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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Tidal and Seasonal Variations of Nutrients in Keunso Bay, the Yellow Sea
Kim, Dong-Seon ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.001
In order to find the effect of intertidal sediments on nutrient cycle in coastal environment, we measured ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations every hour during at least 12 hours in the entrance of Keunso Bay during four seasons. The content of ammonia and silicate do not change considerably with season, but nitrate shows large seasonal variation. In summer, nitrate concentration was much lower than in other seasons, which resulted from large biological uptake and active denitrification in intertidal sediments during summer. Phosphate also exhibit seasonal variations, but not that large like nitrate. N/P and N/Si ratios were lower in summer than in other seasons, which was due to active denitrification in the intertidal sediments during summer. For all seasons, ammonia concentrations were higher at low tide than at high tide, but nitrate concentrations were higher at high tide. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations measured in spring, summer, and winter were higher at high tide than at low tide, but in fall, they were higher at low tide than at high tide. For spring and winter, phosphate and silicate concentrations were higher at low tide than at high tide, while in summer and fall, they were higher at high tide than at low tide. In Keunso Bay, intertidal sediments affect significantly the nutrient cycle around the coastal areas. The intertidal sediments act as a source for ammonia and silicate, but as a sink for nitrate. However, phosphate is not considerably influenced by intertidal sediments.
Incubation Routine and Sex Role of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas at Sasudo Island, South Korea
Nam, Ki-Baek ; Kwon, In-Ki ; Yoo, Jeong-Chil ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 11~19
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.011
Incubation routine and sex role of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas at Sasudo Island, in Jeju, South Korea, were studied during the incubation period, June to August in 2002. Incubation routine in Procellariiformes represents a sequence of alternating shifts taken in turn by female and male in a species-specific pattern. Hence, coordination of individual incubation rhythms between partners is crucial for successful breeding attempt. In Streaked Shearwaters, incubation routine represents a sequence of alternating shifts taken in turn by male and female. The first incubation shift was made by male after female had laid the egg. The mean incubation period was 50.8 days until hatching. Males had spent on average 26.5 days incubating and females 24.3 days accordingly. The mean duration of incubation shifts decreased progressively from 6th and 7th shift to hatching. Overall, males had spent more time incubating than females during the incubation period, but the mean duration of the incubation shift 5.6 days for males and 5.7 days for females did not differ between males and females. There were no effect of the body size of the breeding pair on incubation performance. For males the mean of body weight decreased during the incubation, whereas for females it remained approximately stable. In Streaked Shearwaters, the duration of incubation shift and subsequent foraging trip are related to loss of body weight during the period of fasting. In addition, coordination of individual incubation rhythms affects their incubation behaviour.
Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the North Korean Cold Current in the East Sea Reanalysis Data
Kim, Young-Ho ; Min, Hong-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 21~31
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.021
Analyzing the results of East Sea Regional Ocean Model using a 3-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme, we investigated spatial and temporal variability of the North Korean Cold Current (NKCC) in the East Sea. The climatological monthly mean transport of the NKCC clearly shows seasonal variation of the NKCC within the range of about 0.35 Sv (
), which increases from its minimum (about 0.45 Sv) through December-January to March, decreases during March and May, and then increases again to the maximum (about 0.8 Sv) in August-September. The volume transport of the NKCC shows interannual variation of the NKCC with the range of about 1.0 Sv that is larger than seasonal variation. The southward current of the NKCC appears often not only in summer but in winter as well. The width of the NKCC is about 35 km near the Korean coast and its core is located under the East Korea Warm Current. The North Korean Cold Water (NKCW), characterized by low salinity and low temperature, is located both under the Tsushima Warm Water and in the western side of the maximum southward current of the NKCC that means the NKCC advects the NKCW southward along the Korean coast. It is revealed that the intermediate low salinity water, formed off the Vladivostok in winter, flows southward to the south of
paths; one path along the Korean coast, another one along
, and the middle path along
. The path of the intermediate low salinity varies with years. The reanalysis fields suggest that the NKCW is advected through the paths along the Korean coast and along
Seasonal Variations of Physical Conditions and Currents in the Sea Near Gadeok-Sudo
Jang, Sung-Tae ; Jeon, Dong-Chull ; Shin, Chang-Woong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 33~46
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.033
In order to investigate seasonal variations of the physical environments in the region of Jinhae Bay-Nakdongpo, we carried out hydrographic surveys from November 2000 to November 2001. Horizontal and vertical distribution of salinity and temperature shows large seasonal variations. Water column is well mixed in winter and stratified in summer. Low-salinity water is distributed in the form of patches because of the drainage control at the Nakdong River. Seasonal variations in the sea near Gadeok-Sudo are affected by topography, river discharge and tidal current. Currents have been measured using a bottom mounted ADCP and DCM12 between November 2000 and August 2001 in the Gadeok-Sudo. The current in the Gadeok-Sudo shows a distinct two-layer structure with reversed current. Low-pass filtered time series of wind, sea elevation and current are coherent for the period of 1-2 days and are attributed to Ekman-like dynamics. Spatial and temporal circulation pattern shows a slight different. The subtidal current in Jinhae Bay goes northward, however is reversed in the Gadeok-Sudo mouth.
