Many biogeochemical studies have been conducted in the past several decades to unveil the processes driving the production, transformation and removal of DMS. They have shown that the Southern Ocean is an area with one of the highest levels of DMS concentrations during the austral summer in the global oceans. It has recently been observed that Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, produces DMS and dissolved dimethyl-sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in its gazing process. Copepods also produce DMS, and the potential production rates of DMS in the Southern Ocean by krill and copepods are estimated to be as much as
, respectively. These production rates of zooplankton and the presence of phytoplanktot which have high DMSP contents in their cells, might facilitate in situ DMS production in the Southern Ocean.
Genomic DNA Extracted from Ancient Antarctic Glacier Ice for Molecular Analyses on the Indigenous Microbial Communities
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Bidle, Kay ; Falkowski, Paul ; Marchant, David ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.205
From ancient Antarctic glacier ice, we extracted total genomic DNA that was suitable for prokaryotic 16S rDNA gene cloning and sequencing, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and end-sequencing. The ice samples were from the Dry Valley region. Age dating by
analysis on the volcanic ashes deposited in situ indicated the ice samples are minimum 100,000-300,000 yr (sample DLE) and 8 million years (sample EME) old. Further assay proved the ice survived freeze-thaw cycles or other re-working processes. EME, which was from a small lobe of the basal Taylor glacier, is the oldest known ice on Earth. Microorganisms, preserved frozen in glacier ice and isolated from the rest of the world over a geological time scale, can provide valuable data or insight for the diversity, distribution, survival strategy, and evolutionary relationships to the extant relatives. From the 16S gene cloning study, we detected no PCR amplicons with Archaea-specific primers, however we found many phylotypes belonging to Bacteria divisions, such as Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria
, Firmicutes, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroid$. BAC cloning and sequencing revealed protein codings highly identical to phenylacetic acid degradation protein paaA, chromosome segregation ATPases, or cold shock protein B of present day bacteria. Throughput sequencing of the BAC clones is underway. Viable and culturable cells were recovered from the DLE sample, and characterized by their 16S rDNA sequences. Further investigation on the survivorship and functional genes from the past should help unveil the evolution of life on Earth, or elsewhere, if any.
Isolation of Protease-Producing Arctic Marine Bacteria
Lee, Yoo-Kyung ; Sung, Ki-Cheol ; Yim, Joung-Han ; Park, Kyu-Jin ; Chung, Ho-Sung ; Lee, Hong-Kum ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 215~219
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.215
We isolated and identified three protease-producing bacteria that had inhabited the region around the Korean Arctic Research Station Dasan located at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway
. Biofilms were collected from the surface of a floating pier and from dead brown algae in a tide pool near the seashore. The biofilm samples were transported to the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) under frozen conditions, diluted in sterilized seawater, and cultured on Zobell agar plates with 1% skim milk at
. Three clear zone forming colonies were selected as protease-producing bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that these three stains shared high sequence similarities with Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii, Exiguobacterium oxidotofewm Pseudomonas jessenii, respectively. We expect these Arctic bacteria may be used to develop new varieties of protease that are active at low temperatures.
Psychrophilic Extremophiles from Antarctica: Biodiversity and Biotechnological Potential
Bowman John P. ; Abell Gyu C.J. ; Nichols Carol A. Mancuso ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 221~230
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.221
Recently there has been a rapid accumulation of knowledge of microbial life in cold and frozen ecosystems. This understanding has revealed the extensive diversity of psychrophilic prokaryotes. Cultivation-based and molecular-based surveys have been performed in Antarctic habitats ranging from glacial ice to continental shelf sediments. Results indicate that psychrophilic taxa permeate throughout the Bacteria while they represent a more mysterious element of diversity in the Archaea owing to a notable lack of cultured strains. In certain cold climate ecosystems the diversity of psychrophilic populations reach levels comparable to the richest temperate equivalents. Within these communities must exist tremendous genetic diversify that is potentially of fundamental and of practical value. So far this genetic pool has been hardly explored. Only recently have genomic data become available for various psychrophilic prokaryotes and more is required. This owes to the fact that psychrophilic microbes possess manifold mechanisms for cold adaptations, which not only Provide enhanced survival and Persistence but Probably also contributes to niche specialisation. These mechanisms, including cold-active and ice-active proteins, polyunsaturated lipids and exopolysaccharides also have a great interest to biotechnologists.
Ecological and Biogeochemical Response of Antarctic Ecosystems to Iron Fertilization and Implications on Global Carbon Cycle
Bathmann, Ulrich ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 2, 2005, Pages 231~235
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.2.231
The European Iron Fertilization Experiment EIFEX studied the growth and decline of a phytoplankton bloom stimulated by fertilising
in the core of a mesoscale
cyclonic eddy south of the Antarctic Polar Front with about 2 times 7 tonnes of iron sulphate. The phytoplankton accumulation induced by iron fertilization did not exceed
despite a draw down of
of nitrate that should have resulted in at least double to triple the amount of phytoplankton biomass assuming regular Redfield-ratios for draw down after phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean. During EIFEX the fertilized core of the mesoscale eddy evolved to a hotspot for a variety of small and medium sized mesozooplankton copepods. In contrast to copepods, the biomass of salps (Salpa thompson)) that dominated zooplankton biomass before the onset of our experiment decreased to nearly extinction. Most of the species of the rnosozooplankton community showed extremely hiか feeding rates compared to literature values from Southern Ocean summer communities. At the end of the experiment, massive phytoplankton sedimentation reached the sea floor at about 3800m water depth.