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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume 36, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Recent Morphological Changes off the Shoreface of Jinwoodo and Sinjado in the Nakdong River Estuary: 2007-2012
Park, Jinku ; Khim, Boo-Keun ; Lee, Hee Jun ; Lee, Sang Ryong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 87~101
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.087
Recently, more attention has been paid to the geomorphological changes in the Nakdong River Estuary, because those changes are caused by artificial activities including weirs, reclamation and construction. In order to analyze quantitatively the recent geomorphological variability in the Nakdong River Estuary, we surveyed the depth and elevation of submarine topography near Jinwoodo and Sinjado from March 2007 to February 2012. A statistical method (based on Digital Shoreline Analysis System) and an Empirical Orthogonal Functions method were used to evaluate the morphological changes. According to the statistical variables (DCE, NDC, EPR, LRR), the highest amount and rate of accumulation were recorded around the Gadeokdo whereas the greatest amount of erosion appeared around the coast off the eastern part of Sinjado. In particular, a dynamic variation of morphology was clearly observed in the vicinity of the sub-tidal channel located between Jinwoodo and Sinjado, which seems to be attributable to channel migration. As a result of the EOF method, the first mode (48.7%) is most closely related to the pattern of morphological variability that might be associated with the westerly movement of sediment by longshore current. The spatial variability of the second mode (16.6%) was high in the shoreface of Sinjado, showing a 4-year periodicity of temporal variability. The strong correlation (coefficient 0.73) between the time coefficient and suspended sediment discharge from Nakdong River emphasizes the role of sediment discharge to deposition in this area. The spatial variability of the third mode (11.3%) was distributed mainly around the coast off the eastern part of Sinjado, which is related to the movement of the coastline of Sinjado. Based on the last 5 year`s data, our results suggest that the study area is characterized on the whole by a depositional pattern, but the extent of sedimentation is different locally.
Wind-driven Current in the East Sea Observed from Mini-met Drifters
Lee, Dong-Kyu ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 103~110
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.103
A wind-driven current in the East Sea from Lagrangian measurements of wind and current at 15 m using MiniMet drifters was analyzed. Spectral analysis of the current from 217 pieces of a 10 day-long time series shows the dominant energy at the inertial frequency for the current at 15 m. Wind has energy peaks at a 0.2-0.5 cycles per day (cpd) frequency band. The power spectrum of the clockwise rotating component is predominant for the current and was 1.5-2 times larger than the anticlockwise rotating component for wind. Co-spectra between the wind and current show two peak frequency bands at subinertial frequency and 0.5-0.3 cpd. Coherences between the wind and current at those peak frequencies are significant with 95% confidence and phase differences were
. From the phase differences, the efolding depth is estimated as 17 m and this e-folding depth is smaller than the estimation by Chereskin`s (1999) 25 m using a moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler and an anemometer installed at the surface buoy. The angle between the wind-driven current (or ageostrophic current) and wind from this study was also much larger than the global estimate by Rio and Hernandez (2003) using reanalysis wind and drifters. The possible explanation for the discrepancy comes from the fact that the current is driven by a wind of smaller length scale than 250 km but the satellite or the reanalysis products do not resolve winds of length scale smaller than 250 km. Large rms differences between Mini-Met and QuickSCAT wind on spatial lags smaller than 175 km substantiate this explanation.
Spatial and Temporal Variation of Dissolved Inorganic Radiocarbon in the East Sea
Sim, Bo-Ram ; Kang, Dong-Jin ; Park, Young Gyu ; Kim, Kyung-Ryul ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 111~119
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.111
This study examined the spatial and temporal variation of dissolved inorganic radiocarbon in the East Sea. Five vertical profiles of radiocarbon values were obtained from samples collected in 1999 in three basins (Japan Basin, Ulleung Basin, Yamato Basin) of the East Sea. Radiocarbon values decreased from 63- 85‰ at the surface to about -50‰ with increasing depth (up to 2,000 m) and were nearly constant in the layer deeper than 2,000 m in all basins. Radiocarbon values did not show significant basin-to-basin differences in the surface and the bottom layers. In the intermediate layer (200-2,000 m), however, they decreased in the order of Japan Basin > Ulleung Basin > Yamato Basin, which is consistent with the suggested circulation pattern in the intermediate layer of the East Sea. Radiocarbon was found to have decreased at ~2%/year in the surface water of the East Sea. In contrast, in the interior of the East Sea, radiocarbon values have increased with time in all three basins. In the Central Water, the annual increase rate was about 3.3‰, which is faster than the rates in the Deep and Bottom Waters. The radiocarbon in the Deep and Bottom Waters had increased until mid-1990s, after which time it has been almost constant.