Validation of QuikSCAT Wind with Resolution of 12.5 km in the Vicinity of Korean Peninsula
Jeong, Jin-Yong ; Shim, Jae-Seol ; Lee, Dong-Kyu ; Min, In-Ki ; Kwon, Jae-Il ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 47~58
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.047
Several validation studies have been made for QuikSCAT(QSCAT) wind data around the world, mainly in the offshore. However, until now, there were no validation studies for QSCAT wind with resolution of 12.5 km ('QSCAT 12.5 km wind') in the vicinity of Korean Peninsula. To validate 'QSCAT 12.5 km wind' and to investigate its characteristics around Korean Peninsula, the wind data from Ieodo Ocean Research Station, KMA buoys, and KORDI Realtime Observation Stations have been compared. Validation results showed that 'QSCAT 12.5 km wind' RMSE of wind direction and speed were
and 1.83 m/s, respectively, at Ieodo Station. The mean wind speed correlation coefficient of KMA buoys and KORDI Realtime Observation Station were 0.78 and 0.61, and the mean wind speed RMSE were 2.2 m/s and 3.2 m/s, respectively. This seems to be mainly because of the distance between QSCAT and in-situ observation stations. The RMSE of wind direction were bigger than
at all in-situ observation stations located near the shore, within 20 km from coastlines. Geophysical features where in-situ observation stations are located seem to affect wind validation scores.
A Comparative Study on Korea and United States Sea Grant Program
Park, Seong-Kwae ; Kim, Young-Ja ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 59~77
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.059
The purpose of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of Korean and US Sea Grant College Program (SGCP). The important lesson learned from the US SGCP is that ocean policy requires active interaction among public and oceans since oceans are far from constituents, law makers and government officials. Also, Sea Grant Program (SGP) should be based on universities so as to facilitate the use of equipment and expertise, there is a need for a well-organized control system, legislative mandates and strong government financial support, and sea grant activities must be well combined with regional/local outreach, education and research at the appropriate level.
Hydroacoustic Survey of Spatiotemporal Stability and Distribution of Demersal Fish Aggregations in the Coastal Region
Kang, Dong-Hyug ; Lee, Chang-Won ; Cho, Sung-Ho ; Myoung, Jung-Goo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 79~87
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.079
Hydroacoustic technique was used to analyze spatiotemporal stability and distribution of demersal fish aggregations in the coastal region to overcome some limitations of the existing methods such as net and diving. The survey was carried out in the Baekeum Bay on the south coast of Korea in January 2007. The bottom depth in the study site ranges from 7 to 25 m. In order to outline aggregations of demersal fish initial scanning using 200 kHz split-beam transducer was randomly conducted over the large area. Having detected fish aggregation in the specific region, intensive acoustic survey of irregular star pattern was carried out along 14 transects across the area in question. The results of the acoustic survey show that all demersal fish aggregations are concentrated about 5 m from sea bottom having a slight slope and remain steady with no spatial or temporal variations during acoustic survey. The hydroacoustic method used in this study offers a new approach to understand vertical and horizontal distribution, spatiotemporal stability, and biomass estimate of demersal fish aggregations in coastal regions. Additionally, the number of individual fish estimated from in situ acoustic target strength data can be used to understand the standing stock of demersal fish aggregation.
