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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of a Warm Eddy Observed in the Ulleung Basin in July 2005
Shin, Chang-Woong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 283~296
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.283
Oceanographic survey data were analyzed to understand the characteristics of a warm eddy observed in the Ulleung Basin in July 2005. The temperature distribution at 200 db and vertical sections provided evidence of the warm eddy in the Ulleung Basin (UWE05). Based on the 5
isothermal line on 200 db temperature, the major axis was 160 km from southwest to northeast, and the minor axis was 80 km from southeast to northwest. The homogeneous layer in the thermocline of UWE05 had mean values of 10.40
potential temperature, 34.35 psu salinity, and 26.37 kg/m
potential density (
) and provided evidence that UWE05 also existed during the winter of 2004-2005. A warm streamer initially flowed along the circumference of UWE05 and mixed with the upper central water. Two northward current cores were found on the western side of the measured current section at the central latitude of UWE05. One was the East Korean Warm Current (EKWC) and the other was the main stream of the western part of UWE05. Geostrophic transport of the upper layer (from the surface to the isopycnal surface of 26.9
) was approximately 2.5 Sv in the eastern side of UWE05. However, the measured transport was twice as large as the geostrophic transport. Mass conservation of geostrophic transport was well satisfied in the upper layer. The direct current measurements and geostrophic transport analysis showed that the EKWC meandered around UWE05.
Westerly Winds in the Southern Ocean During the Last Glacial Maximum Simulated in CCM3
Kim, Seong-Joong ; Lee, Bang-Yong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 297~304
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.297
We investigated the response of the westerly winds over the Southern Ocean (SO) to glacial boundary conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum using the CCM3 atmospheric general circulation model. In response to glacial boundary conditions, the zonally averaged maximum SO westerly winds weakened 20-35% and were displaced toward the equator by 3-4 degrees. This weakening of the SO westerly winds arose from a substantial increase in mean sea level pressure (MSLP) in the southern part of the SO around Antarctica relative to the northern part. The increase in MSLP around Antarctica is associated with a marked temperature reduction caused by an increase in sea ice cover and ice albedo feedback during the glacial time. The weakened westerly winds in the SO and their equator-ward displacement might play a role in reducing the atmospheric
concentration by reducing upwelling of the carbon rich deep water during the glacial time.
Assessing the Economic Feasibility of a Marine Ranching Project in Tongyoung
Pyo, Hee-Dong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 305~318
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.305
A marine ranching project in Tongyoung was established in 1998, lasting 9 years to 2006. Project activities included the deployment of artificial reefs, the release of young fishes like jacopever and rockfish, and input/output control for specific marine ranching areas in Tongyoung. This report focuses on the economic feasibility of the project in hindsight. Analysis concentrates on three aspects; (a) direct economic benefits, such as increasing effects of fisheries income and savings in harvesting costs, (b) indirect benefits, including increasing effects of recreational fishing and saving R&D costs, and (c) costs, including releasing and purchasing costs of artificial reef and juvenile fish, R&D costs, maintenance costs and harvesting costs. Results show that NPV=4.7 billion won, IRR=8.55% and B/C ratio=1.286 under Scenario 1, which considers the saving effects of R&D costs, and NPV=0.9 billion won, IRR=6.03% and B/C ratio=1.11 under Scenario 2, which does not consider the saving effects of R&D costs, based on 5.5% of the social rate of discount. According to sensitivity analysis, the economic feasibility is very sensitive to the recapture rate.
Genetic Diversity of the Mud Crab Scylla serrata in Micronesia based on Microsatellite Marker Analysis
Jang, Yo-Soon ; Yi, Soon-Kil ; Noh, Choong-Hwan ; Oh, Sung-Yong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 319~326
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.319
Analysis of four microsatellite markers from Mud Crab Scylla serrata revealed that there is high level of genetic diversity within this species. Genetic diversity of S. serrata was calculated using allele diversity, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity (Het-exp), polymorphic information content, gene differentiation and Nei's
distance. Mean polymorphic information content value was 0.797, which reflected high level of polymorphism across the loci of S. serrata. The Palau population has the highest genetic diversity (Het-exp=0.871), while the Kosrae population has the lowest genetic diversity (Hetexp=0.806). However, the geographical genetic distance among S. serrata populations from Yab, Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Palau were low (0.2009
0.3350). These results suggest that despite their wide distribution, S. serrata are no different in geographical genetic diversity within the five sampled locations.
