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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
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The Distribution and Interannual Variation in Nutrients, Chlorophyll-a, and Suspended Solids in the Northern East China Sea during the Summer
Kim, Dong-Seon ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Shim, Jeong-Hee ; Yoo, Sin-Jae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 29, issue 3, 2007, Pages 193~204
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.193
In order to find out the annual variations in the marine ecosystem of the East China Sea, temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll-a, suspended solids, and suspended particulate organic carbon were extensively investigated in the northern East China Sea during the Summer of 2003 and 2006. During the Summer of 2003, the northern East China Sea was not significantly affected by the input of fresh waters from the Changjiang River. During the Summer of 2006, however, fresh waters of the Changjiang River intruded into the western part of the study area where temperature, nitrate, and phosphate in the surface waters were higher than in the other areas, and salinity, silicate, and suspended solids in the surface waters were lower. As a result of the increase in nitrate and phosphate concentrations, concentrations of chlorophyll-a and suspended particulate organic carbon increased in the western part compared with the other areas. However, the depth-integrated chlorophyll-a concentrations measured during the Summer of 2003 were rather similar to those during the Summer of 2006, and not considerably different from those measured in the East China sea during the Summer of 1994 and 1998. Therefore, the depth-integrated chlorophyll-a concentrations have not significantly changed in the East China Sea over the last 12 years. The lower concentrations of silicate and suspended solids in the western part may be related to construction of the Three-Gorges Dam since the concentrations of silicate and suspended solids in fresh waters of the Changjiang River have significantly decreased after construction of the Three-Gorges Dam in June 2003.
The Fluctuation of Biological Communities as an Effect of Marine Sand Mining in the Gyeonggi Bay
Son, Kyu-Hee ; Han, Kyung-Nam ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 29, issue 3, 2007, Pages 205~216
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.205
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of large scale marine sand mining on the marine ecological community. For the study, four stations along the coast were selected and monitored in 1998 and 2001 at mining areas and non-mining areas about the Gyeonggi Bay. The result revealed that in 1998, 9 species of fishes, 16 species of crustaceans, and 6 species of mollusks were collected where as in 2001, 11 species of fishes, 5 species of crustaceans, and 2 species of mollusks were collected, uncovering the fact that fishes have diversified while crustaceans and mollusks have reduced on a grand scale. Also, there were two key characteristics regarding the changes of biological communities in mining and nonmining areas. The first was the dwindling of crustaceans inhabiting the sand area. This outcome may be accounted for by the facts that physical removal of seabed sediments and re-sediment due to expansion of floating particles cause direct influence on the ocean floor ecosystem and have continuous effect on the communities of crustaceans which feed on them. Secondly, the newly arrived species and their population during spring and summer seasons have increased in the non-mining areas and have decreased in the mining area. It can be concluded that highly nomadic fish species migrate toward areas with less disturbance or destruction of ecosystem from marine sand mining, and consequently, the communities of fishes change in the sea area. Setting aside the characteristics of the investigated sea areas where the arriving conditions of species vary by seasons, the clear differences of population of organisms in those areas are due to environmental alterations owing to the marine sand mining ; if those large-scale marine sand mining activities continue in the Gyeonggi Bay, their effects on biological communities in the areas will only grow.
Ecological Model Experiments of the Spring Bloom at a Dumping Site in the Yellow Sea
Song, Kyu-Min ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ; Lee, Seok ; Ahn, Yu-Hwan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 29, issue 3, 2007, Pages 217~231
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.217
To explore limiting factors of spring bloom caused by waste disposal after dumping activity commenced in the Yellow Sea, we used a 1-dimensional temperature-ecological coupled model. The vertical structure of temperature and vertical diffusivity (Kh) are calculated by the temperature model with sea surface temperature using the 2.5 layers turbulence closure scheme. The ecological model applied results at the temperature model consisted of five state variables (DIN, DIP, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus) forced by photosynthetically available radiation. We simulate year-to-year variations of plankton and nutrients using the coupled model from 1998 to 2000 and compare results of the model with observed data. It turned out that temperature is the growth factor of spring bloom in dumping area. During the winter the weak stratification made sufficient supply of the accumulated nutrients from the sea bed into the upper water column and led to the bloom in the coming spring. Radiation also turned out to be another important factor of spring bloom in the study area. Insufficient radiation of March 1999 showed low chlorophyll-a concentration despite sufficient nutrients in the surface.
Characteristics of Heavy Metals and Benthic Foraminifera on Surface Sediments in Masan Bay and Gadeog Channel, Korea
Woo, Han-Jun ; Cho, Jin-Hyung ; Choi, Jae-Ung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 29, issue 3, 2007, Pages 233~244
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.233
Nine surface sediments from Masan Bay and Gadeog Channel were taken for grain size and geochemical and foraminiferal analyses in August 2002. The sediments consist of mud with 7.29-8.54
in mean grain size. Average concentrations of Al, Fe and Mn are higher in Gadeog Channel than those in Masan Bay. On the other hand, average concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and V are higher in Masan Bay than those in the channel. The latter group of elements show the highest concentration at station M4, off the outfall of treated wastewater disposal. Eighty-one foraminiferal species are identified in total assemblages, including 21 species of living populations. The number of individuals, species number, species diversity and equitability in Masan Bay have lower values than those in Gadeog Channel. The foraminiferal fauna off the outfall is relatively poor. Compared to geochemical and foraminiferal data obtained in 1996, heavy metals are more enriched, and the characteristics of foraminifera are little changed. These features indicate that the pollution of Masan Bay has not been reduced.
