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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Analytical Rapid Prediction of Tsunami Run-up Heights: Application to 2010 Chilean Tsunami
Choi, Byung Ho ; Kim, Kyeong Ok ; Yuk, Jin-Hee ; Kaistrenko, Victor ; Pelinovsky, Efim ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.001
An approach based on the combined use of a 2D shallow water model and analytical 1D long wave run-up theory is proposed which facilitates the forecasting of tsunami run-up heights in a more rapid way, compared with the statistical or empirical run-up ratio method or resorting to complicated coastal inundation models. Its application is advantageous for long-term tsunami predictions based on the modeling of many prognostic tsunami scenarios. The modeling of the Chilean tsunami on February 27, 2010 has been performed, and the estimations of run-up heights are found to be in good agreement with available observations.
Remote Sensing of Nearshore Currents using Coastal Optical Imagery
Yoo, Jeseon ; Kim, Sun-Sin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 11~22
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.011
In-situ measurements are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and limited in their ability to observe currents with spatial variations in the surf zone. This paper proposes an optical image-based method of measurement of currents in the surf zone. This method measures nearshore currents by tracking in time wave breaking-induced foam patches from sequential images. Foam patches in images tend to be arrayed with irregular pixel intensity values, which are likely to remain consistent for a short period of time. This irregular intensity feature of a foam patch is characterized and represented as a keypoint using an image-based object recognition method, i.e., Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The keypoints identified by the SIFT method are traced from time sequential images to produce instantaneous velocity fields. In order to remove erroneous velocities, the instantaneous velocity fields are filtered by binding them within upper and lower limits, and averaging the velocity data in time and space with a certain interval. The measurements that are obtained by this method are comparable to the results estimated by an existing image-based method of observing currents, named the Optical Current Meter (OCM).
Biogenic Opal Production and Paleoclimate Change in the Wilkes Land Continental Rise (East Antarctica) during the Mid-to-late Miocene (IODP Exp 318 Site U1359)
Song, Buhan ; Khim, Boo-Keun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 23~35
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.023
A 450 m-long sediment section was recovered from Hole U1359D located at the eastern levee of the Jussieau submarine channel on the Wilkes Land continental rise (East Antarctica) during IODP Expedition 318. The age model for Hole U1359D was established by paleomagnetic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, and the ages of core-top and core-bottom were estimated to be about 5 Ma and 13 Ma, respectively. Biogenic opal content during this period varied between 3% and 60%. In the Southern Ocean, high biogenic opal content generally represents warm climate characterized by the increased light availability due to the decrease of sea-ice distribution. The surface water productivity change in terms of biogenic opal content at about 10.2 Ma in the Wilkes Land continental rise was related to the development of Northern Component Water. After about 10.2 Ma, more production of Northern Component Water in the North Atlantic caused to increase heat transport to the Southern Ocean, resulting in the enhanced diatom production. Miocene isotope events (Mi4~Mi7), which are intermittent cooling intervals during the Miocene, appeared to be correlated to the low biogenic opal contents, but further refinement was required for precise correlation. Biogenic opal content decreased abruptly during 6 Ma to 5.5 Ma, which most likely corresponds to the Messinian salinity crisis. Short-term variation of biogenic opal content was related to the extent of sea-ice distribution associated with the location of Antarctic Polar Front that was controlled by glacial-interglacial paleoclimate change, although more precise dating and correlation will be necessary. Diatom production in the Wilkes Land continental rise increased during the interglacial periods because of the reduced sea-ice distribution and the southward movement of Antarctic Polar Front.
Low Salinity Effects on the Fertilization and Settlement of Post Veliger Larvae in the Limpet Cellana grata
Yoon, Sung-Jin ; Jeong, Joo Hak ; Kim, Yun-Bae ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 37~47
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.037
The effects of low salinity (fertilization success and larval survival) on the limpet Cellana grata were studied at early stages of development using the marine bioassay technique. It was shown that, under normal conditions for development from fertilization to the post veliger stage, the salinity must be not less than 20.0~35.0 psu. However, the fertilization rate and larval survival of C. grata was obviously reduced at 5.0 psu and 10.0 psu, respectively. Mass mortality was estimated to occur at <20.0 psu (48-h
) and the survival rate of normal veliger larvae decreased with experimental time during exposure. No observed effective concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of post veliger were estimated at 30.0 psu and 25.0 psu, respectively, during 48-h exposure. The tolerance limits of the test species to salinity revealed various concentration ranges of salinity, which may reflect the physiology and ecology of the initial development stages of C. grata. These results demonstrate that reduced salinity is detrimental to the reproductive success and larval survival of C. grata, and if salinity is lowered by natural or anthropogenic sources during spawning, this would lead to decreased reproductive success and larval settlement.