Temporal and Spatial Variation of Zooplankton Community Structure Post Construction of Saemangeum Dyke
Lee, Chang-Rae ; Kang, Hyung-Ku ; Noh, Jae-Hoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 327~338
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.327
Zooplankton community structure was investigated in the Saemangeum region in March, May, July and October of 2007 and 2008 in order to understand the potential effect of post construction of Saemangeum dyke on their temporal and spatial distribution. Mean abundance of zooplankton in the inner and outer area of the dyke, except for dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, ranged from 173 to 15,830 ind.m
, showing higher variability in the inner area compared to the outer area. Zooplankton abundance was higher in the outer area than the inner area in 2007, and vice versa in 2008. In the inner area of the dyke, zooplankton abundance was the highest in May 2007 and March 2008. In the outer area of the dyke, abundance was the highest in October 2007 and July 2008. Brackish species such as Tortanus derjugini and Pseudodiaptomus inopinus were dominant prior to construction of the dyke, and appeared less frequently in the inner area. Marine zooplankton taxa such as juvenile hydromedusa, and calanoid copepods Acartiahongi and Paracalanus parvus s.l. dominated both areas of the dyke. In CCA analysis, zooplankton community structure in the inner and outer area was similar in March and May, but different in July and October. Temperature, salinity and COD were important environmental factors affecting zooplankton community structure. These results suggest that zooplankton community structure in the inner and outer area of Saemangeum dyke are significantly affected by whether the sluice gates are closed or open.
The Improvement of CTD Data through Post Processing
Choi, A-Ra ; Park, Young-Gyu ; Min, Hong-Sik ; Kim, Kyeong-Hong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 339~347
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.339
It is possible to obtain accurate temperature and salinity profiles of the oceans using a SBE 911plus CTD and accompanying data conversion packages. To obtain highly accurate results, CTD data needs to be carefully processed in addition to proper and regular maintenance of the CTD itself. Since the manufacturer of the CTD provides tools that are necessary for post processing, it is possible to conduct proper processing without too much effort. Some users, however, are not familiar with all of the processes and inadvertently ignore some of these processes at the expense of data quality. To draw attention to these and other similar issues, we show how it is possible to improve data quality by utilizing a few extra processes to the standard or default data process procedures with CTD data obtained from the equatorial Eastern Pacific between 2001 and 2005, and 2007. One easy step that is often ignored in the standard data process procedure is "wild edit", which removes abnormal values from the raw data. If those abnormal values are not removed, the abnormality could spread vertically during subsequent processes and produce abnormal salinity in a range much wider than that of the raw data. To remove spikes in salinity profiles the "align CTD" procedure must be carried out not with the default values included in the data processing software but with a proper time constant. Only when "cell thermal mass" correction is conducted with optimal parameters, we can reduce the difference between upcast and downcast, and obtain results that can satisfy the nominal accuracy of the CTD.
Applicability of Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA) and Calcein-AM to Determine the Viability of Marine Plankton
Baek, Seung-Ho ; Shin, Kyoung-Soon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 349~357
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.349
Ballast water is widely recognized as a serious environmental problem due to the risk of introducing non-indigenous aquatic species. In this study we aimed to investigate measures which can minimize the transfer of aquatic organisms from ballast water. Securing more reliable technologies to determine the viability of aquatic organisms is an important initiative in ballast water management systems. To evaluate the viability of marine phytoplankton, we designed the staining methods of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and Calcein-AM assay on each target species belonging to different groups, such as bacillariphyceae, dinophyceae, raphidophyceae, chrysophyceae, haptophyceae and chlorophyceae. The FDA method, which is based on measurements of cell esterase activity using a fluorimetric stain, was the best dye for determining live cells of almost all phytoplankton species, except several diatoms tested in this study. On the other hand, although fluorescence of Calcein-AM was very clear for a comparatively longer time, green fluorescence per cell volume was lacking in most of the tested species. According to the Flow CAM method, which is a continuous imaging technique designed to characterize particles, green fluorescence values of stained cells by FDA were significantly higher than those of Calcein-AM treatments and control, implying that the Flow CAM using FDA assay could be adapted as an important tool for distinguishing living cells from dead cells. Our results suggest that the FDA and Calcein-AM methods can be adapted for use on phytoplankton, though species-specific characters are greatly different from one organism to another.
Establishment of an Operational Oceanographic System for Regional Seas around Korea
Lee, Dong-Young ; Park, Kwang-Soon ; Shi, Jun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 361~368
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.361
An operational oceanographic system needs to be established for the preservation and management of marine environments and resources, and also to secure the safety and efficiency of marine operations in Korea. One of the major roles of operational oceanography is to deliver ocean science products which can meet the requirements of users such as marine industries, the general public, government agencies, and scientific research communities. Technical issues in relation to development of an effective operational oceanographic system in Korea are identified and discussed. Among others, cooperation among the agencies in ocean, meteorology, hydrology and environment, and also among those of neighboring countries is important for the development of an effective operational oceanographic system. The strategy for building a system that meets the demands of users, with consideration to potential problems, are explored.
