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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Foraminiferal Characteristics in Mud Deposits of the Southeastern Margin of Korea
Woo, Han-Jun ; Choi, Jae-Ung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 67~78
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.067
Six surface sediments from two offshore transects of Ulsan and Gampo, on the southeastern margin of Korea were taken for sediment and foraminiferal analyses. Sedimentary processes are dominated by reworking and resedimentation from storms in the area off Ulsan and hemipelagic suspension settling in the area off Gampo. Eighty-four foraminiferal species were identified in total assemblages, including 33species of living populations and 9 species of planktonic foraminifera. The characteristics of foraminifera showed differences of offshore environments between Ulsan and Gampo. The number of living species, species diversity and equitability in Gampo offshore area had higher values than those in Ulsan offshore area. However, planktonic/benthic(P/B) ratio showed higher in the Ulsan offshore area. The species diversity indices and P/B ratio indicated that environmental stability and surface-ocean productivity in the Gampo offshore area were relatively higher than the Ulsan offshore area. The difference of species compositions is useful for interpreting the paleoenvironments in mud deposits of the southeastern margin of Korea.
Environmental Factors and Variation Characteristics of Zooplankton Communities in Gamak Bay
Moon, Seong-Yong ; Yoon, Ho-Seop ; Soh, Ho-Young ; Choi, Sang-Duk ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 79~94
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.079
Spatio-temporal patterns in the zooplankton communities, physicochemical environmental factors, and dominant species were examined in Camak Bay from April, July, September, and November, 2003. A total of 40 taxa were sampled with a mean abundance of total zooplankton ranging from
. The most abundant species was Acartia erythraea, followed by Eurytemora pacifica, Podon polyphemoides, A. omorii, and Paracalanus parvus s. 1 during the study period. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in community structure among three regions: the middle part of the sampling area (B), sites 1, 2 (A) and other sites (C). The number of species and diversity (H') varied significantly among the three regions (p<0.05), but no differences in the mean abundances were observed (p>0.05). In order to investigate factors affecting the correlations between the abundance of dominant species, all zooplankton and environmental factors ware calculated using a correlation analysis. Of these, the abundance of dominant taxon showed positive correlation with seawater temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen (p<0.05). In statistical analysis showed that the environmental factors influencing the variation of the communities ere predominantly temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen.
Seasonal Changes of Community Structure of Phytoplankton in Three Korean Seagrass Beds
Lee, Sang-Yong ; Lee, In-Woo ; Choi, Chung-Il ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 95~105
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.095
To clarify the seasonal changes of the phytoplankton community in seagrass beds, the abundance and distribution of phytoplankton, and environmental factors were measured in seagrass beds: in the Dongdae Bay and Aenggang Bay on the southern coast of Korea, and off Seungbong Island on the western coast of Korea, in October 2002, January, March, and June 2003. Water temperature, salinity, SPM, chlorophyll a, aboveground biomass of seagrass, DIN and DIP concentrations significantly changed within the sampling time. The taxa of phytoplankton observed in seagrass beds were classified as 3 divisions, 3 classes,4 orders,16 families, 27 genera, 65 species. 50 species of diatoms were recognized with 14 species of dinoflagellates, and 1 species of silicoflagellate. The species of genera Coscinodiscus and Thalassiosira were dominant all around the study areas but Peridinium granii, Eucampia zodiacus and Pleurosigma elongatum were seasonally dominant. Phytoplankton standing crops varied from minimum of
(June, Dongdae Bay) to maximum
(March, Aenggang Bay). The standing crops and species composition of phytoplankton were relatively lower and simpler than those of other southern and western coastal areas. Seasonal variations of diatom standing crops in seagrass beds were attributed to seasonal changes in DIN and in DIP of water column.