Spatial Variation in the Reproductive Effort of Mania Clam Ruditapes philippinarum during Spawning and Effects of the Protozoan Parasite Perkinsus olseni Infection on the Reproductive Effort
Kang, Hyun-Sil ; Hong, Hyun-Ki ; Yang, Hyun-Sung ; Park, Kyung-Il ; Lee, Taek-Kyun ; Kim, Young-Ok ; Choi, Kwang-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 49~59
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.049
Spatial variation in the reproductive effort of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is often closely associated with variation in the seawater temperature and food availability, which determines gonad maturity and the quantity of gamates produced during spawning. Previous studies also have reported that severe infection by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni exerts a negative impact on clam reproduction, retarding gonad maturation or decreasing the reproductive effort. In the present study, we investigated impacts of P. olseni infection on the reproductive condition of Manila clam during a spawning season. Histology revealed that 54% of female clams in Wando off the south coast were in spawning, while only 10% of the female from Gomso and 0% of the female from Seonjaedo in Gyeonggi bay off the west coast were engaged in spawning at the end of May in 2004. Ray's fluid thioglycollate media (RFTM) assay was applied to assess P. olseni infection and indicated that the infection intensity in Wando (
wet tissue) was significantly higher than the levels in Gomso (
wet tissue) and Seonjaedo (
wet tissue, p < 0.001). The size of the ripe female follicle determined from histology was significantly smaller in Wando (
) compared to the sizes in Gomso (
) and Seonjaedo (
, p < 0.05). Accordingly, the number of ripe eggs in the follicle was significantly fewer among clams in Wando (14) compared to the numbers determined in Gomso (23) and Seonjaedo (22). The absolute quantity of egg in ripe clams from Wando (31.01 mg) was also significantly smaller than Seonjaedo (61.79 mg) and Gomso (133.3 mg). Quantity of total protein, carbohydrate, and lipid in the tissue in the Wando samples was significantly smaller than the quantities determined in Gomso and Seonjaedo (p < 0.001). The observed poor reproductive condition and proximate tissue composition of the females in Wando were, in part, explained by the extremely high level of the parasites, sapping the ability to store energy in the host tissues, which is used in tissue growth and the egg production.
Growth and Nutritional Composition of Eustigmatophyceae Monodus subterraneus and Nannochloropsis oceanica in Autotrophic and Mixotrophic Culture
Jo, Min Jin ; Hur, Sung Bum ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 61~71
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.061
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) produced from marine organisms is widely used in nutraceuticals. Monodus subterraneus and Nannochloropsis oceanica, which are representative freshwater and marine Eustigmatophyceae, respectively, are known to have a high content of protein and lipid, particularly, EPA. In this study, to compare the growth and nutritional composition of M. subterraneus and N. oceanica, they were cultured in autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions with JM and f/2 medium, respectively, at
. In addition,
with 24-hour and 12-hour light was provided, with the addition of 2% glucose to the medium for the mixotrophic culture. With regard to growth, M. subterraneus showed 10 times higher biomass in a mixotrophic culture than in an autotrophic one. However, no significant difference was observed for N. oceanica between the two culture methods. With respect to nutritional composition, M. subterraneus cultured autotrophically had a higher protein and lipid content, particularly EPA, than that cultured mixotrophically, but no significant difference was found in the two cultures of N. oceanica. Furthermore, M. subterraneus cultured autotrophically with continuous light showed higher nutritional composition, particularly EPA, than N. oceanica. In conclusion, the mass culture of freshwater M. subterraneus is much easier and more economical than marine N. oceanica. In addition, production of EPA will be economically improved if mixotrophic culturing of M. subterraneus is first conducted to maximize the biomass, and then secondary autotrophic culturing is performed.
Experimental Study on Compressibility Modulus of Pressure Compensation Oil for Underwater Vehicle
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Yoon, Suk-Min ; Hong, Sup ; Min, Cheon-Hong ; Sung, Ki-Young ; Yeu, Tae-Kyeong ; Choi, Hyuek-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Guk ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.073
In order to determine the appropriate volume of the a pressure compensator of deep seabed mining robots, this paper reports on an experimental test for oil volume change in an oil-filled box. At the design stage of underwater robots, it is crucial to determine the capacity of the hydraulic compensator which is replenished as much as the contracted oil volume of the robots. A pilot mining robot, MienRo was designed to work under 6,000 m in the deep sea. The hydraulic actuating oil and pressure compensating oil of MineRo may be exposed at a hydrostatic pressure environment of 600 bar. Although the oil can be assumed to be incompressible, its volume is actually changed under high pressure conditions due to air contained in the oil and oil contraction. To determine the capacity of the pressure compensator, the oil contraction rate should be verified through an experimental test using a hyperbaric chamber.
The Scope of Potential Duties for Environment Protection in the Regulation on the Exploitation for Polymetalic Nodules in the Area
Kim, Jung-Eun ; Park, Seong-Wook ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2015, Pages 81~90
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.1.081
International Seabed Authority (ISA) is currently developing rules with regard to exploitation of manganese nodules which will be contained in its first regulations governing the exploitation of deep seabed mineral resources. A stakeholder survey was conducted in the early 2014 by ISA with the aim of facilitating participation of interested entities in the development process of the rules. The stakeholders who had replied to the survey included existing contractors, sponsoring States, environmentalists, academics, and nongovernmental organizations. Opinions given by them largely reflect their own interests. This paper aims to clarify the scope of the obligations regarding the environmental protection which may be imposed on contractors under the new regulations for the exploitation of manganese nodules. To do so, it first analyses the express provisions on environmental protection applicable to deep seabed mining included in the Law of the Sea Convention, its agreement on implementation of Part XI, and the regulations on exploration for manganese nodules. Secondly, it categorizes these obligations based on the categories of international obligations suggested by Combacau and Alland. Based on the categorizations this paper concludes that, in addition to the existing duties to protect deep seabed environment within the Law of the Sea Convention system, the following new obligations could be added: conservation of exploitation sites for a limited time after the contract is ceased; taking all necessary measures for rehabilitation of destroyed ecosystems that occurredas a result of mining activities; monitoring exploitation sites for a limited period time after the contract is ceased; observing rules and standards on safety of ships and environmental protection adopted under IMO instruments; regulation on the discharge of mine tailings from the facilities used for exploitation of deep sea minerals. Lastly, this paper attempts to provide ways of reflecting national interests in terms of potential obligations which may be included in the new regulations.