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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Ocean and Polar Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Distribution and Pollution Assessment of Trace Metals in Core Sediments from the Artificial Lake Shihwa, Korea
Ra, Kongtae ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Kim, Joung-Keun ; Kim, Kyung-Tae ; Lee, Jung-Moo ; Kim, Eu-Yeol ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 69~83
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.069
Metal concentrations in creek water, sewer outlets and core sediments were analyzed to identify the potential origin of metal pollution and to evaluate the extent of metal pollution and potential toxicity of Lake Shihwa. Mean concentrations for dissolved metals in creek water and sewer outlets were 1.6~136 times higher than those in the surface seawater of Lake Shihwa. Metal concentrations in creek water from an industrial region were also higher than those from municipal and agricultural regions, indicating that the potential source of metal pollution in the study area might be mainly due to industrial activities. The vertical profiles of metals in core sediments showed an increasing trend toward the upper sediments. Extremely higher concentrations of metals were observed in the vicinity of Banweol industrial complex. The results of a geo-accumulation index indicated that Cu, Zn and Cd were highly polluted. By comparing the sediment quality guidelines such as TEL and PEL, six metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb levels in core sediments nearby industrial complex exceeded the PEL value. Mean PEL quotient (mPELQ) was used to integrate the estimate of potential toxicity for measured metals in the present study. Mean PELQs in core sediments from Lake Shihwa ranged from 0.2~2.3, indicating that benthic organisms nearby the industrial complex may have been adversely affected.
Effect of Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment and Water Temperature Increment on the Zooxanthellae Density in the Scleractinian Coral Tissues
Kim, Taihun ; Park, Heung-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.085
The coral symbiotic algae zooxanthellae is often expelled from the host as the host coral is under physiological stress, causing the coral to turn completely white. Such coral bleaching events are occurring more frequently with the increase in the global warming, ocean acidification and increased level of anthropogenic impacts such as eutrophication. In the present study, we investigated the effects of inorganic nutrients including ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and elevated water temperature on the symbiotic zooxanthellae density in the fragment of branching coral Acropora nobilis. Zooxanthellae density in the host coral decreased 8 hrs after the experiment at a given elevated water temperature (
, p < 0.05). In contrast, no clear coral bleaching or decrease in the symbiotic algae density was observed from the branching coral exposed to a normal water temperature of
and high levels of nutrients such as 20
. Accordingly, the data indicated high water temperature is one of the stressful factors to cause bleaching in A. nobilis, whereas the high levels of nutrients is not a factor. It is believed that the results obtained in the present study are useful as baseline information in the management of the coral reefs.
Long-term Outlook and Implications of the Marine Biotechnology Market in Korea and Abroad
Jang, Duckhee ; Kang, Gilmo ; Chae, Gi-Young ; Kim, Soo-Ji ; Jo, Min-Ju ; Cha, Jeong-Mi ; Ham, Hyun-Kyung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 93~105
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.093
The marine biotechnology industry is very significant as compared to other industries as one of the driving forces for economic growth in the next generation in Korea. However, the marine biotechnology market has been considered as a component of the biotechnology industry market which made difficult for creating separate research areas in relation to the scope of the relevant industry market as well as making it difficult to establish its own R&D policy strategies. Accordingly, this study was executed to estimate the future long-term market value of the marine biotechnology within the limit of industrial field and to verify the importance of national R&D investment in marine biotechnology on the basis of estimations within the industrial perspective. To this end, we classified the marine biotechnology industry into the four sub-sectors and estimated the domestic and global industrial market in 2010 and 2024. According to the results, the domestic and global market of the marine biotechnology industry will see a remarkable growth by 2024. In particular, the bio-energy, pharmaceutical and functional foods industry markets will achieve astonishing advances. On the basis of the analysis results, Korea has to establish more progressive and aggressive R&D investment strategies to strengthen national competitiveness through the marine biotechnology industry.
