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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Ocean and Polar Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
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Characteristics of Sensible Heat and Latent Heat Fluxes over the East Sea Related with Yeongdong Heavy Snowfall Events
Kim, Ji-Eon ; Kwon, Tae-Yong ; Lee, Bang-Yong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 237~250
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.237
To investigate the air mass modification related with Yeongdong Heavy snowfall events, we examined sensible and latent heat fluxes on the East Sea, the energy exchange between atmosphere and ocean in this study. Sensible and latent heats were calculated by a bulk aerodynamic method, in which NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and NOAA/AVHRR weekly SST data with high resolution were used. Among winter precipitation events in the Yeongdong region, 19 heavy precipitation events
were selected and classified into three types (mountain, cold-coastal, and warm types). Mountain-type precipitation shows highly positive anomalies of sensible and latent heats over the southwestern part of the East Set When separating them into the two components due to variability of wind and temperature/ specific Humidity, it is shown that the wind components are dominant. Cold-coastal-type precipitation also shows strong positive anomalies of sensible and latent heats over the northern part and over the central-northern part of the East Sea, respectively. It is shown that the sensible heat anomalies are caused mostly by the decrease of surface air temperature. So it can be explained that cold-coastal-type precipitation is closely related with the air mass modification due to cold air advection over warm ocean surface. But in warm-type precipitation, negative anomalies are found in the sensible and latent heat distributions. From this result, it may be postulated that warm-type precipitation is affected by the internal process of the atmosphere rather than the atmosphere-ocean interaction.
The Distribution of Nutrients and Chlorophyll in the Northern East China Sea during the Spring and Summer
Kim, Dong-Seon ; Shim, Jeong-Hee ; Lee, Jeong-Ah ; Kang, Young-Chul ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 251~263
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.251
In order to study changes in the marine ecosystem of the East China Sea derived by the global warming and construction of the Three Gorges Dam in the middle of the Changjiang, temperature, salinity, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a were studied intensively in the northern part of the East China Sea during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2004. According to the previous studies, the upwelling of the Kuroshio Current and the Changjiang resulted in a major inputs of nutrients in the East China Sea, but these two inputs may not contribute gently to a build up of nutrients in the northern East China Sea. In spring, relatively high concentrations of nitrates and phosphates were observed in the western part of the study area, which resulted from the supply of high concentrations of nutrients showing up in the surface waters as a result of vertical mixing from the ocean bottom. The concentrations of nitrates and phosphates observed in summer were lower than those in spring, since the surface waters were well stratified by the larger discharge of fresh water from the Changjiang in summer. The surface nitrate/phosphate ratios ranged from 1.3 to 16 in spring and from 1.1 to 15 in summer and were lower than the Redfield ratio of 16, indicating that the growth of phytoplankton is limited by nitrogen. This results are contrary to the previous results, in which the growth of phytoplankton was limited by phosphate in the East China Sea. The reason for this contrary result is that most nutrients in the surface waters are supplied by vertical mixing from the bottom waters with low nitrate/phosphate ratios, not directly influenced by the Changjiang with high nitrate/phosphate ratios. The depth-integrated chlorophyll observed in summer was similar to the previous results, but those measured in spring were almost twice as high as those found in previous results. The depth-integrated chlorophyll in spring was higher than that of summer, which results from high concentrations of nitrates and phosphates in the surface waters in spring due to active vertical mixing.