Histopathologic Observation of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) During a Spawning Season
Jeung, Hee-Do ; Lee, Jee-Yeon ; Limpanont, Yanin ; Park, Kyung-Il ; Kang, Hyun-Sil ; Kim, Chul-Won ; Kim, Hyung-Seop ; Choi, Kwang-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 121~134
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.121
Sessile marine bivalves including mussels, oysters and clams are often used as a sentinel species in coastal environmental monitoring since changes in the environmental quality are often well preserved in their tissues and shells. In this study, we investigated overall health condition of the Mediterranean Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis on the south coast using histology. Reproductive condition as gonad index (GI), condition index (CI) as a ratio of the tissue weight to the shell weight, digestive gland atrophy (DGA), types of parasites, and pathologic conditions including erosion, necrosis, hemocyte infiltration, and neoplasia were examined from each histological preparation. GI decreased from March to July then increased from July to September and spawning mussel could be observed as early as in April and the activity continued until September. CI also followed the monthly changes in GI, indicating that decrease in CI was associated with the weight loss due to spawning. DGA increased from March to June, decreased in July and increased from July to September. High DGA values observed in June and September were coincided with spawning and high water temperature. Histology also showed high prevalence of erosion in the digestive gland in June (36.0%) and September (56.4%), suggesting that high water temperature and spawning acted as environmental stressors. No parasitic organism was identified during the survey, although some symbiotic copepods were observed. Histology was found to be useful and affordable technique in monitoring the overall health of mussel, providing useful pathologic information of the cells and tissues.
Effect of Salinity on Survival, Oxygen Consumption and Blood Physiology of Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii
Oh, Sung-Yong ; Kim, Chong-Kwan ; Jang, Yo-Soon ; Choi, Hee-Jung ; Myoung, Jung-Goo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 135~143
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.135
The effect of salinity on the survival, oxygen consumption and blood physiology of Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii (body weight
) was investigated at nine different salinities of 33.4 (control), 33.1, 32.8, 32.2, 31.0, 28.7, 23.9, 14.5 and 3.8 psu, respectively. Survival and blood physiology were measured at each salinity in two separate trials of 96 and 24 hr duration, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was determined at stepwise salinity exposure (
psu) with an interval of 24 hr for each salinity. No death of fishes were observed in the range of 33.4 to 14.5 psu, but the survival rate was reduced to 26.7% at 3.8 psu after 96 hr. The OCRs were not significantly different in the range 33.4 to 28.7 psu (p > 0.05), but significantly increased until 14.5 psu and then drastically decreased at 3.8 psu compared to the control (p < 0.05). The concentrations of plasma
were significantly lower in fish exposed at 3.8 psu compared to the control (p < 0.05). The results of this study provide evidence that S. schlegelii exposed to concentrations below 23.9 psu show significant physiological responses to tolerate salinity changes under the experimental conditions we established.
Comparison of Recruitment and Growth Patterns of Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) between a Natural Rocky Shore and Farming Substrate Within an Oil Spill Contaminated Area of Korea
Lee, Hye-Mi ; Yoon, Kon-Tak ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 145~156
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.145
Macrobenthic biodiversity in the rocky intertidal areas of the Tae-an region, Republic of Korea, has decreased since the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007. We aimed to investigate ecological roles of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) because recruitment and growth of oysters are critical to the recovery of damaged rocky shore ecosystem. We surveyed two sites monthly: natural rocky substrate and farming substrate, from July 2012 to January 2013 to identify and compare the changes in macrobenthic fauna. The abundance of young oysters was higher at the natural site. On the other hand, the mean height of oyster on the farming substrate was more than twice as great. The abundance of oyster at the natural site increased until October and then continuously decreased until end of study period. However, the abundance of oyster at the farming site constantly decreased from the beginning of study period. These different growth patterns might be attributable to spatial competition between oyster and a barnacle species (Balanus albicostatus) and environmental factors. At the natural site, physical stress factors including dramatic temperature changes and desiccation a few of the major factors limiting growth during aerial exposure. In addition, motile macrobenthos could be detrimental to oysters because they interrupt filter-feeding activities and hence hamper the growth of oysters. We show the higher recruitment of oysters at the natural site and healthy growth in the farming substrate are due to complicated differences in physical and biological stress factors.
The Economic Feasibility Analysis of Grow out Phase Production of Oyster Farming by Rising Water Temperature
Choi, Jong Du ; Choi, Young Jun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 157~163
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.157
This study analysed the economic feasibility per hectare of grow out phase production of Oyster farming by rising water temperature in Ocean. Elevated Water temperature by climate change had a bad influence for oyster production and economic feasibility. In the case of production units, the total output of oyster decreases from 213,840 to 205,594 units. Using cost-benefit analysis with discounting rates (5.5%), we estimated the net present value (NPV) and benefit cost ratio (BCR) until 2100 years. The model results showed that the NPV without water temperature rise was 1,565,619,893 won and the NPV with water temperature rise was 1,540,493,059 won. Also, BCR estimated that the former was 2.095 better than the latter was 2.077. To summarise, the economic effect per hectare of water temperature rise in ocean did the damage to the economic loss about 25,126,834 won.