A Study on the Maritime Delimitation Policy of China on Maritime Delimitation in Tonkin Gulf and Policy of Korea
Yang, Hee-Cheol ; Park, Seong-Wook ; Jeong, Hyeon-Su ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 29, issue 3, 2007, Pages 245~262
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.245
On 25 December 2000, China and Vietnam signed the Agreement on the Delimitation of the Territorial Seas, EEZs and Continental Shelves in the Tonkin Gulf. Three and a half years after signature, in June 2004, China and Vietnam both ratified a maritime boundary agreement for the Tonkin Gulf (Beibu Gulf) and the agreement entered into force. A potentially complicating factor in the negotiation process was likely to have been the status of the Sino-French Agreement of 1887. In the end, the agreement reached indicated that even if the status of the Sino-French Agreement of 1887 was part of the negotiations, both sides eventually agreed that it would not have an impact on the delimitation of maritime zones in the Gulf of Tonkin. Another crucial issue was the impact of the islands, in particular, the Vietnamese controlled Bach Long Vi Island and Con Co Island. Especially, Bach Long Vi Island was entitled to a half suite of maritime zones (3n.m. EEZ) and would impact the tracing of a line of equidistance in the Gulf of Tonkin. Minor as the point might be, Con Co Island also would have an impact for it would play a fixing terminal point for the boundary. Article 7 of the agreement is about minerals and hydrocarbons of cross-boundary deposit, and if any single geophysical structure of oil and gas or other mineral deposits should straddle the demarcation line, an agreement is to be reached on the development of the structure or deposit and on the most effective manner to equally share the profits resulting from the development.
Cryobiological Perspectives on the Cold Adaptation of Polar Organisms
Kang, Sung-Ho ; Joo, Hyung-Min ; Park, Seung-Il ; Jung, Woong-Sic ; Hong, Sung-Soo ; Seo, Ki-Won ; Jeon, Mi-Sa ; Choi, Han-Gu ; Kim, Hak-Jun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 29, issue 3, 2007, Pages 263~271
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.263
The survival strategies of polar organisms at permanently or extremely cold temperatures and their application to cryobiology were reviewed here. In addition, ongoing studies on psychrophiles also were described. Psychrophiles are extremophiles that can grow and reproduce in cold temperatures, typically at -10 to
. These organisms developed various mechanisms of adaptation to extremely cold environments. Polar organisms cope with these extreme physicochemical conditions using strategies such as avoidance, protection and partnership with other organisms. Understanding on the strategies adopted by polar organisms may provide insight on the physiological process that cells can go through during freezing. Cryopreservation may be able to take advantage of the findings described above. Currently, genomes of many cold-loving organisms have been sequenced and comparative genomics has revealed, at a molecular level, the characteristics of these organisms. The investigation of microorganisms on the polar glaciers may expand our understanding on the origin of life on Earth and other planets.
Development of the Korea Marine Biodiversity Information System -Focus on the Establishment of the Korea Maine Species Inventory-
Park, Soo-Young ; Kim, Sung-Dae ; Lee, Youn-Ho ; Pae, Se-Jin ; Park, Heung-Sik ; Kim, Choong-Gon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 29, issue 3, 2007, Pages 273~282
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.273
For an efficient management and utilization of marine biodiversity information, we made an attempt to develop the Korea Marine Biodiversity Information System (KoMBIS), building a species name inventory of Korea marine organisms. The inventory includes 17 organism groups: phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae and halophyte, sponges, cnidarians, rotifers, nematodes, bryozoans, brachiopods, molluscs, echiurans, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, urochordates and fish. The species names were collected from 37 different references and reviewed for validity by taxonomists, which resulted in 9,798 valid names in addition to 1,845 synonyms. The Korea marine species inventory is the first one of this kind, for previous Korean species name inventories were mostly composed of terrestrial and freshwater organisms. KoMBIS, the information system developed, contains not only the species name but also information on morphological and ecological characteristics such as distribution, DNA barcode, and references. This system is convenient for the inputting of new data and servicing users through the internet, so that management and utilization of the biodiversity information is more efficient. Linking the DNA barcode data with species information provides an objective measure for identification of a species, which accommodates the recommendation of Consortium for the Barcode of Life, and makes the Korea marine biodiversity information compatible with international databases. Considering the frequent exchange of marine organisms internationally via ballast water and such issues as climate change, this information system will be useful in many areas of marine biodiversity.