A Study on the Freshwater Algal Flora Occurring in Temporary Ponds around the Dasan Arctic Station, Ny-Alesund (Norway), and the Molecular Characteristics of Chlamydomonas 18S rDNA
Ki, Jang-Seu ; Kang, Sung-Ho ; Jung, Sung-Won ; Park, Bum-Soo ; Han, Myung-Soo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 107~117
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.107
Freshwater algal studies in North polar environments are relatively few. This study presented the algal-flora, -biomass and genetic features of dominant cells collected from temporary ponds around the Polar Research Station (PRS), Norway. Water samples were collected from 4 stations around PRS, and analyzed for their environmental and biological variables. Water temperature, salinity and conductivity ranged from 5 to
, 0.1 to
and 0.21 to
, respectively. Chlorophyll a concentration ranged from 1.8 to
, and that of the size-fractionated cells was recorded from 0.7 to
in picoplankton 0.3 to
in nanoplankton, and 0.4 to
in microplankton respectively. Algal flora in the present study was recorded as 10 genera, in which Chlamydomonas, particularly, was dominant in all studied sites. By comparison of Chlamydomonas 18S rDNA sequences, including two isolates from PRS, they formed a distinct clade against others: sequence similarity was significantly low (<97.2%) with C. noctigama, being the highest score by BLAST search in GenBank. This study was valuable for basic knowledge regarding the freshwater algae around PRS and their genetic information.
Estimation of Oxygen Consumption Rates by Using an Oxygen Microelectrode in Ganghwa Intertidal Flat
Kim, Dong-Seon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 119~127
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.119
We measured oxygen microprofiles using an oxygen microelectrode in Ganghwa intertidal flat in April and September. Oxygen consumption rate was calculated by using three different methods based on the oxygen microprofiles. The method using the PROFILE software was thought to be the most reliable among the three methods. The oxygen consumption rates calculated at station D1 by using the PROFILE software were 10.5 and 6.27mmol
in April and September, respectively. At station D2, they were 10.9mmol
in April and 5.39 mmol
in September. There was little spatial variation, but large seasonal variation, with almost two times larger values in April than in September. The higher rate in April is ascribed to higher oxygen concentration in the seawater and higher organic carbon content in the surface sediments, which probably accelerate oxygen consumption for organic matter decomposition in the sediments. Aerobic remineralization rates estimated from the oxygen consumption rates ranged from 4.14 to 8.07 mmol C
in Ganghwa intertidal flat, which were much lower than the anaerobic remineralization rate.
Impacts of Sand Mining on the Macrobenthic Community in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea
Yu, Ok-Hwan ; Lee, Hyung-Gon ; Lee, Jae-Hac ; Kim, Dong-Sung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 129~144
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.129
Small-scale effects of sand mining on macrobenthic communities have been reported previously. However, little information is available as to how dredging affects the macrobenthic community structure. The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of large-scale exhibition dredging on the macrobenthic community of Gyeonggi Bay, Korea, where sand mining has continued for 20 years. Prior to dredging, the macrobenthic species composition was similar to that of areas near the dredging site, with several common dominant species found before dredging. After dredging, the number of species, density, and diversity (H') in the experimental area (sites 0 and 1) decreased significantly, but no difference was observed at other sites. Multivariate analysis (multidimensional scaling) revealed significant differences in community structure before and after dredging. The amphipod Urothoe grimaldii japonica, which was the most dominant species at sites 0,1, and 2, decreased rapidly at sites 0 and 1 after dredging, but no difference was observed at site 2. In addition, the index of multivariate dispersion (IMD) and the relative IMD (r. IMD) were large at sites 0 and 1, suggesting that the effects of dredging were direct at site 0 and 1, but indirect at site 2. The macrobenthic communities at sites 3 and 4 were not affected by dredging, but they were affected by physical conditions and biological interactions. We suggest that benthic biotope indices such as the IMD and r.IMD may constitute a valid tool for assessing the effects of dredging on the macrobenthic community; long-term monitoring is required to verify this.