Phytoplankton and Environmental Factors in the Southeastern Barents Sea during August 2003
Joo, Hyoung-Min ; Lee, Jin-Hwan ; Chung, Kyung-Ho ; Kang, Jae-Shin ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 265~276
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.265
In order to grasp the structure and dynamics of phytoplankton communities, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and cell abundance were measured at 20 stations during the period from August 9 to August 21, 2003 in the southeastern Barents Sea on surface and subsurface chlorophyll maximum depth (SCM). Surface temperatures were varied from minimum
. Salinities were varied from minimum 29.9 psu(st. 18) to maximum 35.8 psu(st.2). The maximum nutrient(phosphate, nitrate, silicate) concentrations were
and minimum concentrations were
, respectively. On SCM physical environmental factor were almost similar. Chl-a concentrations ranged from 0.23 to
at SCM. Nano- and pico phytoplankton were the important contributors for increase of the Chl-a. It was about seven times difference between highest concentration to lowest. Phytoplankton communities were composed of diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophyceae, silicoflagellate, and prymnesiophyceae showing 37 taxa at surface and 38 taxa at SCM. Picophytoplankton was the most dominant in all stations and all layers, but the second groups were 2 and/or 3 taxa. Phytoplankton abundance ranged from minimum
(st. 20) to maximum
. (st. 17) at surface water. As a result, phytoplankton might be controlled by physical factors such as North Atlantic ocean currents and northern melt water among environmental factors in Barents Set h addition the dominant species were nano- and pico phytoplankton such as Phaeocystis, Cryptomonas and Dinobryon in the study area.
Distribution and Vertical Structures of Water Masses around the Antarctic Continental Margin
Kim, Seong-Joong ; Lee, Bang-Yong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 277~288
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.277
Spatial distribution and vertical structures of water masses around the Antarctic continental margin are described using synthesized hydrographic data. Antarctic Surface Water (AASW) over the shelf regime is distinguished from underlying other water masses by the cut-off salinity, varying from approximately 34.35 to 34.45 around Antarctica. Shelf water, characterized by salinity greater than the cut-off salinity and potential temperature less than
, is observed on the Ross Sea, off George V Land, off Wilkes Land, the Amery Basin, and the Weddell Sea, but in some shelves AASW occupies the entire shelf. Lower Circumpolar Deep Water is present everywhere around the Antarctic oceanic regime and in some places it mixes with Shelf Water, producing Antarctic Slope Front Water (ASFW). ASFW, characterized by potential temperature less than about
and greater than
, and salinity greater than the cut-off salinity, is found everywhere around Antarctica except in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen sector. The presence of different water masses over the Antarctic shelves and shelf edges produces mainly three types of water mass stratifications: no significant meridional property gradient in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas, single property gradient where ASFW presents, and a V-shaped front where Shelf Water exists.
Numerical Simulation of the Asian Monsoon for the Mid-Holocene Using a Numerical Model
Kim, Seong-Joong ; Lee, Bang-Yong ; Park, Yoo-Min ; Suk, Bong-Chool ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 289~297
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.289
The change in global climate and Asian monsoon patterns during the mid-Holocene, 6000 years before present (6 ka), is simulated by a climate model at spectral truncations of T170 with 18 vertical layers, corresponding to grid-cell sizes of roughly 75km. The present simulation is forced with the observed monthly data of sea surface temperatures, and the specified concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, while in the mid-Holocene experiment, orbital parameters such as obliquity, precession, and eccentricity are changed to the 6ka conditions. Under such conditions, the precipitation associated with the summer monsoon is enhanced over a wider zonal band from the Middle East to Southeast Asia, while no significant alteration takes Place in winter. The monsoonal wind also increases over the Arabian Sea, showing the enhanced southwesterly wind during summer and northeasterly wind during winter. Overall, the showing of the Asian monsoon is enhanced during the mid-Holocene, especially in summer, which is consistent with the proxy estimates and other previous model simulations.
