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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Phosphorus Speciation and Bioavailability in Intertidal Sediments of Keunso Bay, Yellow Sea During Summer and Winter
Kim, Dong-Seon ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 177~186
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.177
A sequential extraction technique was used to study sediment phosphorus speciation and its relative importance in the intertidal flat of Keunso Bay during summer and winter for a better understanding of the phosphorus cycle and bioavailability in intertidal sediments. Loosely sorbed P contents were the lowest among the five P-pools and showed little seasonal or spatial variation. Although Fe-bound P contents were almost constant in winter, they decreased rapidly with sediment depth in summer. The dissolution of Fe oxides, used as an oxidant for the anaerobic respiration, ascribed the rapid decrease of Fe-bound P in summer. Al-bound P contents displayed little seasonal variation, but showed a large spatial variation, with higher values in the upper intertidal flat. Comprising about 50% of total P, Ca-bound P contents were the highest among the five P-pools. Ca-bound P contents were higher in winter than summer, but did not exhibit a clear spatial variation. Organic P contents were higher in summer than winter, which was associated with higher primary production and clam biomass in summer. Organic P contents were higher in the lower intertidal flat than the upper intertidal flat. In Keunso Bay, bioavailable P contents of the intertidal flat comprising about one third of total P ranged from 2.41 to 5.09
in summer and 3.82 to 5.29
in winter. The bioavailability of P contents was higher in the lower intertidal flat than the upper intertidal flat, which was attributed to the large clam production in the lower intertidal flat.
Spatial and Temporal Variation of Mesozooplankton Community in Lake Sihwa, Korea
Yoo, Jeong-Kyu ; Myung, Cheol-Soo ; Choi, Joong-Ki ; Hong, Hyun-Pyo ; Kim, Eun-Soo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 187~201
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.187
The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of taxonomic groups and major species of the mesozooplankton community in Lake Shihwa, Korea. Monthly collections were carried out at five stations in Lake Shihwa for a period of one year. The mesozooplankton community showed distinct seasonal variability with water temperature and salinity. Major mesozooplankton species in each seasonal community were derived from non-metric MDS and SIMPER as follows: winter community (Acartia hongi and Eurytemora pacifica), spring community (Acartia hudsonica and Polychaeta larvae), summer community (Acartia sinjiensis, Pavocalanus crassirostris, Evadne tergestina and Cirripedia nauplii) and fall community (Paracalanus indicus and Podon leuckarti). The succession of the seasonal species, A. hudsonica and A. sinjiensis, was the most remarkable event during the seasonal changes of the mesozooplankton community. The species response curve of these species fitted with the logistic regression in relation to water temperature and salinity. The curve also correctly represented the characteristics of the occurrence of A. hudsonica and A. sinjiensis in Lake Shihwa.
Organophosphorous Pesticide Distribution in Seawater from Asan Bay, Korea in 2008
Choi, Jin-Young ; Yang, Dong-Beom ; Lee, Sung-Gyu ; Bang, Jae-Hyun ; Hong, Gi-Hoon ; Shin, Kyoung-Hoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 203~212
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.203
Distribution of organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) was studied from February to September 2008 in the seawater of Asan Bay, Korea. Among the 29 types of OPs detected during the study period, IBP(S-benzyl O,O-diisopropyl phosphorothioate), ranging from <1 ng/l to 377 ng/l, was the most abundant. Other commonly observed OPs concentrations in the study area included diazinon (Diethyl 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl phosphorothionate; <1~307 ng/l), azinphos ethyl (3,4-Dihydro-4-oxo-3-benzotriazinylmethyl O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate; <1~1997 ng/l), malathion (1,2-Di(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl O,Odimethyl phosphordithioates; <1~3013 ng/l), demeton-O (Diethyl 2-(ethylthio)ethyl phosphorothionate; <1~2403 ng/l), and DDVP (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate; <1~283 ng/l). Seasonal distribution of OPs in seawater is dependent on the OP application period. In August, OPs concentrations were generally decreased with the increased salinity of seawater, implying progressive dilution of pesticides in the estuarine system. OPs were deposited into Asan Bay from Asan and Sabkyo Lakes as well as surrounding tributaries. Ten OPs, including diazinon, were detected in the suspended particles of Asan Bay.
