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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Observation of the Sea Surface Skin Current Using a GPS-Drifter
Park, Joon Seong ; Kang, KiRyong ; Lee, Seok ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 3, 2013, Pages 193~203
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.3.193
A GPS-drifter was newly designed to observe the sea surface skin current and to estimate the direct wind effect on the sea surface. After conducting a test to establish and verify the accuracy of the GPS itself in the laboratory, in-situ experimental campaigns at Saemangeum in Gunsan city and Haeundae in Busan city, Korea, were carried out to ascertain the drifter track and to estimate the velocity data set on Oct. 3, 15, 23, 27 and Nov. 25, 2011. The current meters, RCM9 and ADCP, were moored together to remove the background current field, and the wind data were obtained from several marine stations such as towers and buoys in these areas. The drifter-observed velocity show good agreement with the flow obtained by the HF radar in the Saemangeum area. The direction of the wind-driven current extracted from the drifter-observed velocity was completely deflected to the right, however the degree of the angle was different according to the drift types. The average speed of the wind-driven current matched with 2.19~2.81% of the wind speed and the deflection angle was about
without adjustment for the land-sea effect, and about 2.19~2.84% and
with the adjustment for the land-sea effect.
Population Dynamics of Jellyfish Aurelia aurita (s.l.) in Sihwa Lake
Hong, Hyun-Pyo ; Han, Chang-Hoon ; Yoo, Jeong-Kyu ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 3, 2013, Pages 205~217
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.3.205
We investigated the population dynamics of Aurelia aurita in Sihwa Lake from April to October in 2009. Salinity ranged from 5.9 to 30.7 psu at the surface. Abundance of mesozooplankton ranged from 3 to 111,874 indiv.
. Ephyrae occurred from April to May with the peak in abundance occurring on 17 April. Maximum density of ephyrae was observed near the power transmission towers that are known to be habitats of polyps. Mortality of ephyrae was lower than in other areas because of the abundant prey concentration and the absence of predators. Young medusae occurred from April to July with the peak in abundance occurring on 8 May. Adult medusae occurred from May to July with the peak in abundance on 25 June and they disappeared before the rainy season. Planula occurred only in May and June with the peak in abundance on 25 June. Growth rates of Aurelia aurita ranged from -0.06 to 0.34
, and decreased rapidly after May. The period in which adult medusa occurred was restricted, compared with those in other area in Korea (e.g., Masan Bay) and Japan (e.g., Tokyo Bay). In the period of this study, the available food was limited in June and salinity decreased to ca. 20 psu in May because of the beginning of the wet season. We assumed that the exceptionally short period of occurrence of the medusa may be a response of adults to changes in temperature, salinity or food limitation which leads to the precocious maturation of young medusa and the release of planula and that the brief occurrence of medusa was caused by an abrupt decrease in activity after the release of planula.
Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill
Jung, Yun-Hwan ; Park, Heung-Sik ; Yoon, Kon-Tak ; Lee, Hyung-Gon ; Ma, Chae-Woo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 3, 2013, Pages 219~228
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.3.219
In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in January, April and September 2008. Polluted sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill showed that biological index consistently decreased for 9 months limited to breeding and recruitment of organisms by spilled oil. Macrobenthic community was subdivided into 3 groups by species elimination and differences between density of major dominant species: enriched biota community under a relatively stable environment, the second with relatively low ecological index and the last with poor community. In this study, species number did not clearly reflect the effect of oil on the rare and mobile species. However, mean density, biomass and community structure showed the effect of oil by considering breeding activity, decline in recruitment and variation pattern with time.
Two-dimensional Oxygen Distribution in a Surface Sediment Layer Measured Using an RGB Color Ratiometric Oxygen Planar Optode
Lee, Jae Seong ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; An, Sung-Uk ; Kim, Jihye ; Kim, Joung-Keun ; Khang, Sung-Hyun ; Kang, Dong-Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 3, 2013, Pages 229~237
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.3.229
We measured two-dimensional (2-D) oxygen distribution in the surface sediment layer of intertidal sediment using a simple and inexpensive planar oxygen optode, which is based on a color ratiometric image approach. The recorded emission intensity of red color luminophore light significantly changed with oxygen concentration by
quenching of platinum(II)octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP). The ratios between the intensity of red and green emissions with oxygen concentration variation demonstrated the Stern-Volmer relationship. The 2-D oxygen distribution image showed microtopographic structure, diffusivity boundary layer and burrow in surface sediment layer. The oxygen penetration depth (OPD) was about 2 mm and the one-dimensional vertical diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) was 12.6 mmol
in the undisturbed surface sediment layer. However, those were enhanced near burrow by benthic fauna, and the OPD was two times deeper and DOU was increased by 34%. The simple and inexpensive oxygen planar optode has great application potential in the study of oxygen dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution, in benthic boundary layers.
