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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Data Standardization for Research Ocean-Data Management and Standard Proposal of Physical Oceanographic Data
Kim, Sung-Dae ; Choi, Sang-Hwa ; Park, Jun-Yong ; Pa, Soo-Young ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 249~263
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.249
Standardization work for the ocean data produced by a variety of national oceanographic research projects was conducted in order to establish a national ocean data sharing system. For this work, we first prepared standard proposals for the national research ocean data by reviewing and analyzing of existing international and domestic ocean-data standards. The proposed standards were reviewed and revised by experts in the field of oceanography and academic societies for documentation. The 125-page technical report on the standards of 25 data items was prepared as an output of this research work, which is available free of charge for the public and interested parties. This paper explains the proposed standards of metadata and codes regarding the common properties of all the oceanographic data items. Especially, the standards for the metadata, codes and data formats of 4 physical data items were described in detail. In order to be adopted as the national standards for ocean data, however, the standards suggested here require further development and/or modification based on additional reviews of and ample feedbacks from the relevant academic and technical communities.
Evaluation of North Pacific Intermediate Water Simulated by HadGEM2-AO
Min, Hong Sik ; Yim, Bo Young ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 265~278
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.265
We analyzed the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) that was simulated in 25 coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) using historical and Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario experiments of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), focusing on the evaluation of the performance of HadGEM2-AO. A large inter-model diversity in salinity, density, and depth of the NPIW exists even though the multi-model ensemble mean (MME) is comparable to observations. It was found that the depth of the NPIW tends to be deeper in the models in which the NPIW is relatively saltier. HadGEM2-AO simulates the lightest NPIW having the lowest salinity at shallower depth, compared with other CGCMs. Future projections of the NPIW show that the temperature of the NPIW increases, but the density decreases in all CMIP5 models. It was shown that the salinity of the NPIW decreases in most models and the decrease tends to be larger in models simulating the lighter NPIW. The HadGEM2-AO projects moderate changes in the temperature and density of the NPIW out of the CMIP5 models.
Inhibitory Effect of Crude Extracts from a Brown Alga Sargassum siliquanstrum on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation
Kong, Chang-Suk ; Lee, Jung Im ; Kwon, Myeong Sook ; Seo, Youngwan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 279~285
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.279
In this study, the potential capacity of the crude extract and its solvent fractions from S. siliquanstrum against adipocyte differentiation were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The anti-adipogenic effect of S. siliquanstrum was evidenced by the fact that its crude extract decreases the lipid accumulation of differentiating cells and the expression levels of crucial adipogenesis markers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein
. All solvent fractions except the water fraction showed an observable decrease in lipid accumulation and
expressions. In conclusion, these results suggest that S. siliquanstrum possesses obesity inhibiting components, which may possibly be used as a valuable anti-obesity agent for reducing the risk of obesity.
First Record of Rhopilema esculentum (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomae), Edible Jellyfish in Korea
Ullah, Mohammad Saeed ; Min, Gi-Sik ; Dong, Jing ; Yoon, Won Duk ; Choi, Joong Ki ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 287~293
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.287
A species of edible Scyphomedusae jellyfish has been used as food by the local people in Ganghwado, Korea since the 1990s. In order to identify this jellyfish, we collected specimens in Ganghwado during September 2013, and compared these specimens with original descriptions made by Kishinouye (1890). Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) sequences of these specimens were compared with those of Rhopilema esculentum retrieved from GenBank. Our specimens were also compared with jellyfish collected in China, previously confirmed as R. esculentum, based on morphological characters and DNA sequences. Using these two methods, the jellyfish specimens caught in Ganghwado were correctly identified as R. esculentum, a species new to Korean waters. This edible jellyfish has been named 'Gisusik-Yonghaepari' as Korean name.
Spatio-temporal Distribution of Macrobenthic Communities in Jinhae Bay, Korea
Seo, Jin-Young ; Lim, Hyun-Sig ; Choi, Jin-Woo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 295~315
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.295
In order to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of macrobenthic faunal communities in Jinhae Bay, quantitative faunal samples were collected seasonally at 23 sites in Jinhae Bay from February, 2011 to November, 2012. Sediment facies were found to be mud except for those at Chilcheon-do near Geoje Island. Mean values of TOC (%) ranged between 1.3 and 3.6%, and these are the highest values recorded excluding special management areas in Korea. Hypoxia occurred every summer in the whole areas of Jinhae Bay except around Geoje Island in the bay mouth. Due to the summer hypoxia, species richness, density and biomass also declined during the summer in Jinhae Bay. Opportunistic species such as Paraprionospio patiens, Sigambra bassi, Nectoneanthes oxypoda and Theora fragilis occurred as the dominant species before and after the hypoxia. However, Capitella capitata appeared as a dominant species only during the winter-spring season every year. From cluster analysis, Jinhae Bay could be divided into two sites groups: one group occupied the normoxic zone and the other one located in the hypoxic zone.
Ecological Status Evaluation using Seaweed Community Structures of Taean Coastal Areas in Korea
Na, Yeon Ju ; Kim, Ju-Hee ; Kwon, Chun Jung ; Choi, Han Gil ; Nam, Ki Wan ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 317~325
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.317
To evaluate the relative ecological quality of Taean coastal areas in terms of various seaweed community indices, seasonal samplings were taken at the Hakampo, Padori, Chaeseokpo, Mongsanpo and Bangpo shores from March 2006 to January 2007. A total of 105 species were identified; species richness ranged from 37~72 species spatially and from 65~75 species seasonally over the study period. Coarsely-branched seaweeds were dominant in functional group and ESG I (ecological state group I) made up 61 species (58.10%) of the identified macroalgae. The average seaweed biomass at the five study sites was
(range, 36.66 at Hakampo
at Mongsanpo). Seaweeds were generally abundant in mid and low intertidal zone. Corallina pilulifera, Ulva australis, Sargassum thunbergii, Neorhodomela aculeata, and Symphyocladia latiuscula were the dominant species across all five study sites. Species diversity was between 1.24~2.30, while species evenness was between 0.40 and 0.61. The dominance index ranged from 0.43 at Padori to 0.64 at Mongsanpo. Given the community indices and shore descriptions, the five study sites were divided into two groups based on ecological quality: moderate (Chaeseokpo and Mongsanpo) and good (Hakampo, Padori and Bangpo).