Planning and Application of the Korea Ocean Gate Array (KOGA) Program
Shin, Chang-Woong ; Park, Kwang-Soon ; Rho, Young-Jae ; Chang, Kyung-Il ; Pang, Ig-Chan ; Moon, Il-Ju ; Kim, Tae-Lim ; Kim, Bong-Chae ; Kim, Dong-Sun ; Kim, Kwang-Hee ; Kim, Ki-Wan ; Rho, Tae-Keun ; Lim, Kwan-Chang ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 213~228
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.213
In late 2010, the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration proposed a national monitoring project involving the deployment of 8 realtime ocean data buoys. The area occupied by the buoy-array, located south of the Ieodo Ocean Research Station, can be regarded as a kind of gateway to Korean waters with respect to warm currents and the shipping industry. The acronym for the project, KOGA (Korea Ocean Gate Array) was derived from this aspect. To ensure the success of the project, international cooperation with the neighboring countries of China and Japan is highly desirable. Once KOGA is successfully launched and the moored buoys start to produce data, the data will be applied to various areas such as data assimilation for operational oceanography, circulation dynamics, biogeochemical studies, satellite observations, and air-sea interactions. The aim of this paper is to provide suggestions for KOGA planning and applications.
Effect of Water Temperature and Photoperiod on the Oxygen Consumption Rate of Juvenile Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus
Oh, Sung-Yong ; Park, Heung-Sik ; Kim, Chong-Kwan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 229~236
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.229
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of water temperature and photoperiod on the oxygen consumption of the fasting juvenile Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus (mean body weight 79.9
2.0 g) in order to quantify metabolic response of the species under given conditions. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of G. macrocephalus was measured under a combination of four different water temperatures (7, 10, 13 and
) and three different photoperiods (24L:0D, 12L:12D and 0L:24D) with an interval of 5 minutes over a 24-hour period using a closed recirculating respirometer. Three replicates were set up in each treatment. OCRs increased with increased water temperatures under all photoperiod conditions (P<0.001). Mean OCRs at 7, 10, 13 and 16oC ranged from 793.7~1108.4, 1145.7~1570.3, 1352.8~1742.5 and 1458.2~1818.6 mg
, respectively. Under all water temperature conditions except
(P<0.001), mean OCRs of G. macrocephalus were the highest in continuous light (24L:0D) followed by 12L:12D and 0L:24D photoperiods. Mean OCRs of fish exposed to the 12L:12D photoperiod were significantly higher during the light phase than during the dark phase under all temperature conditions (P<0.001).
values ranged from 3.19~5.13 between 7 and
, 1.41~1.74 between 10 and
and 1.15~1.35 between 13 and
, respectively. Based on overall results, water temperature, photoperiod and their combinations exerted a significant influence on the metabolic rate of juvenile cod. This study provides empirical data for estimating the amount of oxygen demand and managing the culture of cod under the given water temperatures and photoperiods.
Bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides in Manila Clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) Collected from the Mid-western Coast of Korea
Choi, Jin-Young ; Yang, Dong-Beom ; Hong, Gi-Hoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 237~245
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.237
Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was studied in sediment dwelling bivalves, Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), collected from the midwestern coast of Korea. As witnessed by the dominance of tetra- to penta-chlorinated congeners in sediments and the penta- to hexa-chlorinated congener dominance in clams, the profile of PCBs in the sediments and Manila clams differed. Lipid and organic carbon-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined for organochlorine pesticides. BSAFs of
DDTs were in the range of 0.06~1.36 and 0.31~1.06. No clear relationships were found between BSAFs of
DDTs in Manila clams and the concentrations of DDTs in the associated sediment. The accumulated PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were compared in Manila clams and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from 3 sites. Highly chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found in oyster tissues than in clam tissues. The reasons for the different accumulation pattern of organic pollutants in the two organisms are discussed.
Identification of Ruditapes philippinarum and Meretrix lusoria Larvae Using Single Cell PCR Analysis and Microscopic Observation
Jung, Seung-Won ; Kim, Chang-Soo ; Yoo, Jae-Won ; Kim, Young-Ok ; Lee, Jin-Hwan ; Hong, Jae-Sang ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 247~254
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.247
Single cell PCR analysis and light and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized to identify free living bivalve larvae in the coastal waters of Tae-an, on the west coast of Korea. Through DNA sequencing, venerid clam larvae were isolated and identified as Ruditapes philippinarum (99% similarity) and Meretrix lusoria (99%). Under microscopic observation, the D-veliger stage of R. philippinarum exhibited symmetrical shoulder angles and an elliptical ventral form. In contrast, M. lusoria displayed asymmetrical shoulder angles and a round ventral form in the umbonal stage. Size of the R. philippinarum larvae was
in width with a length: height ratio of 1.23. Meretrix lusoria was
in width with a length: height ratio of 1.25. Experimental results indicate that morphological and molecular characteristics provide evidence for the larval identification of these two venerid clam larvae species in nature.
A Note on the Economic Rationale for the Development of the Korean Operational Oceanographic System
Lee, Joon-Haeng ; Noh, Yong-Hwan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 255~265
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.255
This study evaluated economic feasibility and provided rationale for the development of the Korean Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS). KOOS is supposed to be established for the preservation and management of marine environments, and for the safety of ocean activities. Economic issues associated with operational oceanographic systems are discussed. During the operational period of KOOS associated with conservative small-input scenarios, and according to the macroeconomic inputoutput analysis, the system was estimated to generate 8.3 times its actual proposed economic investment (about KRW 327.7 billion). Other rationales that cannot be easily quantified were also discussed.