Development of a Broadband Self-recording Hydrophone
Kim, Bong-Chae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 145~151
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.145
A broadband self-recording hydrophone was developed to conveniently assemble a hydrophone array for use in receiving underwater sound waves. A trigger device with an electromagnetic induction coupler was also developed to control the hydrophone's operation. Main configurations and specifications of the self-recording hydrophone are introduced in this paper. We present experiment results conducted in a water tank to examine the operating behavior of the hydrophone. Some advantages are discussed when the self-recording hydrophones are used to make up a hydrophone array.
The Inflow Path of the East Sea Intermediate Water into the Ulleung Basin in July 2005
Shin, Chang-Woong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 153~161
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.153
To investigate inflow path of the East Sea Intermediate Water (ESIW) into the Ulleung Basin, hydrographic data surveyed in July 2005 were analyzed. The ESIW was characterized by the Salinity Minimum Layer (SML) within a depth range of 100 to 360 meters. Averaged potential temperature and salinity of the SML were
and 34.049 psu, respectively. Mean potential density
of the SML was 27.221 with a standard deviation of 0.0393. On isopycnal surfaces of 27.14 and 27.18
which correspond to upper layers of the ESIW, the coastal low salinity water was separated from the offshore low salinity water by the relatively warm and saline water which might be affected by the Tsushima Warm Current Water. Relatively cold and fresh water, however, intruded into the Ulleung Basin from the region of Korean coast on isopycnal surfaces of 27.22 and 27.26 which was lower layer of the ESIW. The salinity distribution in the isopycnal layer of
with acceleration potential on 27.22 up surface also showed clearly that the low salinity water flowed from the coastal area and intruded into the Ulleung Basin. This implies that the ESIW flows ken the north to the south along the east coasts of Korea and spreads into the Ulleung Basin in summer.
A Study on International Environmental Regime -The Case of the Antarctic Treaty System-
Kang, Ryang ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 163~173
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.163
The so called Antarctic Treaty System, started from the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, has gradually been enlarged into the concept of an international environmental regime, which has been included in not a few international institutions, treaties, conventions, and international non-governmental organizations (INGO). This kind of movement, as in the role of an international environmental regime, has recently been highlighted in the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. This Protocol is taking appropriate measures as an international environmental regime in regulating its member nations by enforcing principles in protecting Antarctic resources and environment, regulating member nations' Antarctic activities, establishing norms in the adoption of international and domestic laws, and devising regulations for deciding administrative actions through the member nations' collective decision-making procedures. h this context, this paper is to test a few questions; firstly, how the Antarctic Treaty System can be related with the role of international environmental regime; secondly, how the theories of international environmental regime, such as the hegemony theory, rational choice theory, and international morality theory, can be tested in the role of Antarctic Treaty System as an international environmental regime. Finally, this paper provides a solution for the future problems of the Antarctic Treaty System as an international environmental regime regarding the regime's principle (conflict between the environmental principle and the right of nation-state), norms and regulations (the conflict between the developed and underdeveloped nations in terms of the concept of 'common but differentiated environmental responsibility'), cooperation directions (the leadership problems between hegemonic nation and multilateral leading groups), and management methods (cooperation and arrangement problems among expert institutions, observer groups, and INGO).
Perspective on Maritime Boundary Delimitation through Oil and Gas Development Dispute between China and Japan in the East China Sea
Yang, Hee-Cheol ; Park, Seong-Wook ; Park, Se-Hun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 175~186
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.175
There are disputes for oil and gas development between China and Japan in the East China Sea. These involve the area where China is already carrying out activities of oil and gas development and where Japan is proclaiming its EEZ. China insists that the Chinese activities on oil and gas development area are being carried out within the Chinese jurisdictional waters even if the median line principle of Japanese proclamation is applied in delimitation. Indeed, the permit for Japanese development is causing disputes between China and Japan because its permit allows development in the waters adjacent to Chinese development area. h the event, the core of this dispute around the oil and gas field in the East China Sea relates to issues of maritime boundary delimitation and issues of resources acquisition with both states. Chinese policy on oil and gas development is to first consider development issues in accordance with a median line principle where waters toward to China from the median line should be developed by China and the area toward Japan from the median line within the Chinese continental shelf should be jointly developed. However, the Japanese position is that the East China Sea should be jointly developed, and Japan hopes to eventually convince China to accept its median line delimitation. With on-going development of such issues, Korea should establish a strategy of negotiation based on analyses of resource distributional conditions and other strategic factors in the Korean delimitation area. In particular, Korea should prepare and make the best use of joint development zone established in an agreement between the ROK and Japan concerning the development of the southern part of continental shelf adjacent to both states.