Spatial Characteristics of Meiobenthic Community of Kongfjorden Sediment in the Svalbard Island, the Arctic Sea
Kim, Dong-Sung ; Shin, Jae-Chul ; Kang, Sung-Ho ; Chung, Ho-Sung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 299~309
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.299
The community structure of meiobenthos was studied in the sediment of Kongfjorden, Spitsbergen of Svalbard Island in the Arctic Sea. Samples of meiobenthos were collected in August, 2003. Meiobenthic organisms were collected by SCUBA and van veen grab or acryl sub-corers 34mm in internal diameter, and were taken from upper sediment to a depth of 3cm at each station. A total of 26 meiofaunal groups were found in the sediment of Spitsbergen in Svalbard Island. Nematodes were the most dominant faunal group. Sarcomastigophorans, benthic harpacticoids, and nauplius larvae of crustaceans, were also important components of the meiobenthic community of Kongsfjorden. All of these low faunal groups were comprised of more than 90% of total meiobenthos at every station. The total density of meiobenthos at each station was highest at station MeG 6
, and lowest at station
. Meiobenthos in general showed the highest density in the upper 1cm layer. This may be associated with food and oxygen supply to subsurface. Harpacticoids showed extreme preference at the surface and little presence in layers deeper than 2cm. These animals may be less resistant to oxygen deficiency, and nauplius also showed the same trend. However, in St. MeG 8 and 9, meiobenthos were dense at depths of more than 0-1cm, at especially at depths of 2-3m because of relatively easy penetration of oxygen. Based on the results of cluster analysis, three meiobenthos assemblages were distinguished: one was in the outer and two were in the inner fjord. Station SCU 5 was grouped with the meiobenthos assemblage located in the outer fjord. The outer ford community was characterised by : 1) a relatively low mean number of meiobenthos taxa, 2) a relatively high density of harpacticods and nauplius. One of the inner ford communities (a group of four nation: MeG 2, 3, 8, 9) was in the proximity of the glaciers. Specifically, it was characterised by : 1) a low mean number of meiobenthos taxa, 2) a low density. The other inner ford community was characterised by both a high density and great mean number of meiofaunal taxa.
Analyzing Potential Vessel Buyback Scale of Offshore Fisheries in Korea
Pyo, Hee-Dong ; Choi, Sae-Him ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 311~322
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.311
Fisheries buyback programs in Korea have been implemented since 1994, and their scales are estimated to be the present value of 930 billion won for the last 9 yens since 1994. The paper attempts to identify the patterns of each fish species, of which their yields can be steadily increased or significant]y decreased, and to evaluate its effective level and the optimal level for buyback programs by means of fishing capacity analysis. The paper distinguishes fish species, that there is no need to reduce the fishing efforts, such as anchovies, mackerels, squids, Spanish mackerels, and herrings, because MSY exceeds yields, from fish species to control overfishing such as file fish, yellow corvenias, young pollack, hair tail, snow crab, and pollack. The paper also suggests that 65% of the fishing efforts (total tonnages) should be cut back at the national aggregate level in order to restore fish stocks.
A Policy Direction of Vessel Buyback Program for Coastal and Offshore Fisheries in Korea
Pyo, Hee-Dong ; Kwon, Suk-Jae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 323~333
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.323
The paper is to serve as a guide for deciding on a desirable direction for the vessel buyback program, reviewing their performance and economic effects from fish harvest reduction due to not reaching MSY. Compared with maximum willingness to pay for vessel buyback programs designed to avoid economic losses occurring as a result of overfishing, the portions of investment costs for buyback program are so small comparatively to the range of 0.32% to 12.19% at the annual base. The economic loss effects occurred in terms of the reduction of fishing harvest are comprehensively estimated at the present value of 30,877 billion won since 1971, and exceeded the revenues for fish harvests from 1999. In order to resole fish stocks through a vessel buyback program, this paper recommends that the yield should be reduced to less than the intrinsic growth rate. Otherwise, the buyback program policy eventually fails regardless of the temporal effect of benefits. This paper further argues that technical policy tools such as fishing grounds, fishing seasons, size of fish and minimum size of meshes should be effectively utilized.
