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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Ocean and Polar Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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The Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Activity from Undariopsis peterseniana
Cho, MyoungLae ; Yoon, Sung Jin ; Kim, Yun-Bae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 273~280
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.273
The proximate composition, free amino acid composition and mineral contents from Undariopsis peterseniana were determined, and the antioxidant activities of ethanol (EtOH) and hot water extracts of U. peterseniana were investigated using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical scavenging effects and reducing power. The contents of moisture, ash, protein, lipid and carbohydrate were 12.5%, 23.1%, 9.7%, 0.2% and 54.5%, respectively, and alginic acid content was 12.3%. The major free amino acid contents were alanine, phenylalanine, aminoethanol, valine, glutamic acid and phosphoserine. Ca (1589.1 mg) was the largest mineral followed by Na (344.6 mg), Mg (74.3 mg), Zn (10.2 mg) and Fe (1.5 mg). The total phenolic contents of EtOH and hot water extracts were exhibited at 15.7 and 4.3 mg GAE/g sample, respectively. The antioxidant activity of EtOH extract exhibited strong ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities with reducing power, and hot water extract also demonstrated strong ABTS radical scavenging effects. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that U. peterseniana contained an abundance of naturally occurring nutrients (free amino acids and minerals), and the strong antioxidant activities of EtOH and hot water extracts from U. peterseniana could be good sources of natural antioxidants for healthcare products.
Soil Temperature Variations in Intertidal Sediments in Geunso Bay and Seonyu Island, West Coast of Korea
Song, Kyu-Min ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 281~290
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.281
The vertical structure of sediment temperatures in the tidal flats of Geunso Bay and Seonyu Island in western Korea were measured for more than a year and analyzed. Mean temperature decreased with depth in spring and summer. On the contrary, it increased with depth in fall and winter, faithfully reflecting the seasonal variation resulting from the heating and cooling of the surface sediment. The surface sediment temperatures are shown to be strongly dependent on solar radiation, M2, and M4 tidal components. They are also weakly affected by precipitation. Thermal diffusivity of sediment is estimated at each depth and in each of the four seasons by applying the amplitude equation method. In Geunso Bay, the estimated seasonal-mean values decreased with depth, while they showed little change in Seonyu Island. Depth-averaged thermal diffusivity in Geunso Bay (
) was smaller than Seonyu Island (
). The variability of thermal diffusivity is shown to corelate with sediment composition and sorting from the grain-size analysis of intertidal sediments in Geunso Bay and Seonyu-do.
Analysis on Topography and Exposure Duration of Siheung Tidal Flat Using Remote Sensing Techniques
Koo, Bon Joo ; Kim, Minkyu ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 291~298
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.291
In order to investigate the topography and exposure duration of the Siheung tidal flat, tidal ranges and DEM constructed by remote sensing techniques were analyzed. A cross-sectional diagram of the intertidal area reveals that it is relatively flat in the upper zone and then abruptly plunges into the bottom of the main channel where elevations increase in an upstream direction. The waterline during the Highest Low Water (HLW) is drawn back to the bottom of the channel at the middle part of the tidal flat and is formed along the slant of the channel during the Lowest High Water (LHW). The intertidal zone is located between -410 cm and 510 cm in terms of elevation and its total area is
. An area between the Highest High Water (HHW) and Lowest High Water (LHW), occupying about 80% of the total area, occupies
of total area and accounts for 56% of the exposure duration. The boundary of wetland protection area in the Siheung tidal flat did not exactly coincide with the intertidal regime and differs by more than 15%. This study, which precisely analyzed the tidal flat area, tidal environment, and topography, would be useful in making a conservation plan and in learning how to use a wetland protection area in a sustainable manner.
Spatial Variation in Macrobenthic Communities Affected by the Thermal Discharge Volumes of a Nuclear Power Plant on the East Coast of Korea
Yu, Ok Hwan ; Lee, Hyung-Gon ; Lee, Jae-Hac ; Kim, Kyung-Tae ; Myung, Cheol-Soo ; Moon, Hyung Tae ; Byun, Ju Young ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 299~312
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.299
This study analyzed the species composition and density of a macrobenthic community according to variations in the thermal discharge volumes of a nuclear power plant before, during, and after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant during two periods. In this study, 369 macrobenthic fauna species were collected, and their mean density was 1,712 ind.