Automatic Estimation of Artemia Hatching Rate Using an Object Discrimination Method
Kim, Sung ; Cho, Hong-Yeon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 3, 2013, Pages 239~247
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.3.239
Digital image processing is a process to analyze a large volume of information on digital images. In this study, Artemia hatching rate was measured by automatically classifying and counting cysts and larvae based on color imaging data from cyst hatching experiments using an image processing technique. The Artemia hatching rate estimation consists of a series of processes; a step to convert the scanned image data to a binary image data, a process to detect objects and to extract their shape information in the converted image data, an analysis step to choose an optimal discriminant function, and a step to recognize and classify the objects using the function. The function to classify Artemia cysts and larvae is optimally estimated based on the classification performance using the areas and the plan-form factors of the detected objects. The hatching rate using the image data obtained under the different experimental conditions was estimated in the range of 34-48%. It was shown that the maximum difference is about 19.7% and the average root-mean squared difference is about 10.9% as the difference between the results using an automatic counting (this study) and a manual counting were compared. This technique can be applied to biological specimen analysis using similar imaging information.
A Comparison of Two Vertical-Mixing Schemes on the Simulation of the Mixed Layer Depth and Upper Ocean Temperature in an Ocean General Circulation Model
Yi, Dong-Won ; Jang, Chan Joo ; Yeh, Sang-Wook ; Park, Taewook ; Shin, Ho-Jeong ; Kim, Donghoon ; Kug, Jong-Seong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 3, 2013, Pages 249~258
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.3.249
Vertical and horizontal mixing processes in the ocean mixed layer determine sea surface temperature and temperature variability. Accordingly, simulating these processes properly is crucial in order to obtain more accurate climate simulations and more reliable future projections using an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). In this study, by using Modular Ocean Model version 4 (MOM4) developed by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the upper ocean temperature and mixed layer depth were simulated with two different vertical mixing schemes that are most widely used and then compared. The resultant differences were analyzed to understand the underlying mechanism, especially in the Tropical Pacific Ocean where the differences appeared to be the greatest. One of the schemes was the so-called KPP scheme that uses K-Profile parameterization with nonlocal vertical mixing and the other was the N scheme that was rather recently developed based on a second-order turbulence closure. In the equatorial Pacific, the N scheme simulates the mixed layer at a deeper level than the KPP scheme. One of the reasons is that the total vertical diffusivity coefficient simulated with the N scheme is ten times larger, at maximum, in the surface layer compared to the KPP scheme. Another reason is that the zonal current simulated with the N scheme peaks at a deeper ocean level than the KPP scheme, which indicates that the vertical shear was simulated on a larger scale by the N scheme and it enhanced the mixed layer depth. It is notable that while the N scheme simulates a deeper mixed layer in the equatorial Pacific compared to the KPP scheme, the sea surface temperature (SST) simulated with the N scheme was cooler in the central Pacific and warmer in the eastern Pacific. We postulated that the reason for this is that in the central Pacific atmospheric forcing plays an important role in determining SST and so does a strong upwelling in the eastern Pacific. In conclusion, what determines SST is crucial in interpreting the relationship between SST and mixed layer depth.
TIPEX (Tropical Indo-Pacific water transport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment) Program
Jeon, Dongchull ; Kim, Eung ; Shin, Chang Woong ; Kim, Cheol-Ho ; Kug, Jong Seong ; Lee, Jae Hak ; Lee, Youn-Ho ; Kim, Suk Hyun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 3, 2013, Pages 259~272
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.3.259
One of the factors influencing the climate around Korea is the oceanic-atmospheric variability in the tropical region between the eastern Indian and the western Pacific Oceans. Lack of knowledge about the air-sea interaction in the tropical Indo-Pacific region continues to make it problematic forecasting the ocean climate in the East Asia. The 'Tropical Indo-Pacific water transport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment (TIPEX)' is a program for monitoring the ocean circulation variability between Pacific and Indian Oceans and for improving the accuracy of future climate forecasting. The main goal of the TIPEX program is to quantify the climate and ocean circulation change between the Indian and the Pacific Oceans. The contents of the program are 1) to observe the mixing process of different water masses and water transport in the eastern Indian and the western Pacific, 2) to understand the large-scale oceanic-climatic variation including El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)/Warm Pool/Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)/Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and 3) to monitor the biogeochemical processes, material flux, and biological changes due to the climate change. In order to effectively carry out the monitoring program, close international cooperation and the proper co-work sharing of tasks between China, Japan, Indonesia, and India as well as USA is required.