Development of Technical and Economic Evaluation Model for Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits
Park, Se-Hun ; Park, Seong-Wook ; Kwon, Suk-Jae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 187~199
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.187
The Kuroko-type seafloor massive sulfide deposits found in the western Pacific have been considered to have potentials for economic recovery of Au, Ag, Cu, Zn, and Pb. In this study, a preliminary model was developed for the technical and economic evaluation of them. The FRSC site on Lau Basin in the Tonga EEZ was selected as a target. In this study, no construction In for the metallurgical processing subsystem was accounted for. Instead, it was assumed to sell the Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrates to the existing sulfide customer smelter. The low total investment costs for the development make the venture very attractive. However, the result of the economic feasibility evaluation is still less attractive with the mean metal yield of the Kuroko on land. It is considered that commercial mining may be plausible if the richer metal yields are applied to the development. Quantitative information for metal yield is necessary for a more accurate evaluation. However, the important resource potential information regarding the amount of ore body, the inside structure, and the metal yields have not yet been clarified sufficiently. h addition, the flotation of ore body using seawater has not been tested yet. It is necessary to solve these problems through the experimental R&D and a survey.
Clutch Size and Breeding Success of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris) at Hongdo Island, Southeast Coast of South Korea
Kwon, Young-Soo ; Lee, Who-Seung ; Yoo, Jeong-Chil ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 201~207
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.201
We studied variation in clutch size, hatching, fledging and breeding success of the Black-tailed Gull (larus crassirostris) at Hongdo Island, which supported the largest breeding colony of the species, in South Korea in 1997 and 2000 to 2003. Cluck size was recorded in 1,388 nests and breeding success was estimated in 83 nests. Mean clutch size was 1.89 t 0.65. A total of 63.9% of the eggs hatched and 53.5% of the chicks survived until fledged. Breeding success was 34.2%. Causes of breeding failure were eggs missing (14.9%), rotten eggs (15.5%) and predation (2.4%) during the incubation period and chicks missing(35.8%), starvation (7.4%) and pecked chicks (3.2%) during the chick rearing period. In 2002, the main causes of breeding failure were eggs missing (17.2%) and rotten eggs (6.9%) during the incubation period and missing chicks (15.5%), starvation (3.5%) and pecked chicks (6.9%) during the chick rearing period. Most chick mortality occurred within three days after hatching.
A Leading-Edge Operation Program of the East Sea Branch, KORDI
Jeon, Dong-Chull ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2006, Pages 209~214
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2006.28.2.209
The East Sea Branch (ESB) of KORDI will be launched in 2008. She will take a role of monitoring the sea surface topography and temperature by satellites, short- and long-term sea levels by tide gauges, coastal currents and open-sea circulation by setting up coastal radars and mooring current-meters and acoustic equipments, as well as monitoring nearshore processes, coastal erosion and water pollution. A basic program of coastal zone management will help ocean-policy makers to set up right decisions based upon scientific background of the regional data in the East Sea. Networking among the neighboring countries around the sea will supply more useful information not only for experts but also for ordinary vacationers or fishermen. In order for this program to be successfully settled down during the next decade, it is necessary for a leader to have the right vision to attract more experts from global brain pools and to manage the ESB as a leading-edge observatory in the world. Details about this leading-edge operational program are introduced in the text.