. The number of species and diversity of macrobenthic fauna decreased with distance from the thermal discharge area, regardless of whether the nuclear plant shutdown or not. Many macrobenthic taxa appeared near the thermal discharge area, but polychaetes species were more prominent in outer areas than at the discharge area. The density of macrobenthic fauna decreased with distance from the thermal discharge area during a plant shutdown in the fall of 2011, but increased, except at two sites, near the discharge area in the winter of 2012. Cluster analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of the macrobenthic community changed in areas near the nuclear power plant after a shutdown period; that is, the station group I, in areas near the nuclear power plant, became narrower after the shutdown, but it recovered to previously occupied areas after the nuclear power plant began operating again. Opportunistic species, such as the polychaetes Lumbrineris longifolia (= Scoletoma longifolia) and Mediomastus californiensis, which were present in high densities near thermal discharge areas, decreased after the shutdown but recovered after the plant re-opened. The number of species and diversity of the macrofauna and the density of dominant species showed a significant correlation with temperature, except in winter periods. The results of this study revealed that changes in the amount of thermal discharge before and after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant could exert an influence on the structure of macrobenthic community within the thermal discharge areas depending on the season.
Reviews on the Concept of Effective Control in International Legal Cases and with Regard to Dokdo
Lee, Yong Hee ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 313~322
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.313
The concept of effective control is a crucial element for the acquisition as well as maintenance of territorial title. The general meaning of the concept has been described as 'an intentional display of power and authority over the territory, by the exercise of jurisdiction and State functions, on a continuous and peaceful basis'. The concept has been developed through some significant international cases such as the Island of Palmas case (1928), Legal Status of Eastern Greenland (1933), Minquiers and Ecrehos case (1953), Burkina Faso/Mali case (1986) and Nicaragua/Colombia case (2012). In relation to Dokdo, the concept has an important bearing in regard to Korea's claims of territorial sovereignty over the island. This paper reviews the definition, components and ramifications of the effective control with regard to the acquisition and maintenance of territorial title through analyzing the relevant judgements of international courts and tribunals. Furthermore, it exams the legal ramifications of the current effective control on Dokdo and makes some suggestions for the strengthening of Korea's position on the island.
Biology of the Mud Shrimp Upogebia major (de Haan, 1841), with Particular Reference to Pest Management for Shrimp Control in Manila Clam Bed in the West Coast of Korea
Hong, Jae-Sang ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 323~349
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.323
The mud shrimp Upogebia major (Upogebiidae: Decapoda: Crustacea) is a common species on muddy and sandy mud tidal flats in the west coast of Korea. They reside in Y-shaped burrows that can extend up to more than 2 meters below the sediment surface. They feed on suspended detritus carried into their burrow by the beating of their pleopods and captured by their hairy first two pairs of thoracic legs. Mud shrimp burrows provide a habitat for a variety of small organisms such as crabs, shrimps, polychaetes, and mollusks. Ovigerous females are observed from December to May. Females deposit eggs only once per breeding season. They start hatching in March and the pelagic larvae of first zoea appear in March and April, followed by benthic settlement in May. Growth over the first year is rapid, and females deposit their first eggs in the third breeding season, 31 months after their settlement. Adult shrimps live for 4~5 years. Depth of the burrow increases with body length. The deep burrows provide refuge from predators and physical stress, allowing the shrimps to survive for a long time. The mud shrimps supply oxygen-rich water to their deep burrows, and exert a great influence on the structure and metabolism of the tidal flat benthic community. However, recently this type of mud shrimp has posed a serious threat to the Korean clam industry along the west coast of Korea. The extensive burrowing shrimp populations suddenly invaded the tidal flats from 2010 where the clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) are raised. As a consequence, clam production has decreased by about 10% over the past three years in some Korean clam beds. Therefore, the objective of this study is to review the biology of this mud shrimp in order to seek solutions to control the burrowing of these shrimps.
A Study on Establishing Infrastructure for Research Cooperation in the Tropical Pacific
Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Lee, Seung-Ryul ; Choi, Kwang-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 351~353
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.351
Until recently, Pacific equatorial tropical island states were subject of only very limited interest by scientists, government officials, industry and policy makers of Korea. And, comprehensive information and data on these island regions is not very detailed to help better understand their social backgrounds as well as their natural environment. However, these island regions are now in the middle of diplomatic tug-of-war among super powers as well as becoming nucleus of various science-based ocean issues including marine biodiversity, shifting ecosystem, global environmental change including sea level rise and ocean acidification, fisheries, etc. Therefore, rising political and scientific importance of these areas call for better understanding of these regions, in social aspects as well as natural scientific knowledge of the region. To be provocatively prepared to more actively role in these regions, "A study on Establishing Research Infrastructures in the Tropical Pacific" has been supported during 2012-2013 as a mission-oriented in-house project of the KIOST. This project aims to provide various research infrastructure for Pacific island states, to reinforce cooperation with these nations, and to enhance Korea's national prestige. This special issue contains 10 research articles based on the studies conducted in 2012~2013.
