Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Ocean and Polar Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Climate Change and Individual Life History
Lee, Who-Seung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 275~286
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.275
Over the last 20 years there have been more than 3000 peer-reviewed papers relating to climate change and biodiversity published, and still the numbers are increasing. However, most studies focused on the impacts of climate change at population or community levels, and the results invariably reveal that there has been, or will be, a negative effect on the structure and pattern of biodiversity. Moreover, the climate change models and statistical analyses used to test the impacts are only newly developed, and the analyses or predictions can often be misled. In this review, I ask why an individual's life history is considered in the study how climate change affects biodiversity, and what ecological factors are impacted by climate change. Using evidence from a range of species, I demonstrate that diverse life history traits, such as early growth rate, migration/foraging behaviour and lifespan, can be shifted by climate change at individual level. Particularly I discuss that the optimal decision under unknown circumstance (climate change) would be the reduction of the ecological fitness at individual level, and hence, a shift in the balance of the ecosystem could be affected without having a critical impact on any one species. To conclude, I summarize the links between climate changes, ecological decision in life history, the revised consequence at individual level, and discuss how the finely-balanced relationship affects biodiversity and population structure.
Abyssal Circulation Driven by a Periodic Impulsive Source in a Small Basin with Steep Bottom Slope with Implications to the East Sea
Seung, Young-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 287~296
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.287
In the theory of source-driven abyssal circulation, the forcing is usually assumed to be steady source (deep-water formation). In many cases, however, the deep-water formation occurs instantaneously and it is not clear whether the theory can be applied well in this case. An attempt is made to resolve this problem by using a simple reduced gravity model. The model basin has large depth change compared for its size, like the East Sea, such that isobaths nearly coincide with geostrophic contours. Deep-water is formed every year impulsively and flows into the model basin through the boundary. It is found that the circulation driven by the impulsive source is generally the same as that driven by a steady source except that the former has a seasonal fluctuation associated with unsteadiness of forcing. The magnitudes of both the annual average and seasonal fluctuations increase with the rate of deep-water formation. The problem can be approximated to that of linear diffusion of momentum with boundary flux, which well demonstrates the essential feature of abyssal circulation spun-up by periodic impulsive source. Although the model greatly idealizes the real situation, it suggests that abyssal circulation can be driven by a periodic impulsive source in the East Sea.
Antioxidant Effect of Tropical Seaweed Pylaiella littoralis Extracts Collected from Chuuk Lagoon in Federated States of Micronesia
Ye, Bo-Ram ; Jang, Ji-Yi ; Kwon, Young-Kyung ; Jeon, Seon-Mi ; Jeong, Joo-Yeong ; Kang, Do-Hyung ; Oh, Chul-Hong ; Kim, Ji-Hyung ; Affan, Abu ; Hyun, Jung-Ho ; Heo, Soo-Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 297~304
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.297
Pylaiella littoralis was collected in the Chuuk lagoon of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The FSM has a variety of coral reef ecosystems, which provide essential materials, such as minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids, for marine organisms. In this study, the antioxidant activities of ethanol and enzymatic extracts of P. littoralis were evaluated by measuring their scavenging activities on DPPH free radical, Alkyl radical, hydroxyl radical and cell viability. The enzymatic extracts were hydrolyzed to prepare water soluble extracts by using five carbohydrate degrading enzymes (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo, and Viscozyme) and five proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase, and Protamex). As a result, the enzymatic extracts prepared by Flavourzyme, Ultraflo, and Kojizyme exhibited the greatest effects in DPPH free radical, alkyl radical scavenging activity and cell viability. Also, these enzymatic extracts had a higher antioxidant effect then commercial antioxidants in DPPH free radical and Alkyl radical scavenging activity. This study suggests that P. littoralis might be a useful source of natural antioxidants for the development of dietary supplements.
Ocean Response to the Pinatubo and 1259 Volcanic Eruptions
Kim, Seong-Joong ; Kim, Baek-Min ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 305~323
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.305
The ocean's response to the Pinatubo and 1259 volcanic eruptions was investigated using an ocean general circulation model equipped with an energy balance model. Volcanic eruptions release gases into the atmosphere which increases the aerosol optical depth and acts to reduce the incoming short-wave radiation. For example, there was a huge volcanic eruption (Pinatubo) in 1991 which reduced the global mean radiative forcing by about 3 W
. Two numerical experiments were simulated. The first experiment features the Pinatubo eruption and the second experiment simulates the much larger volcanic eruption that occurred in 1259 when the radiative forcing was reduced by 7 times compared to the Pinatubo event. With the reduced radiative forcing due to the Pinatubo eruption at about 3 W
and 1259 eruption at about 21 W
, the global mean sea surface temperature (SST) decreased to its lowest in the second year after each event by about
, respectively. Sea surface salinity (SSS) increased substantially in the northern North Pacific, northern North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. The reduced SST together with SSS increased ocean convection, which yielded an increase in North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Bottom Water, and North Pacific Intermediate Water production and their outflows. The increase in overturning circulation eventually increased the pole-ward ocean heat fluxes. In conclusion, huge volcanic eruptions perturb the ocean substantially and their hallmarks last for more than a decade, confirming the importance of volcanic eruptions in illustrating the decadal-climate variability recorded in the paleoclimate proxy data for the past million years.