East Asian Seas Time-series I (EAST-I)
Chang, Kyung-Il ; Kang, Chang-Keun ; Kang, Dong-Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 267~268
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.267
Many countries has been interested in studying the East Sea to look ahead into the world oceans' future, since the East Sea has been known as a miniature ocean. In this respect, PICES decided the East Asian Seas Time-series (EAST) studies, and the East Sea as the first subject (EAST-I). Since 2006 Ministry of Land, Transport & Maritime Affairs, Korea has supported the Korean EAST-I program. Through the Korean EAST-I program, 44 research papers were published in various scientific journals. This special issue contains 6 research articles including results from the interdisciplinary observation in the summer, 2008. Those articles cover the entire East Sea from the Korea Strait to the Japan Basin, and also cover the studies of the euphotic layer to the bottom sediment. MLTM and KIMST have provided full support to EAST-I program. KHOA carried out the joint cruises in the Ulleung Basin. Those are deeply appreciated. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to the editorial board of Ocean & Polar Research.
Plankton Community Response to Physico-Chemical Forcing in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea during Summer 2008
Rho, Tae-Keun ; Kim, Yun-Bae ; Park, Jeong-In ; Lee, Yong-Woo ; Im, Dong-Hoon ; Kang, Dong-Jin ; Lee, Tong-Sup ; Yoon, Seung-Tae ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Kwak, Jung-Hyun ; Park, Hyun-Je ; Jeong, Man-Ki ; Chang, Kyung-Il ; Kang, Chang-Keun ; Suh, Hae-Lip ; Park, Myung-Won ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 269~289
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.269
In Summer 2008, a multidisciplinary survey was conducted onboard R/V Haeyang 2000 to understand plankton response to the three distinct physico-chemical settings that developed in the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea. Baseline settings of hydrographic conditions included the presence of the thin (<20 m) Tsushima Surface Water (TSW) on top of the Tsushima Middle Water (TMW). It extends from the Korea Strait to
and then turns offshore and encompasses the relatively saline (T>
, S>33.7) Ulleung Warm Eddy surface water centered at
. A relatively colder and saline water mass appeared off the southeastern coast of Korea. It was accompanied by higher nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations, suggesting a coastal upwelling. Most of the offshore surface waters support low phytoplankton biomass (0.3 mg chl-a
). A much denser phytoplankton biomass (1-2.3 mg
) accumulated at the subsurface layer between 20-50 m depth. The subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum (SCM) layer was closely related to the nutricline, suggesting an active growth of phytoplankton at depth. The SCM developed at shallow depth (20-30 m) near the coast and deepened offshore (50-60 m). A fucoxanthin/zeaxanthin ratio was high in coastal waters while it was low in offshore waters, which indicated that diatoms dominate coastal waters while cyanobacteria dominate offshore waters. The community structure and biomass of phytoplanktonare closely related to nitrogen availability. Zooplankton biomass was higher in the coastal region than in the offshore region while species richness showed an opposite trend. Zooplankton community structure retained a coastal/offshore contrast. These suggest that summer hydrography is a stable structure, lasting long enough to allow a hydrography-specific plankton community to evolve.
Distribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in the Southwestern East Sea in Summer
Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Kim, Gue-Buem ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 291~297
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.291
In the summer of 2008 (August 4-14), vertical and horizontal distributions of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured in the southwestern East Sea. Concentrations of DOC were determined for the first time in the southwestern East Sea using the high-temperature combustion oxidation (HTCO) method, and results were compared with those measured by another laboratory. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 58 to 104
in the upper 200 m, showing a typical decreasing pattern with depth. Generally, concentrations of DOC were relatively lower, with higher nutrient concentrations, in the upper layer of the coastal upwelling zone. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 54 to 64
in the deep Ulleung Basin (200-1500 m), and were higher than those in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. In association with rapid vertical ventilation of the euphotic, this difference indicates a larger accumulation of semi-labile DOC in the deep East Sea than in the major oceans. A correlation between apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and DOC in the deep ocean of the East Sea revealed that only a small portion (<10%) of the sinking DOC, relative to the sinking particulate organic carbon (POC), contributes to microbial degradation. Our results present an important data set of DOC in the East Sea, which plays a critical role in carbon cycle modeling and sequestration.