Ocean Policy of Japan: Focusing on the Relations with Pacific Island Nations
Hyun, Daesong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 355~371
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.355
The purpose of this study is to explore the history of the relationships between Japan and the Pacific Island Nations in the context of its ocean policy, and to survey the current situation. Particularly, this paper inquires into how Japan's maritime policy, nuclear policy, and official development assistance policy have affected relationships with countries in this region. Firstly, this paper gives a brief overview of the socio-political situations of Pacific Island Nations. Secondly, the history of the 'Southward Advance Theory' adopted as national policy by Japan in the Meiji era is summarized. Thirdly, how Japan successfully re-entered this region despite conflicts surrounding the nuclear issue after the Second World War is explored. Lastly, this paper investigates how official development assistance and PALM (Pacific Island Leaders Meeting) helped to develop relations between Japan and the Pacific Island Nations.
Competitive Efforts Regarding the South Pacific Islands by South Korea, Japan and China
Park, Young-June ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 373~381
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.373
The Pacific Island Forum that consists of 14 island countries in the South Pacific has long been the focus of keen attention from East Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan and China. The South Pacific area was controlled by Japan right after the First World War. The League of Nations bestowed the right of trusteeship over the region to Japan, one of the victors in the war. However, the U.S. considered the area indispensible for its security interests in the Pacific after victory in the Second World War. With the end of Cold War period, the region again began to gain the competitive attention of Japan, China and Korea. Japan has made efforts to give economic assistance to this region by holding the Japan-Pacific Islands summit every three years. In addition, Japan is promoting a security engagement with this region by dispatching Self Defense Forces with the aim of initiating construction and development projects. In response to Japan's active involvement in the region, China also began to convene a summit meeting with these countries in 2006, making pledges of economic assistance. Furthermore, Chinese civilian companies struck deals of investment with municipal institutions in the region with a view to enhancing China's influence in the region. Japan's and China's active engagement in the region has galvanized South Korea to craft a more effective strategic approach to the region.
A Study on Effectiveness of Utilizing Local R&D Centers in Science and Technology ODA Projects : Focusing on the Black Pearl Cultivation Project of the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology and Micronesia
Jang, Duckhee ; Kang, Gilmo ; Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Park, Heung-Sik ; Kim, Tae-Young ; Lim, Hyung-Baek ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 383~394
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.383
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, through case studies, the usefulness of utilizing local R&D centers under science and technology ODA programs. For the past few decades, advanced countries have supported ODA projects of developing countries, but there have been negative opinions regarding the results. Through a case study of the black pearl cultivation project between the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology and Micronesia, this study explains the usefulness of actively utilizing Korean R&D centers established and operational in recipient countries. Although black pearl cultivation is not an ODA project, the case study offers valuable insights as it is operated in a similar form and thus highly applicable to future projects. Based on the case study, four implications were derived to ensure the successful operations of science and technology ODA projects in the future. First, there is a need to improve relevance by making use of the technological capacities of local R&D institutes to develop projects that reflect the needs of recipient and donor countries. Second, trust must be established with local communities over the long term in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of project operations. Third, the proportion of science and technology ODA projects must be expanded to acquire sustainability, and more support should be granted to ODA projects involving marine resources, which are an advantage for countries of Micronesia. Lastly, the locals should be offered employment opportunities and regular training programs to allow for the actual transfer of knowledge instead of mere techniques. The implications derived in this study will prove useful in pursuing science and technology ODA projects, especially with Micronesia.