Variability of the Coastal Current off Uljin in Summer 2006
Lee, Jae Chul ; Chang, Kyung-Il ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 165~177
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.165
In an effort to investigate the structure and variability of the coastal current in the East Sea, a moored ADCP observation was conducted off Uljin from late May to mid-October 2006. Owing to the transition of season from summer to autumn, the features of the current and wind can be divided into two parts. Until mid-August (Part-I), a southward flow is dominant at all depths with a mean alongshore velocity of 4.2~8.9 cm/s but northward winds are not strong enough to reverse the near-surface current. During Part-II, a strong northward current occurs frequently in the upper layer but winds are predominantly southward including two typhoons that have deep-reaching influence. Profile of mean velocity has three layers with a northward velocity embedded at 12~28 m depth. The near-surface current of Part-II significantly coheres with winds at 4-8 day periods with a phase lag of about 12 hours. The modal structure of the current obtained by EOF analysis is: (1) Mode-1, having 83.6% of total variance, represents the current in the same direction at all depths corresponding to the southward North Korean Cold Current (NKCC). (2) Mode-2 (11.7%) reveals a two-layer structure that can be explained by the northward East Korean Warm Current (EKWC) in the upper layer and NKCC in the lower. (3) Mode-3 (2.6%) has three layers, in which the EKWC is reversed near the surface by opposing winds. This mode is particularly similar to the mean velocity profile of Part-II.
Comparison of CTD Cast and CTD Tow-yo Methods for Detecting Hydrothermal Plume
Son, Juwon ; Joo, Jongmin ; Ham, Dong Jin ; Yang, Seungjin ; Kim, Jonguk ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 179~187
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.179
Directly searching for undiscovered hydrothermal vent sites is inefficient due to the practical difficulty of comprehensively imaging vent fields. Thus, most searches for hydrothermal vent sites rely on the detection of hydrothermal plumes from water column observation. Detecting and measuring the hydrothermal plumes are the most efficient way to infer the presence and distribution of hydrothermal vents. Both the array of vertical casting and lateral towing are the most common methods to discover hydrothermal plumes. In this study, we compared results of cast and tow-yo operations along the same section of a spreading center with a distance of 20.5 km in the North Fiji Basin for mapping hydrothermal plumes. Operation of CTD tow-yo provides a detailed pattern of plumes which enable us to locate the hydrothermal vents. On the other hand, identification of hydrothermal activity can be determined effectively by CTD cast with additional analysis of geochemical tracers. Reduction in the operating time is another advantage of CTD cast operation, especially for regional-scale survey. Our results show that the combination of CTD cast and tow-yo would improve the efficiency of the hydrothermal plume survey to locate new hydrothermal vent sites.
Morphological and Genetic Characteristics of Pearl-spot Damselfish Chromis notata (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) in Coastal Waters of East Sea (Sea of Japan) and Jejudo
Shin, Hye Jeong ; Kim, Sun Wook ; Choi, Young-Ung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 189~197
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.189
The pearl-spot damsel, Chromis notata, is one of the important fishery species in Korea. While C. notata has been commonly harvested in southern Korea, the increasing number of C. notata in higher latitudes has crucial ecological, economic and evolutionary implications under conditions where the climate is rapidly changing. Here we examined the morphological and genetic characteristics of C. notata to assess patterns of geographical variations among the groups from three different sites. The groups were clearly distinguishable in the analysis of morphological characteristics. On the other hand, the groups were genetically indistinguishable. All individuals fell within a single clade in the neighbor-joining tree but appeared scattered in the haplotype network. Several haplotypes are shared among the sampling sites (Jejudo-Ulleungdo; Hap 9, Wangdolcho-Ulleungdo; Hap 28, Hap 33, Hap 34). Although control region markers did not elucidate the spatial patterns in genetic characteristics, Wangdolcho and Ulleungdo groups appear to exhibit a more robust gene flow between the two groups than with Jejudo group. Integrative approaches such as those combining morphological and genetic analyses minimize potential errors caused by limited perspectives of each analysis and can provide useful information for discovering functional DNA regions attributable to morphological characteristics expressions.
Selection of Copepods as Live Food for Marine Fish Larvae Based on Their Size, Fecundity, and Nutritional Value
Yang, Sung Jin ; Hur, Sung Bum ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 36, issue 2, 2014, Pages 199~208
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2014.36.2.199
Copepods are a major food source for marine fish larvae in nature. Many studies on copepods culture have been conducted to develop a new live food for the seedling production of marine fish larvae. But fish farmers still depend on rotifer and Artemia nauplii. This study was carried out to find suitable copepods as live food for the larvae in hatchery. Eight species of copepods (1 calanoid, 2 cyclpoid, 5 harpacticoid) that were fed Isochrysis galbana were examined in terms of the size of nauplii, fecundity, amino acids, and fatty acids contents. These species were divided into small (nauplii length 46-86
) and large (nauplii length 120-188
) size group. Nitokra spinipes in the small group and Tigriopus japonicus in the large group showed the highest fecundity with 151.1 and 139.6 nauplii production per gravid female, respectively. With regard to nutrients, essential amino acids were the highest with 21.2% in cyclopoid Paracyclopina nana in the small group and n-3 HUFA were the highest in calanoid Pseudodiaptomus inopinus (8.5
) in the large group and P. nana (8.8
). In terms of the size, fecundity, and nutritional value of copepods examined in this study, N. spinipes and P. nana seem to be suitable copepod species to develop as a new live food for small mouth fish larvae.