Influence of a Warm Eddy on Low-frequency Sound Propagation in the East Sea
Kim, Bong-Chae ; Choi, Bok-Kyoung ; Kim, Byoung-Nam ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 325~335
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.325
It is well known that sound waves in the sea propagates under the influence of sea surface and bottom roughness, the sound speed profile, the water depth, and the density of sea floor sediment. In particular, an abrupt change of sound speed with depth can greatly affect sound propagation through an eddy. Eddies are frequently generated in the East Sea near the Korean Peninsula. A warm eddy with diameter of about 150 km is often observed, and the sound speed profile is greatly changed within about 400 m of water depth at the center by the eddy around the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea. The characteristics of low-frequency sound propagation across a warm eddy are investigated by a sound propagation model in order to understand the influence of warm eddies. The acoustic rays and propagation losses are calculated by a range-dependent acoustic model in conditions where the eddy is both present and absent. We found that low-frequency sound propagation is affected by the warm eddy, and that the phenomena dominate the upper ocean within 800 m of water depth. The propagation losses of a 100 Hz frequency are variable within
dB with depth and range by the warm eddy. Such variations are more pronounced at the deep source near the sound channel axis than the shallow source. Furthermore, low-frequency sound propagation from the eddy center to the eddy edge is more affected by the warm eddy than sound propagation from the eddy edge to the eddy center.
Numerical Experiment on Sea Prince Oil Spill Incident Using a High Resolution Ocean Circulation Model
Kim, Ye-Sol ; Lee, Ho-Jin ; Jung, Kyung-Tae ; Park, Jae-Hun ; Lee, Hyun-Jung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 337~348
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.337
This study investigates the effects of tide, wind and oceanic currents on oil spill dispersions through a series of numerical floats tracking experiments on the Sea Prince oil spill incident occurred in 1995 using a 3-dimensional high resolution ocean circulation model. For that, a total of four experimental cases (experiment with tide, wind and oceanic currents, experiment with tide and oceanic currents, experiment with wind and oceanic currents, and experiment with tide and wind) were compared. It could be seen that results from experiment involving all external forces showed better agreement with the observed pattern of oil slick movement than other cases. The oceanic currents acted to drive floats to move to the western channel of the Korea straits and wind accelerated the eastward movement of floats in the early stage of the incident. Tidal currents played significant role in the horizontal dispersion of floats.
An Analysis of Critical Success Factors in Commercialization of R&D Outcomes in Ocean Science and Technology -Through Application of Dual Qualitative Research Methodologies-
Lee, Yong-Kyu ; Lim, Jang-Geun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 349~364
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2012.34.3.349
This study focuses on systematic structure of factors, which affect commercialization of ocean science and technology (OST), applying both grounded theory methodology (GTM) and semantic network analysis methodology (SNAM) by using in-depth interviews with 8 specialists previously experienced in the same field. This study further focuses on clarification of the distinctiveness and universality of commercialization factors on OST by comparatively analyzing on the commercialization factors of general sciences and technologies. Using SNAM, it was determined that commercialization success required connected support system, government support, technology marketing, technology power and characteristics of commercialized entities, which were identified as dominant factors. GTM presented an outcome that connected support systems among participants in commercialization and found that research institute strategies are significant factors in the core phenomenon of commercialization, while technology marketing, technology power and market-oriented technology are important conditions. In addition, the factors of technology, market, connection of participants and government support of commercialized entities are shown as equally important factors for commercialization of ocean science and technology. Secondly, SNAM results indicate that ocean science characteristics depend on a network of government support, research institute strategy, organization and manpower, capital power, and technology marketing, as these ocean science characteristics have been identified as significant factors in the GTM study. It has been determined that technology, market and government support should be connected in order for commercialization of ocean science and technology (OST). Moreover, commercialization methods, applied to the marketing of commercialization of ocean science and technology is differentiated from others since commercialization success is more relevant to these factors.