Comparison between in situ Survey and Satellite Imagery with Regard to Coastal Habitat Distribution Patterns in Weno, Micronesia
Kim, Taihun ; Choi, Young-Ung ; Choi, Jong-Kuk ; Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Park, Heung-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 395~405
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.395
The aim of this study is to suggest an optimal survey method for coastal habitat monitoring around Weno Island in Chuuk Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study was carried out to compare and analyze differences between in situ survey (PHOTS) and high spatial satellite imagery (Worldview-2) with regard to the coastal habitat distribution patterns of Weno Island. The in situ field data showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 42.4%, seagrass 26.1%, algae 14.9%, rubble 8.9%, hard coral 3.5%, soft coral 2.6%, dead coral 1.5%, others 0.1%. The satellite imagery showed the following coverage of habitat types: sand 26.5%, seagrass 23.3%, sand + seagrass 12.3%, coral 18.1%, rubble 19.0%, rock 0.8% (Accuracy 65.2%). According to the visual interpretation of the habitat map by in situ survey, seagrass, sand, coral and rubble distribution were misaligned compared with the satellite imagery. While, the satellite imagery appear to be a plausible results to identify habitat types, it could not classify habitat types under one pixel in images, which in turn overestimated coral and rubble coverage, underestimated algae and sand. The differences appear to arise primarily because of habitat classification scheme, sampling scale and remote sensing reflectance. The implication of these results is that satellite imagery analysis needs to incorporate in situ survey data to accurately identify habitat. We suggest that satellite imagery must correspond with in situ survey in habitat classification and sampling scale. Subsequently habitat sub-segmentation based on the in situ survey data should be applied to satellite imagery.
Comparison of Biomass Production of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis in Outdoor Culture Conditions Using Different Media by Urea Addition
Lee, Dae-Won ; Affan, MD Abu ; Lee, Hyeon-Yong ; Ma, Chae Woo ; Park, Heung-Sik ; Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Kang, Do-Hyung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 407~414
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.407
One of the most important challenges facing the Spirulina mass cultivation industry is to find a way to reduce the high production costs involved in production. Although the most commercial medium (Zarrouk's medium) for Spirulina cultivation is too expensive to use, it contains higher amount of
), trace metals and vitamin solutions. The purpose of this study was to increase the efficiency of Spirulina platensis biomass production by developing a low-cost culture medium at an isolated tropical island such as Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This study set out to formulate a lowcost medium for the culture of S. platensis, by substituting nutrients of Zarrouk's medium using fertilizer- grade urea and soil extract with a different concentration of carbon source under natural weather condition. In order to select a low-cost culture medium of S. platensis, 10 culture media were prepared with different concentrations of nitrogen (urea and
. The highest maximum specific growth rate (
) and mass production were 0.50
and 1.05 g
in modified medium (
, urea 2.00 g
) among all the synthesized media. Protein (56.14%) and carbohydrate (16.21%) concentrations of the lyophilized standard samples were estimated with highest concentration of glutamic acid (14.93%). This study revealed that the use of a low concentration of urea and
with soil extract was an affordable medium for natural mass cultivation in the FSM.
Distribution of Phytoplankton and Bacteria in the Environmental Transitional Zone of Tropical Mangrove Area
Choi, Dong Han ; Noh, Jae Hoon ; Ahn, Sung Min ; Lee, Charity M. ; Kim, Dongseon ; Kim, Kyung-Tae ; Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Park, Heung-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 415~425
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.415
In order to understand phytoplankton and bacterial distribution in tropical coral reef ecosystems in relation to the mangrove community, their biomass and activities were measured in the sea waters of the Chuuk and the Kosrae lagoons located in Micronesia. Chlorophyll a and bacterial abundance showed maximal values in the seawater near the mangrove forests, and then steeply decreased as the distance increased from the mangrove forests, indicating that environmental conditions for these microorganisms changed greatly in lagoon waters. Together with chlorophyll a, abundance of Synechococcus and phototrophic picoeukaryotes and a variety of indicator pigments for dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae and cryptophytes also showed similar spatial distribution patterns, suggesting that phytoplankton assemblages respond to the environmental gradient by changing community compositions. In addition, primary production and bacterial production were also highest in the bay surrounded by mangrove forest and lowest outside of the lagoon. These results suggest that mangrove waters play an important role in energy production and nutrient cycling in tropical coasts, undoubtedly receiving large inputs of organic matter from shore vegetation such as mangroves. However, the steep decrease of biomass and production of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria within a short distance from the bay to the level of oligotrophic waters indicates that the effect of mangrove waters does not extend far away.
