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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Relative Sea-level Change Around the Korean Peninsula
Jeon, Dong-Chull ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 373~378
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.373
Long-term tide-gauge data from around the Korean Peninsula were reanalyzed. Both the coastal water and the open sea surrounding the Korean Peninsula appeared to have been influenced by global warming. The long-term change in relative sea levels obtained from tidal stations showed a general rising trend, especially near Jeju Island. It is proposed that global warming may have caused shifting of the path of the Kuroshio branch (Tsushima Warm Current) toward Jeju Island, causing a persistent increase in the water levels along the coast of the island over the last few decades.
Water Quality Characteristics Along Mid-western Coastal Area of Korea
Lim, Dhong-Il ; Kang, Mi-Ran ; Jang, Pung-Guk ; Kim, So-Young ; Jung, Hoi-Soo ; Kang, Yang-Soon ; Kang, Young-Shil ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 379~399
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.379
Spatial-temporal variations in physiochemical water qualities (temperature, salinity, DO, SPM, POC and nutrients) of surface and bottom waters were investigated along the mid-western coastal area (Taean Peninsula to Gomso Bay) of Korea. Spatial distribution patterns of temperature and salinity were mostly controlled by the physical mixing process of freshwater from Geum River and/or Gyunggi Bay with nearby coastal water. A strong tidal front is formed off Taean Peninsula during spring and summer. Seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, lower in spring and summer and higher in fall and winter, are primarily regulated by magnitude of phytoplankton occurrence rather than freshwater loadings into the bay. Based on seasonal and spatial variability of physicochemical parameters, water quality of the study area can be divided into four water masses; Gyunggi Bay-influenced Water Mass (GBWM), Geum River-influenced Water Mass (GRWM), Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water Mass (YSBCWM) and Cheonsu Bay Water Mass (CBWM). Water quality of the GBWM (Taean Peninsula coastal area), which has relatively low salinity and high concentrations of nutrients, is strongly controlled by the Gyunggi Bay coastal water, which is under influence of the Han River freshwater. In this water mass, the mixed layer is always developed by strong tidal mixing. As a result, a tidal front is formed along the offshore boundary of the mixed layer. Such tidal fronts probably play an important role in the distribution of phytoplankton communities, SPM and nutrients. The GRWM, with low salinity and high nutrients, especially during the flood summer season, is closely related to physiochemical properties of the Geum River. During the flood season, nutrient-enriched Geum River water mass extends up to 60 km away from the river mouth, potentially causing serious environmental problems such as eutrophication and unusual and/or noxious algal blooms. Offshore (<
in water depth) of the study area, YSBCWM coupled with a strong thermocline can be identified in spring-summer periods, exhibiting abundant nutrients in association with low temperature and limited biological activity. During spring and summer, a tidal front is formed in a transition zone between the coastal water mass and bottom cold water mass in the Yellow Sea, resulting in intensified upwelling and thereby supplying abundant nutrients to the GBWM and GRWM. Such cold bottom water mass and tidal front formation seems to play an important role in controlling water quality and further regulating physical ecosystem processes along mid-western Korean coastal area.
Sex Differentiation and Early Gonadogenesis in Sebastes inermis Cuvier
Choi, Hee-Jung ; Oh, Sung-Young ; Myoung, Jung-Goo ; Kim, Jong-Man ; Hur, Jun-Wook ; Park, Min-Ouk ; Park, In-Seok ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 401~406
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.401
Early gonadal development and sexual differentiation of dark-banded rockfish (Sebastes inermis Cuvier) were followed from parturition to 400 days post parturition (dpp). During this period, average total length (TL) increased from 0.57 to 13.18 cm. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) were first detected at 0.68 cm TL (10 dpp). When fish reached 1.52 cm TL (50 dpp), initial stages of ovarian differentiation were identified by the presence of PGCs containing condensed chromatin and their transformation into meiotic oocytes. At 10.23 cm TL (300 dpp), the ovaries gradually developed into oocytes in the primary yolk stages. Ovary growth was rapid after sex differentiation, but testis tissue continued to multiply without growing until fish reached 6.97 cm TL (200 dpp), after which the production of spermatocytes, spermatogonia, and cyst cells was apparent. Histological analysis of gonadal structure suggested a gonochoristic sexual development pathway. Our analysis of the sex ratio at 400 dpp showed a significantly higher proportion of males.