Development of an Operational Storm Surge Prediction System for the Korean Coast
Park, Kwang-Soon ; Lee, Jong-Chan ; Jun, Ki-Cheon ; Kim, Sang-Ik ; Kwon, Jae-Il ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 369~377
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.369
Performance of the Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) operational storm surge prediction system for the Korean coast is presented here. Results for storm surge hindcasts and forecasts calculations were analyzed. The KORDI storm surge system consists of two important components. The first component is atmospheric models, based on US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) wind model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the second components is the KORDI-storm surge model (KORDI-S). The atmospheric inputs are calculated by the CE wind model for typhoon period and by the WRF model for non-typhoon period. The KORDI-S calculates the storm surges using the atmospheric inputs and has 3-step nesting grids with the smallest horizontal resolution of
300 m. The system runs twice daily for a 72-hour storm surge prediction. It successfully reproduced storm surge signals around the Korean Peninsula for a selection of four major typhoons, which recorded the maximum storm surge heights ranging from 104 to 212 cm. The operational capability of this system was tested for forecasts of Typhoon Nari in 2007 and a low-pressure event on August 27, 2009. This system responded correctly to the given typhoon information for Typhoon Nari. In particular, for the low-pressure event the system warned of storm surge occurrence approximately 68 hours ahead.
The Significance of Current-effect on Analysis of Wave Data Obtained from a Subsurface Pressure Gauge
Lee, Dong-Young ; Oh, Sang-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 389~399
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.389
Subsurface pressure gauge has many advantages in measuring a wide range of wave spectra in coastal waters from wind waves to long waves. However, a shortcoming of the gauge is related to the difficulties in recovering surface wave spectra from subsurface pressure records. In this study, the effect of current on the pressure transfer function of the pressure gauge, and hence on the surface wave energy spectrum, was investigated by analyzing the subsurface pressure data based on the linear wave theory. For this purpose, laboratory experiments were carried out in a wave-current flume. Subsurface pressure records, as well as the surface elevation data, were obtained simultaneously under different wave and current conditions. Pressure transfer functions were obtained and compared with those estimated from the linear wave theory, both with and without inclusion of the current-effect. It was established that wave spectra obtained from subsurface pressure gauge were in closer agreement with those from surface wave gauge when current-effect on the pressure transfer function was taken into consideration for analysis.
Application of a Large Ocean Observation Buoy in the Middle Area of the Yellow Sea
Shim, Jae-Seol ; Lee, Dong-Young ; Kim, Sun-Jeong ; Min, In-Ki ; Jeong, Jin-Yong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 401~414
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.401
Yellow Sea Buoy (YSB) was moored in the center of the Yellow Sea at 35
34'42"E, on 12 September 2007. YSB is a large buoy of 10 m diameter, and as such is more durable against collision by ships and less likely to be lost or removed by fishing nets compared to small ordinary buoys of 2.3 m diameter. YSB is equipped with 12 kinds of oceanic and meteorologic instruments, and transfers its realtime observation data to KORDI through ORBCOMM system every 1 hour. Data on ocean winds, air temperature, air pressure, and sea temperature appear to be accurate, while water property sensors (AAQ1183), which are sensitive to fouling, are producing errors. YSB (2007), Ieodo ocean research station (2003), and Gageocho ocean research station, which was completed in October 2009, will establish the 2 degrees interval by latitude in the Yellow Sea, and they will contribute though the 'Operational Oceanography System' as the important realtime observation network.
Review of Video Imaging Technology in Coastal Wave Observations and Suggestion for Its Applications
Lee, Dong-Young ; Yoo, Je-Seon ; Park, Kwang-Soon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 415~422
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2009.31.4.415
The wave observation system in Korea has been established with an emphasis on pointmeasurement based on in situ instrumentations. However, the system cannot fully investigate the coastal wave-related problems that are significantly localized and intensified with three-dimensional regional geometries. Observation technique that can cover local processes with large time and spatial variation needs to be established. Video imaging techniques that can provide continuous monitoring of coastal waves and related phenomena with high spatial and temporal resolutions at minimum cost of instrumentation risks are reviewed together with present status of implementation in Korea. Practical applications of the video imaging techniques are suggested to tackle with various coastal issues of public concern in Korea including, real-time monitoring of wave runup and overtopping of swells on the east coast of Korea, longshore and rip currents, morphological and bathymetric changes, storm surge and tsunami inundation, and abnormal extreme waves in the west coast of Korea, etc.