Prospects for Building a Legal System for Marine Environment Protection in China
Yang, Hee-Cheol ; Park, Seong-Wook ; Park, Su-Jin ; Kwon, Suk-Jae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 89~107
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.089
Marine environment is subject serious destruction because of frequent accidents during exploration of marine resources and overseas transport. Also, as many industrial enterprises discharge high volume of wastes and contamination, marine pollution has become a serious threat to people (especially in China). China is quickly becoming a world economic leader of the 21st century. Rapid industrialization and social changes have raised the standard of living of millions of the Chinese, mainly in the areas of East and South East coast. The process of industrialization, however, is often followed by deterioration of the marine environment and rarely turned around until a country has increased its standard of living. Solving these array of problems will take decades and currently the government is addressing minor specific issues only. Fortunately, the Chinese government has enacted a number of marine pollution control laws. On 25 December 1999, the 13th Session of the Ninth Standing Commettee of the National People's Congress passed the amended the Marine Environment Protection Law of the People's Republic of China. This Law establishes rights and responsibilities of the relevant departments concerning marine environment management and provides for two new chapters on "Marine Environment Supervision" and "Marine Ecological Protection", along with "Supervision of Pollution Prevention for Marine Construction Projects", "Marine Ecological Protection" and "Marine Environment Pollution Prevention for Marine Construction Projects". Also, the Law was amended with provisions for integrated pollution discharge control system and oil spillage emergency response plan and enhanced legal responsibilities. Chinese government recognizes that international and national experience can be useful for China to prevent further ecological degradation of the marine environment.
Application on Multi-biomarker Assessment in Environmental Health Status Monitoring of Coastal System
Jung, Jee-Hyun ; Ryu, Tae-Kwon ; Lee, Taek-Kyun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 109~117
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.109
Application of biomarkers for assessing marine environmental health risk is a relatively new field. According to the National Research Council and the World Health Organization, biomarkers can be divided into three classes: biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of effect, and biomarkers of susceptibility. In order to assess exposure to or effect of the environmental pollutants on marine ecosystem, the following set of biomarkers can be examined: detoxification, oxidative stress, biotransformation products, stress responses, apoptosis, physiological metabolisms, neuromuscular responses, reproductions, steroid hormones, antioxidants, genetic modifications. Since early 1990s, several biomarker research groups have developed health indices of marine organisms to be used for assessing the state of the marine environment. Biomarker indices can be used to interpret data obtained from monitoring biological effects. In this review, we will summarize Health assessment Index, Biomarker Index, Bioeffect Assessment Index and Generalized Linear Model. Measurements of biomarker responses and development of biomarker index in marine organisms from contaminated sites offer great a lot of information, which can be used in environmental monitoring programs, designed for various aspects of ecosystem risk assessment.
A Study on the Analysis of Japan's Basic Ocean Law and Policy of Korea -The Case of Korea, Japan and China on the Administrative System for Ocean-
Park, Seong-Wook ; Yang, Hee-Cheol ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 119~128
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.1.119
Japan's new Basic Ocean Law took effect in 20 July 2007. This law contains that 1) calls for the consolidation of eight government offices that previously worked separately on maritime issues; 2) establishes a basic plan for maritime matters, and; 3) creates a comprehensive maritime policy headquarters, run by the Prime Minister. The result is a structure for the integrated promotion of maritime policy. The Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has been appointed to the newly established position of maritime minister. Japan has been in conflict with Korea and China over EEZ and territory, which has caused the country to turn to ocean. If Japan puts more emphasis on sea, it will be on a collision course with neighboring countries such as Korea, China, Russia, and Taiwan. Japan has been at odds with these countries; with Korea over Dokdo islets, with China over the Senkaku Islands and the East China Sea, where gas fields lie, with Taiwan over fishery rights in the East China Sea, with Russia over the Kuril Islands. Korea's position about the establishment of Japan's new Basic Ocean Law is followed: 1) expression of Korea's position in maritime resourcces of east china sea, 2) understand of strategy for maritime resources development and maritime delimitation in China and Japan, 3) a caution for extention of EEZ and maritime activities, 4)effective and comprehensive policy establishment, and strength in R&D, 5) construction of active and responsive system for maritime issues in neighbor country.