Variation of Nitrate Concentrations and δ
N Values of Seawater in the Drake Passage, Antarctic Ocean
Jang, Yang-Hee ; Khim, Boo-Keun ; Shin, Hyoung-Chul ; Sigman, Daniel M. ; Wang, Yi ; Hong, Chang-Su ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 407~418
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.407
Seawater samples were collected at discrete depths from five stations across the polar front in the Drake Passage (Antarctic Ocean) by the
Korea Antarctic Research Program in December, 2006. Nitrate concentrations of seawater increase with depth within the photic zone above the depth of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW). In contrast,
values of seawater nitrate decrease with depth, showing a mirror image to the nitrate variation. Such a distinct vertical variation is mainly attributed to the degree of nitrate assimilation by phytoplankton as well as organic matter degradation of sinking particles within the surface layer. The preferential
assimilation by the phytoplankton causes
concentration to become high in a closedsystem surface-water environment during the primary production, whereas more
is added to the seawater during the degradation of sinking organic particles. The water-mass mixing seems to play an important role in the alteration of
values in the deep layer below the UCDW. Across the polar front, nitrate concentrations of surface seawater decrease and corresponding
values increase northward, which is likely due to the degree of nitrate utilization during the primary production. Based on the Rayleigh model, the calculated
(isotope effect of nitrate uptake) values between 4.0%o and 5.8%o were validated by the previously reported data, although the preformed
value of UCDW is important in the calculation of
Temporal Distribution of Planktonic Ciliates in Jangmok Bay, South Coast of Korea
Kim, Young-Ok ; Jang, Min-Chul ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 419~426
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.419
Ciliate plankton samples were collected biweekly from July 2006 to June 2008 in Jangmok Bay of Geoje Island. Species composition and abundances were analyzed by quantitative protargol stain and environmental parameters were also examined. A total of 88 ciliate species occurred during the study period, consisting of 22 tintinnids, 51 oligotrichs, and 15 other species. Higher ciliate abundances appeared from June to October during the warm season (
) and the maximum (
$) in August, while the lower abundances were found during the cold season. The minimun ciliate abundance was found in November when water temperature rapidly decreased. The temporal succession of dominant species was very clear and opportunistic. Pelagostrombidium sp., Tontonia simplicidens, Helicostomella subulata, and Myrionecta rubra were co-dominant in summer while Rimostrombidium orientale occurred abundantly in winter. Strombidium tressum and S. compressum, eurythermal species, were observed during all seasons. Based on the species-specific ecology of ciliate plankton, it is suggested that the indicative ciliate species can be applied as a biological tool to detect environmental change in the southern coastal waters of korea.
Development of Chinese Maritime Related Laws and Status and Interpretation in Legislation System
Yang, Hee-Cheol ; Lee, Moon-Suk ; Park, Seong-Wook ; Kang, Ryang ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 427~444
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.427
The most important bases of maritime laws in China are laws enacted by Constitution, a legislative institution of National People's Congress and Legislation of NPC Standing Committee. However, in reality, the institution, which become the basis of Chinese marine policy and leads overall maritime affairs, is a State Council of the Chinese central government and many objects of our researches on Chinese marine policy and laws are composed centering on this administration law. Therefore, in understanding Chinese maritime laws, it becomes an important prerequisite to understand relevant laws (statutes), administration law, statutes of local province, mutual authority relationships of these legislative institutions, and interpretation authority regarding laws (statutes). In May 2003, Chinese State Council ratified and declared
Guideline of the national maritime economic development plan
and this is the first macroinstructive document enacted by the Chinese government for promoting maritime economy in integration development. This plan guideline shows very well a new policy and deployment direction of maritime policy in China. China is already striving to lead its maintenance stage of domestic legislation into a new stage under the UN maritime laws agreement system and this is an expression of intention to take national policy regarding the ocean as a new milestone for the national economy through concurrent developments in various fields such as national territory, economy, science technology, national defense, and maritime biology. In this point, Chinese maritime policy and maritime legislation provide lots of indexes of lessons in many parts. In particular, regarding Korea, which has to solve many issues with China in Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and Balhae, we have to realize that we can maximize national interest only with a systematic approach to research on changes of domestic policies and maritime legislation within China. In addition, in understanding Chinese maritime related laws, we have to realize it is an important task to not only understand legislative subjects for mutual creation of order within the entire frame of law orders of China but also to predict and react to direction of policy of Chinese domestic legislation through dynamics of these subjects.