Review on Underwater Positioning for Deep Towing Vehicles
Lee, Gun-Chang ; Ko, Young-Tak ; Yoo, Chan-Min ; Chi, Sang-Bum ; Kim, Jong-Uk ; Ham, Dong-Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 335~339
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.335
The underwater positioning system is important in interpreting data that are acquired from towing vehicles such as the deep-sea camera (DSC) system. Currently, several acoustic positioning systems such as long baseline (LBL), short baseline (SBL), and ultra short baseline (USBL), are used for underwater positioning. The accurate position of DSC, however, could not be determined in a R/V Onnuri unequipped with any of these underwater positioning systems. As an alternative, the DSC position was estimated based on the topography of towing track and cable length in the cruises before 1999. The great uncertainties, however, were found in the areas of flat bottom topography. In the 2003 and 2004 cruises these uncertainties were reduced by calculating the position of DSC with the cable length and seafloor depth below the vessel. The Japanese cruises for Mn-nodule used a similar estimation method for the DSC positioning system with a CTD sensor. Although the latter can provide better information for the position of DSC, the USBL underwater positioning system is strongly recommended for establishing better positioning of DSC and other towing devices.
The Effect of Enhanced Nitrate Input on the Temporal Variation of the Plankton Community in a Mesocosm
Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Kim, Woong-Seo ; Shin, Kyoung-Soon ; Chang, Man ; Hwang, Keun-Choon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 341~349
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.341
Temporal variation of the natural planktonic community in the Southern Sea of Korea was investigated by using low floating enclosed bags (3.2m deep and 2,500 liter) in order to understand the effect of enriched nitrate on the planktonic community in the spring (March-April) of 2002. Prior to beginning the incubation, the bags were placed in two different concentrations of nitrate, which consisted of control (ambient water) and experimental mesocosms (final concentration of
). The nitrate concentration in the experimental mesocosms remained significantly higher than those in control mesocosms throughout the study period (ANOYA, p<0.001). Following the addition of nitrate, abundance and chi-a concentration of phytoplankton peaked on Day 1, when diatoms established the peak in the experimental mesocosms. Diatoms consisted mainly of Thalasxiosira decipiens, Pseudo-nitzschia pungem, Leptocylindrus danicu, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Chaetoceros pseudocrinitus and Actinoptychus senariu. However, the peak did not lead to the difference in abundance and composition of phytoplankton between control and experimental mesocosms during the study period. The dinoflagellates began to increase soon after the diatoms decreased in all mesocosms. Copepods, as a dominant group in the rnosozooplankton community, showed no immediate peak in relation to the nitrate addition, but only their own developmental process from the eggs to adult stage during the study period. The bottom-up control from enriched nitrate via phytoplankton to adult copepods was not distinguished in terms of the abundance of the planktonic community. This might stem from the relatively low nitrate availability of phytoplankton at no N-limited seawater and the weak coupling between rapidly sunken diatoms and copepods through the water column.
Reproductive Condition of the Tropical Blacklip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758) from Chuuk Lagoon, Federated State of Micronesia during the Summer Months in 2003
Kang, Do-Hyung ; Park, Heung-Sik ; Yi, Soon-Kil ; Choi, Kwang-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 27, issue 3, 2005, Pages 351~358
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2005.27.3.351
Reproductive condition of the tropical blacklip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera collected during the period July through September 2003 from Chuuk Lagoon, Federated State of Micronesia was investigated using histology. The level of gonad development for each pearl oyster was determined with an average score of five microscopic fields, and the average score was used as the maturity index (ML). All wild pearl oysters collected in July did exhibit fully ripe eggs in their ovaries (
in diameter), indicating that they were ready for spawning. In mid August most wild pearl oysters were in spawning and M1 dropped dramatically from mid- to late September, suggesting that the wild pearl oyster completed spawning during this period. In contrast, the cultivated pearl oysters collected in mid-September held ripe eggs in the ovaries and only a few of them spawned, indicating that gonad maturation of the cultivated pearl oyster was somewhat slower than that of the wild pearl oyster in Chuuk Lagoon during the summer period. Histological analysis also indicated that spawning of the pearl oyster is rather incomplete and they may spawn continuously during summer.