Comparison of Sulfate Reduction Rates Associated with Geochemical Characteristics at the Continental Slope and Basin Sediments in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea
You, Ok-Rye ; Mok, Jin-Sook ; Kim, Sung-Han ; Choi, Dong-Lim ; Hyun, Jung-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 299~307
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.299
In conjunction with geochemical characteristics, rate of sulfate reduction was investigated at two sediment sites in the continental slope and rise (basin) of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea. Geochemical sediment analysis revealed that the surface sediments of the basin site (D2) were enriched with manganese oxides (348
) and iron oxides (133
), whereas total reduced sulfur (TRS) in the solid phase was nearly depleted. Sulfate reduction rates (SRRs) ranged from 20.96 to 92.87 nmol
at the slope site (M1) and from 0.65 to 22.32 nmol
at the basin site (D2). Depth integrated SRR within the top 10 cm depth of the slope site (M1; 5.25 mmol
) was approximately 6 times higher than that at the basin site (D2; 0.94 mmol
) despite high organic content (>2.0% dry wt.) in the sediment of both sites. The results indicate that the spatial variations of sulfate reduction are affected by the distribution of manganese oxide and iron oxide-enriched surface sediment of the Ulleung Basin.
Community Structure, Diversity, and Vertical Distribution of Archaea Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Analysis in the Deep Sea Sediment of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea
Kim, Bo-Bae ; Cho, Hye-Youn ; Hyun, Jung-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 309~319
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.309
To assess community structure and diversity of archaea, a clone sequencing analysis based on an archaeal 16S rRNA gene was conducted at three sediment depths of the continental slope and Ulleung Basin in the East Sea. A total of 311 and 342 clones were sequenced at the slope and basin sites, respectively. Marine Group I, which is known as the ammonia oxidizers, appeared to predominate in the surface sediment of both sites (97.3% at slope, 88.5% at basin). In the anoxic subsurface sediment of the slope and basin, the predominant archaeal group differed noticeably. Marine Benthic Group B dominated in the subsurface sediment of the slope. Marine Benthic Group D and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group were the second largest archaeal group at 8-9 cm and 18-19 cm depth, respectively. Marine Benthic Group C of Crenarchaeota occupied the highest proportion by accounting for more than 60% of total clones in the subsurface sediments of the basin site. While archaeal groups that use metal oxide as an electron acceptor were relatively more abundant at the basin sites with manganese (Mn) oxide-enriched surface sediment, archaeal groups related to the sulfur cycle were more abundant in the sulfidogenic sediments of the slope. Overall results indicate that archaeal communities in the Ulleung Basin show clear spatial variation with depth and sites according to geochemical properties the sediment. Archaeal communities also seem to play a significant role in the biogeochemical carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and metal cycles at each site.
Temporal Variation of Phytoplankton Community Related to Water Column Structure in the Korea Strait
Lee, Yong-Woo ; Park, Hyun-Je ; Choy, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Yun-Sook ; Kang, Chang-Keun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 321~329
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.321
Photosynthetic pigments, nutrients, and hydrographic variables were examined in order to elucidate the spatio-temporal variation of water column structure and its effect on phytoplankton community structure in the western channel of the Korea Strait in fall 2006 and spring 2007. High phytoplankton biomass in the spring was associated with high salinity, implying that nutrients were not supplied by coastal waters or the Yangtze-River Diluted water (YRDW) with low salinity. Expansion of the Korea Strait Bottom Cold Water (KSBCW) and a cold eddy observed during the spring season might enhance the nutrient supply from the subsurface layer to the euphotic zone. Chemotaxonomic examination showed that diatoms accounted for 60-70% of total biomass, followed by dinoflagellates. Nutrient supply by physical phenomena such as the expansion of the KSBCW and the occurrence of a cold eddy appears to be the controlling factors of phytoplankton community composition in the Korea Strait. Further study is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which the KSBCW is expanded, and its role in phytoplankton dynamics.
Phosphate vs. Silicate Discontinuity Layer Developed at Mid-Depth in the East Sea
Kim, Bong-Guk ; Lee, Tong-Sup ; Kim, Il-Nam ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 331~336
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2010.32.3.331
The CREAMS (Circulation Research of the East Asian Marginal Sea) survey in 1999 revealed a sharp mid-depth discontinuity of the phosphate:silicate ratio in all basins of the East/Japan Sea. Incidentally, this discontinuity layer corresponds to the oxygen minimum layer. Directly below the discontinuity layer, oxygen concentration is increased. This increase in oxygen concentration is interpreted as a proof of intermediate water formation. Oxygen minimum indicates that the water parcel is old and stable against mixing. So it seems be an efficient barrier to vertical exchange of materials. This means that, once materials enter the lower domain, they rarely return to the upper domain. Therefore, the biogeochemistry of the East/Japan Sea depends heavily on material input through the Korea Strait, and flux is expected to be sensitive to the climate change. As a result, the East/Japan Sea ecosystem seems vulnerable to tipping (regime shift), which occurred on a decadal time scale.