An Analysis of Technical Efficiency for Managing Off-Shore Fishery in Korea
Choi, Jong-Du ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 445~451
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.445
This paper examines measures of technical efficiency in off-shore fishery based on a frontier production function model of the Cobb-Douglas type. Technical efficiency ranges between 57.13 and 98.62 percent. The results suggest that the highest TE in the industry is the trawl. Also, this analysis shows that Busan's Danish seine fishery has a maximum TE. Angling in Gangwon has a minimum TE. Empirical measures of technical efficiency in this study can be useful in analyzing the potential effects of policies designed to deal with the current fishery industry.
Generation and Growth of Long Ocean Waves along the West Coast of Korea in March 2007
Choi, Byoung-Ju ; Park, Yong-Woo ; Kwon, Kyung-Man ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 453~466
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.453
In order to examine the generation mechanism of long ocean waves along the west coast of Korea and to understand the amplification process of the long ocean waves, sea level, atmospheric pressure and wind data observed every minute from 2007 March 29 to 2007 April 1 were analyzed and onedimensional numerical ocean model experiments were performed. An atmospheric pressure jump propagated southeastward from Backryungdo to Yeonggwang along the west coast of Korea with speed of
between 2007 March 30 23:00 and 2007 April 1 1:30. Average magnitude of pressure jump was 4.2 hPa. As a moving atmospheric jump propagated from north to south along the coast, long ocean waves were generated and the sea level abnormally rose or fell at Anheung, Kunsan, Wido and Yeonggwang. Average amplitude of sea level rise (or fall) was about 113.6 cm. In a one-dimensional numerical ocean model, nonlinear shallow water equations were numerically integrated and a moving atmospheric pressure jump with traveling speed of 24 m/s was used as an external force. While the atmospheric pressure jump travels over 60 m depth ocean, a long ocean wave is generated. Because the propagation speed of the atmospheric jump is almost equal to that of the long ocean wave, Proudman resonance occurs and the long ocean wave amplifies. As the atmospheric pressure jump moves into the coastal area shallower than 60 m, the speed of the long ocean wave decreases and Proudman resonance effect decreases. However, the amplitude of the long ocean wave increases and wave length becomes shorter because of shoaling effect. When the long ocean wave hits the land boundary, amplitude of the long ocean wave drastically amplifies due to reflection. Data analysis and numerical experiments suggest that the southeastward propagation of an atmospheric pressure jump over the shallow ocean, which is a necessary condition for Proudaman resonance, generated the long ocean waves along the west coast of Korea on 2007 March 31 and the ocean waves amplified due to shoaling effect in the coastal area and reflection at the shore.
Possible Roles of Antarctic Krill Proteases for Skin Regeneration
Lee, Sung-Gu ; Koh, Hye-Yeon ; Lee, Hong-Kum ; Yim, Joung-Han ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 467~472
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.467
Antarctic krill has a strong proteolytic enzyme system, which comes from a combination of several proteases. This powerful activity can be easily detected by krill's superior post mortem autolysis. Mammalian skin consists of epidermis and dermal connective tissue, and functions as a barrier against threatening environments. A clot in a wound site of the skin should be removed for successful skin regeneration. Epithelial cells secrete proteases to dissolve the clot. In previous studies Antarctic krill proteases were purified and characterized. The proteolytic enzymes from Antarctic krill showed higher activity than mammalian enzymes. It has been suggested that these krill clean up the necrotic skin wound to induce a natural healing ability. The enzymes exhibited additional possibilities for several other biomedical applications, including dental plaque controlling agent and healing agent for corneal alkali burn. Considering that these versatile activities come from a mixture of several enzymes, discovering other proteolytic enzymes could be another feasible way to enhance the activity if they can be used together with krill enzymes. Molecular cloning of the krill proteases should be carried out to study and develop the applications. This review introduces possible roles of the unique Antarctic krill proteases, with basic information and suggestion for the development of an application to skin regeneration.