Underwater Glider: Its Applicability in the East/Japan Sea
Park, Jong Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 107~121
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.107
The underwater glider is an autonomous vehicle that can glide through the ocean interior by using a pair of wings attached to its body and can move up and down through the water column by changing its buoyancy. As of now, there are three widely-used gliders, namely, the Spray that was co-developed by Scripps Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Slocum produced by the Webb Research Cooperation, and the Seaglider that was produced by the University of Washington. In this paper, I will introduce these three gliders and discuss the principles and procedures related to glider operation as well as the application and extendability of modern physical and bio-geochemical sensors to gliders. My experiences in developing a glider for measuring ocean turbulence and testing it 7 times during 12 days are shared in this paper. On the basis of my experiences and knowledge, different kinds of aspects that should be considered for successful glider operation are discussed. In addition, a suggestion is made as to what would be the ideal way to operate underwater gliders in the East/Japan Sea. At the end, the current status of active glider operation teams is presented and the efforts to proceed toward future gliders are briefly introduced.
Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Marine Ecosystem in the South Sea of Korea II
Ju, Se-Jong ; Kim, Se-Joo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 123~125
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.123
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), ocean warming and acidification are accelerating as a result of the continuous increase in atmospheric
. This may affect the function and structure of marine ecosystems. Recently, changes in marine environments/ecosystems have been observed (increase in SST, decrease in the pH of seawater, northward expansion of subtropical species, etc.) in Korean waters. However, we still don't understand well how climate change affects these changes and what can be expected in the future. In order to answer these questions with regard to Korean waters, the project named 'Assessment of the impact of climate change on marine ecosystems in the South Sea of Korea' has been supported for 5 years by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries and is scheduled to end in 2013. This project should provide valuable information on the current status of marine environments/ecosystems in the South Sea of Korea and help establish the methodology and observation/prediction systems to better understand and predict the impact of climate/marine environment changes on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. This special issue contains 5 research and a review articles that highlight the studies carried out during 2012-2013 through this project.
Changes in the Tsushima Warm Current and the Impact under a Global Warming Scenario in Coupled Climate Models
Choi, A-Ra ; Park, Young-Gyu ; Choi, Hui Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 127~134
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.127
In this study we investigated changes in the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) under the global warming scenario RCP 4.5 by analysing the results from the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Among the four models that had been employed to analyse the Tsushima Warm Current during the 20th Century, in the CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 and HadGEM2-CC models the transports of the Tsushima Warm Current were 2.8 Sv and 2.1 Sv, respectively, and comparable to observed transport, which is between 2.4 and 2.77 Sv. In the other two models the transports were much greater or smaller than the observed estimates. Using the two models that properly reproduced the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current we investigated the response of the current under the global warming scenario. In both models the volume transports and the temperature were greater in the future climate scenario. Warm advection into the East Sea was intensified to raise the temperature and consequently the heat loss to the air.
The Tsushima Warm Current from a High Resolution Ocean Prediction Model, HYCOM
Seo, Seongbong ; Park, Young-Gyu ; Park, Jae-Hun ; Lee, Ho Jin ; Hirose, N. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 135~146
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.135
This study investigates the characteristic of the Tsushima Warm Current from an assimilated high resolution global ocean prediction model,
Global HYbrid Coordiate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results were verified through a comparison with current measurements obtained by acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on the passenger ferryboat between Busan, Korea, and Hakata, Japan. The annual mean transport of the Tsushima Warm Current was 2.56 Sverdrup (Sv) (1 Sv =
), which is similar to those from previous studies (Takikawa et al. 1999; Teague et al. 2002). The volume transport time series of the Tsushima Warm Current from HYCOM correlates to a high degree with that from the ADCP observation (the correlation coefficient between the two is 0.82). The spatiotemporal structures of the currents as well as temperature and salinity from HYCOM are comparable to the observed ones.
Seasonal Difference in Linear Trends of Satellite-derived Chlorophyll-a in the East China Sea
Son, Young Baek ; Jang, Chan Joo ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 147~155
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.147
The purpose of this study is to investigate seasonal difference in linear trends in satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) and their related environmental changes in the South Sea of Korea (SSK) and East China Sea (ECS) for recent 15 years (Jan. 1998~Dec. 2012) by analyzing climatological data of Chl-a, Rrs(555), sea surface wind (SSW) and nutrient. A linear trend analysis of Chl-a data reveals that, during recent 15 years, the spring bloom was enhanced in most of the ECS, while summer and fall blooms were weakened. The increased spring (Mar. - May) Chl-a was associated with strengthened winter (Dec. - Feb.) wind that probably provided more nutrient into the upper ocean from the deep. The causes of decreased summer (Jun. - Aug.) Chl-a in the northern ECS were uncertain, but seemed to be related with the nutrient limitation. Recently (after 2006), low-salinity Changjiang diluted water in the south of Jeju and the SSK had lower phosphate that caused increase in N/P ratio with Chl-a decrease. The decreased fall (Sep. - Nov.) Chl-a was associated with weakened wind that tends to entrain less nutrient into the upper ocean from the deep. This study suggests that phytoplankton in the ECS differently changes in response to environmental changes depending on season and region.
Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton Assemblages Related to Surface Water Mass in the Eastern Part of the South Sea in Korea
Jang, Pung-Guk ; Hyun, Bonggil ; Cha, Hyung-Gon ; Chung, Han-Sik ; Jang, Min-Chul ; Shin, Kyoungsoon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 157~170
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.157
We investigated the seasonal succession of phytoplankton assemblages in the eastern part of the South Sea of Korea in relation to surface water masses. The study areas are under the direct influence of the Tsushima Warm Current (TCW) throughout the whole year, with its strength known to be seasonally variable. The region is also influenced by coastal waters (CW) driven from the South Sea of Korea and East China Sea, particularly in summer, as indicated by low salinity in the surface water. Nutrient property of the TCW can reveals whether the origin of the TCW is the nutrient-rich Kuroshio Current or the oligotropic Taiwan Warm Current. Surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations displayed a large seasonal variation for all stations, with high values found in spring and autumn and low values in summer and winter. At station M (offshore) and P (intermediate location between M and R), Chl-a concentrations in October were higher than those in March, when spring bloom normally occurs. This may be related to deeper mixed layer depths in October. Diatoms dominated under conditions of high nutrient supply in which Chaetoceros spp. and Skeletonema costatum-like spp. were abundant. S. costatum-like spp. dominated at stations R (onshore station) and P in December when there was greater nutrient supply, especially of phosphate. Flagellates and dinoflagellates dominated at all three stations after diatoms blooms. Dominant species were Scrippsiella trochoid in April and Ceratium furca in October at station R, and Gyrodinium spp. and Gymnodinium spp. at station M during summer, when the effect of the oligotropic Taiwan Warm Current and the oligotropic coastal water from East China Sea were strong. Redundancy analysis showed clear seasonal successions in the phytoplankton community and environmental conditions, in which both principal components 1 and 2 accounted for 69.6% of total variance. Our results suggested that environmental conditions seemed to be determined by the origin of the TCW and the relative seasonal strength of the water masses of the TCW and CW, which may affect phytoplankton growth and compositions in the study area.
Long-term Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the East China Sea: A Review
Lee, Jae Hak ; Kim, Cheol-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 171~179
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.171
The long-term variability of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea was reviewed based mainly on published literatures. Though the quantitative results are not the same, it is generally shown that sea surface temperature is increasing especially in recent years with the rate of increase about
/year. Other meaningful results presented in the literatures is that the difference of water properties between layers upper and lower than the thermocline in summer shows an increasing trend both in temperature and salinity, suggesting that the stratification has been intensified. As a mechanism by which to evaluate the wintertime warming trend in the region, the weakening of wind strength, which is related to the variation of sea level pressure and atmospheric circulation in the western North Pacific and northern Asian continent, is suggested in the most of related studies.
Occurrence of Modern Planktonic Foraminiferal Species and their Seasonal Variations around Jeju Island, Korea
Hyun, Sangmin ; Kimoto, Katsunori ; Cho, Sung-Hwan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 181~191
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.181
To investigate the occurrence of modern living planktonic foraminiferal species and their seasonal variations around Jeju Island, we conducted planktonic foraminiferal sampling at KIOST's regular sampling sites during 16 months. In total seven genus and 16 modern planktonic foraminiferal species were identified with six dominant species. Dominant species were Gloigerinoides sacculifer, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides, Noegloboquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, and Globorotalia inflata. Most of the species were characterized as being typical subtropical species and showed seasonal variations and/or intermittent occurrence from season to season. The occurrence of living foraminifera revealed a strong relationship with water temperature, but not with salinity. Species succession seems to occur along with water temperature changes. Some patch distribution and water temperature dependences appear to be significant since there is a high degree of variation in the occurrence patterns of species and standing stock. More detailed quantitative study is necessary to confirm the species diversity and seasonal variations of planktonic foraminifera and related ocean environmental changes.