Understanding the Nutritional Sources of Gastropods and Anomura from the Mangrove Forest of Weno Island, Micronesia
Ko, Ah-Ra ; Kim, Min-Seob ; Ju, Se-Jong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 427~439
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.427
Carbon cycling and productivity within Weno Island of Micronesia enclosed by the coral reef may be likely self-maintained and insignificantly affected by the open ocean. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of the mangrove known as providing the organic matter and habitats for many organisms in this enclosed area. In order to trace the nutritional source of fauna (mostly invertebrates) in the mangrove forest of Weno island, we analyzed the fatty acid (FA) and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of potential nutritional sources (mangrove leaf & pneumatophore, seagrass leaf & root, surface sediment, and particulate organic matter (POM) in water) and consumers (4 gastropods and anomura). The mangrove and seagrass contained the abundance of 18:2
6, and 18:3
3, whereas FAs associated with phytoplankton and bacteria were accounted for a high proportion in the surface sediment and POM. FA composition of consumers was found to be similar to those of the surface sediment, mangrove, and seagrass. These were also confirmed through the mixing model of stable isotope for contribution of nutritional sources to consumers. Overall results with the feeding types of investigated mangrove fauna indicate that investigated mangrove fauna obtained their nutrition from the various sources, i.e. the mangrove for Littorina cf. scabra, the microalgae for Strombus sp., and omnivorous Pagurus sp. and Terebralia cf. palustris. However, it is obvious that the nutrition of most species living in the mangrove ecosystem is highly dependent on the mangrove, either directly or indirectly. More detail food-web structure and function of the mangrove ecosystem would be established with the analysis of additional fauna and flora.
Species Composition of Fish from Sea Grass Bed in Chuuk Lagoon, Micronesia
Choi, Young-Ung ; Yoon, Kon-Tak ; Lee, Dae-Won ; Kim, Taihun ; Kim, Yoonchil ; Park, Heung-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 441~452
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.441
The fish species composition of seagrass bed in Chuuk Lagoon, Micronesia, was investigated every month from August 2009 to July 2011, using a seine net for fish caught. A total of 32 fish species belonging to 18 families under 6 orders were identified during the study period. Of these fish, Atherinomrus lacunosus, and Strongylura incise were the major dominant species representing 85.0% in total number of individuals. The number of species and individuals were high from August to December 2009, 2010. The biomass was highest in September 2010 and the diversity index was higher in September 2009, April, August 2010 and July 2011. The 14 dominant species could be divided into 2 groups of 3 individuals based on appearance patterns; (1) resident species and temporal species (9 species, e.g. Atherinomrus lacunosus), juvenile and adults living in seagrass beds and juveniles living only in seagrass beds; (2) temporal species (2 species, e.g. Hemiramphus lutkei), juveniles living only in seagrass beds; (3) temporal species (3 individuals, e.g. Caranx sexfasiatus). For some species, the appearance patterns were affected by water temperature. However, the relationships between sea currents, salinity, tide, and structure of fish assemblage remain unclear. Further studies that regularly monitor sea grass habitats are necessary to clearly understand the correlation between environmental factors and sea grass habitat use patterns in fish assemblages.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Mangrove Sediments of Chuuk and Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia
Ra, Kongtae ; Lee, Charity M. ; Noh, Jae-Hoon ; Park, Heung-Sik ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Kim, Kyung-Tae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 453~464
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.453
Heavy metals in the mangrove sediments of Chuuk and Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia were analyzed to examine the pollution levels of heavy metals using enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI). The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in surface mangrove sediments were 642, 125, 46.9, 149, 15.6, 0.14 and 8.55
, respectively. Kosrae mangrove sediments showed the highest concentrations of Cr and Ni while Chuuk contains more of other metals such as Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. Compared to those from other mangrove regions of the world, Cr, Ni and As levels in mangrove sediments from Micronesia were at higher levels whereas Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were at lower to median levels. In core sediment of Chuuk, metal concentrations in the upper part were higher than those in the lower part. Based on the EF and PLI values, As is evaluated as the heaviest contaminant in the surface sediment from Micronesia whilst other metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) are present at slightly lesser levels.
List of References for South Pacific Region Studies
Park, Byong-Kwon ; Kwon, Moon Sang ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2013, Pages 465~489
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2013.35.4.465
We collected references on South Pacific Studies from several resources: mainly internet resources and periodicals. Internet resources include associations, organizations and societies; cultural resources; environmental issues; government data; information resources; journals and news letters; libraries, archives, publishers; news sources; other sources; regional issues; selected full text documents and digital resources; and statistics. Periodicals include news and popular interest magazines; regional magazines and general interest publications; and scholarly and professional journals.