Changes in Marine Environment by a Large Coastal Development of the Saemangeum Reclamation Project in Korea
Lie, Heung-Jae ; Cho, Cheol-Ho ; Lee, Seok ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Koo, Bon-Joo ; Noh, Jae-Hoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 475~484
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.475
The word 'Saemangeum' indicates an estuarine tidal flat in the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula. The Saemangeum Reclamation Project was launched as a national project in 1991 to reclaim a large coastal area of
by constructing a 33-km long dyke. The final dyke enclosure in April 2006 has transformed the tidal flat into lake and land. An integrated oceanographic study has been conducted since 2002 as a part of the Government Action Plan to monitor and assess changes in the marine environment. Prior to the dyke enclosure, the coastal environment in the Saemangeum was a complex system governed by tidal motion, estuarine processes, and coastal circulation of the Yellow Sea. The dyke construction has radically changed not only the estuarine tidal system inside the dyke, but also the coastal marine environment outside the dyke. Post to the dyke enclosure, subsequent changes such as red tide, hypoxia, and coastal erosion/deposition occur successively. Red tides appear almost the year round in the inner area. Even under the condition that the sluice gates are fully open, the water quality does not improve as much as the developers would expect, mainly due to the critical reduction of the hydrodynamic stirring power. We will introduce details of our monitoring program and significant changes in the Saemangeum marine environment, based on observations and model results.
Changes in Benthic Macrofauna of the Saemangeum Tidal Flat as Result of a Drastic Tidal Reduction
Koo, Bon-Joo ; Shin, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Seok ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 485~495
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.485
Tidal ranges of inner Saemangeum were largely reduced after the final dyke enclosure, resulting in the former tidal flats becoming either permanently exposed, still influenced by changing tide, or permanently submerged. The effect of reduced tidal range on survival and population stability of tidal flat macrofauna were investigated at three shifted habitats after the dyke completion. At the exposed area, several species survived for 80 days after the dyke enclosure. However, within 120 days, all macrofauna died off due to the elevated temperature during summer. At the intertidal area, some species were maintained until 170 days after the dyke enclosure with a large decrease of the faunal abundance. Species of the submerged area were seen to be more tolerant of the changed environments. The opportunistic species, such as Sinocorophium sinensis, Theora fragilis and Pseudopolydora Kempi, were massively introduced into the submerged area after the dyke enclosure, in which the benthic ecosystem was severely disturbed.
Changes in Macrobenthic Community Structure on Gunsan Tidal Flat after the Closing of the Saemangeum 4th Dyke
Koo, Bon-Joo ; Shin, Sang-Ho ; Woo, Han-Jun ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Je, Jong-Geel ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 497~507
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.497
With the reduction of tidal currents by the closing of the Saemangeun 4th dyke, sedimentary environments on the Gunsan tidal flat, the nearest inner flat from the 4th dyke, has been severely changed, which might affect macrobenthic assemblages on the habitats. In order to investigate changes in macrobenthic community structure on Gunsan tidal flat, field surveys were seasonally conducted at seven stations from April 2002 to November, 2005. Sedimentary facies on the study area were shifted into muddominant facies. The fine sediment has been greatly deposited on the tidal flat with accumulation of organic materials after closing the water passage of 4th dyke section. These drastic variations in environments gave rise to change in macrobenthic community structure. Since the closure of the 4th dyke, the number of species of macrobenthos has gradually decreased. And the filter feeders and sand-favored species such as Urothoe convexa, Macrophthalmus dilatatus, Umbonium thomasi, and Mactra veneriformis have been replaced by the deposit feeders such as Macrophthalmus japonicus and Ilyoplax pingi. MDS ordination based on Bray-Curtis similarity from forth-root transformed species abundance data showed that the macrobenthic communities have passed through three succession stages from 2002 to 2005. During the third stage of 2005 opportunistic species such as Prionospio japonica, Heteromastus filiformis and Sinocorophium sinensis increased in population on the tidal flat.
Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Abundance and Production in the Saemangeum Area
Choi, Dong-Han ; Noh, Jae-Hoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 509~518
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.509
Distribution of bacterial abundance and production was investigated in seawater around Saemangeum dike 7 times during March,
, 2008. In the inner area of the dike, salinity variation was great due to river runoff from Mangyung and Dongjin Rivers and high chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations up to
was found. In the outer area of the dike, salinity was higher than in the inner area of the dike, and chl a was lower up to 10 times than in the inner area of the dike. Thus, the area of Saemangeum showed meso- to hypereutrophic conditions. Bacterial abundance and production ranged from 0.3 to
and from 5.2 to
in outer area of the dike, respectively, while in the inner area of the dike bacterial abundance and production was 3 to 4 times higher (
, respectively) than those in the outer area. In both areas, bacterial abudance and production was highest in summer and lowest in winter. However, the variations of bacterial parameters was very large in each season. These large variations seemed to be related with the supply of organic matter. Bacterial abundance and production showed significant negative correlations with salinity in the inner area, suggesting that allochthonous organic matter input by river runoff could be an important factor in regulating the distribution of bacterial abundance and production. In addition, bacterial production also correlated positively with chl a in the inner area, suggesting that autochthonous substrate might be another regulating factor of bacterial growth in the area. These results suggest that the supply of both allochthonous organic substrates introduced by river runoff and autochthonous substrates produced by phytoplankon could be important in regulating bacterial growth and utilization of organic matter in the area. Thus, to manage water quality in the inner area of dike, it seems to be important to lower the load of both organic and inorganic nutrients from adjacent rivers.
Modern Sedimentary Environments Within the Gogunsan Archipelago
Lee, Hee-Jun ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Kim, Tae-Kyung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 519~536
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.519
The relatively tranquil area within the Gogunsan Archipelago was for the first time investigated preliminarily with respect to modern sedimentological processes in association with the emplacement of the Saemangeum Dyke. Basic sedimentological observations, bathymetry and surface sediments were performed twice during 2006-2008 to compare the results and elaborate changes during that period of time. In addition, sediment dynamical observations were carried out with latest measuring equipment along two transects crossing the entrances of the archipelago, including 12-hour onboard measurements of current, suspended sediments, temperature, and salinity. This dataset was used to reveal hydrodynamic characteristics for spring season April-May and to estimate the direction and relative magnitude of the net flux of suspended sediments. There occurred three depositional areas (A to C) within the archipelago, where sediment texture was also changed. In area A, around Yami Island and the dyke, and area B, in the center of the archipelago, surface sediments became coarsened over the two-year period; sand content increased 5% at the expense of silt content in the former, whereas silt content increased 3% at the expense of clay content in the latter. By comparison, area C in the western entrance of the archipelago shows a textural trend of fining with more silt and clay (combined increase of 5%) at the expense of sand content. The accumulation of sediments in areas A and B is attributable to the sand and silt resuspended from the seabed sediments off sector 4 of the dyke during the winter. The origin of the fine materials depositing on area C is uncertain at present, although suspended sediments moving offshore around the archipelago may be one of the most likely candidates for the source. The temperature of seawater increased rapidly from
in April to
in May, whereas salinity remained more or less constant at 31-32%o during the two months. Both of these parameters showed little variations with depth through a tidal cycle, suggesting good mixing of seawater without any help of significant waves. The consistency of salinity during a tidal cycle also indicates no insignificant effects of freshwater from the rivers Mangyung and Donjin emitting through the opening gap near Sinsi Island. The suspended sediment concentrations were higher at the entrance between Sunyu and Sinsi islands than at the entrance between Hoenggyong and Sinsi islands, ranging from 20 and 30 mg/l and from 5 and 15 mg/l, respectively at the sea surface. Although tidal currents were variable across a transect between Sunyu and Sinsi islands, the currents across the entrance between Hoenggyong and Sinsi islands flowed consistently in the same direction all over the transect during a tidal cycle. The estimation of net flux of suspended sediments indicates that suspended sediments are transferred to the Gogunsan Archipelago mainly through a relatively deep trough adjacent to Sinsi Island toward the shallow area around Yami Island and the dyke.
Examination of Vertical 1D Sediment Resuspension and Diffusion Model Using Field Data Collected in the Saemangeum Area
Lee, Guan-Hong ; Lee, Hee-Jun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 30, issue 4, 2008, Pages 537~543
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2008.30.4.537
The sediment resuspension and diffusion model is an integral part of a sediment transport and morphologic change model. We examined a vertical one-dimensional sediment resuspension and diffusion model using field data collected at about 10-m depth off the Saemangeun
dike. The field data include waves, currents and suspended sediment concentration near the bed for about a day in May, 2007. The suspended sediment concentration obtained from the 1D model overestimated the observation about two orders of magnitude with single grain size and multiple grain sizes. The incorporation of the bed armoring effect, which adjusts the amount of suspended sediment with the available bed sediment, improved the agreement between the model and observation within a factor of two.