A Study on Isotopic Fractionation between Ice and Meltwater by a Melting Experiment
Lee, Jeonghoon ; Ham, Ji-Young ; Hur, Soon Do ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 327~332
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.327
Isotopic compositions of ice and meltwater play a very crucial role in paleoclimate studies based on ice cores and water resources research conducted in alpine hydrogeology. Better understanding of variations in the stable isotopic compositions of water is required since changes from ice to liquid water are gaining more attention due to recent climate change. In this work, a melting experiment was designed and conducted to investigate how the isotopic compositions of ice vary with time by heat sources, such as solar radiation. We conducted the melting experiment for 22 hours. The discharge rate rose to a maximum value after 258 minutes and gradually declined because we fixed the heat source. The isotopic compositions of meltwater increased linearly or to a second degree polynomial. The linear relationship between oxygen and hydrogen has a slope of 6.8, which is less than that of the Global Meteoric Water Line (8) and higher than a theoretical value (6.3). The deuterium excess decreased when
increases or vise versa since the slope of the relationship for ice-liquid exchange is less than 8. These findings and the apparatus of the melting experiments will make a helpful contribution to the studies of stable isotopes and the melting process in temperate and polar regions.
Physical Parameter Measurement and Theoretical Target Strength Estimation of Juvenile Cod (Gadus macrocephalus)
Husni, Iqbal Ali ; Hwang, Bo-Kyu ; Shin, Hyeon-Ok ; Kim, Min-Son ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 333~340
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.333
The contrast (fish body to medium ratio) of density and sound speed were measured to estimate acoustic scattering from small juvenile cod (Gadus macrocephalus) with the Kirchhoff-Ray Mode backscatter model. The density contrast was measured by the density-bottle method and the sound speed contrast was estimated by the time of flight method. The results revealed that the measured density contrasts of juvenile cod varied between 1.003 and 1.029 (mean = 1.014, S.D. = 0.01). On the other hand, sound speed contrasts varied between 1.039 and 1.041 (mean = 1.041, S.D. = 0.001). The relationship between averaged target strength (TS) and total length (TL) established by the model were <
> = 20log(TL) - 68.8 and <
> = 20log(TL) - 69.4, respectively.
Limitations of National Responsibility and its Application on Marine Environmental Pollution beyond Borders -Focused on the Effects of China's Three Gorges Dam on the Marine Environment in the East China Sea-
Yang, Hee Cheol ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 341~356
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.341
A nation has a sovereign right to develop and use its natural resources according to its policies with regard to development and the relevant environment. A nation also has an obligation not to harm other countries or damage environments of neighboring countries as consequences of such actions of developments or use of natural resources. However, international precedents induce a nation to take additional actions not to cause more damages from the specific acts causing environmental damages beyond national borders, when such acts have economic and social importance. That is to say that there is a tendency to resolve such issues in a way to promote the balance between the mutual interests by allowing such actions to continue. A solution to China's Three Gorges Dam dilemma based on a soft law approach is more credible than relying on a good faith approach of national responsibilities and international legal proceedings since the construction and operation of the dam falls within the category of exercising national sovereign rights. If a large scale construction project such as the Three Gorges Dam or operation of a nuclear power plant causes or may cause environmental damage beyond the border of a nation engaged in such an undertaking, countries affected by this undertaking should jointly monitor the environmental effects in a spirit of cooperation rather than trying to stop the construction and should seek cooperative solutions of mutual understanding to establish measures to prevent further damages. If China's Three Gorges Dam construction and operation cause or contain the possibility of causing serious damages to marine environment, China cannot set aside its national responsibility to meet international obligations if China is aware of or knows about the damage that has occurred or may occur but fail to prevent, minimize, reverse or eliminate additional chances of such damages, or fails to put in place measures in order to prevent the recurrence of such damages. However, Korea must be able to prove a causal relationship between the relevant actions and resulting damages if it is to raise objections to the construction or request certain damage-prevention actions against crucial adverse effects on the marine environment out of respect for China's right to develop resources and acts of use thereof. Therefore, it is essential to cumulate continuous monitoring and evaluations information pertaining to marine environmental changes and impacts or responses of affected waters as well as acquisition of scientific baseline data with observed changes in such baseline. As China has adopted a somewhat nonchalant attitude toward taking adequate actions to protect against marine pollution risks or adverse effects caused by the construction and operation of China's Three Gorges Dam, there is a need to persuade China to adopt a more active stance and become involved in the monitoring and co-investigation of the Yellow Sea in order to protect the marine environment. Moreover, there is a need to build a regular environmental monitoring system that includes the evaluation of environmental effects beyond borders. The Espoo Convention can serve as a mechanism to ease potential conflicts of national interest in the Northeast Asian waters where political and historical sensitivities are acute. Especially, the recent diplomatic policy advanced by Korea and China can be implemented as an important example of gentle cooperation as the policy tool of choice is based on regional cooperation or cooperation between different regions.
Tests for Asymmetry and Structure Changes in Retail Price Volatility of Fresh Common Squid in the Republic of Korea
Nam, Jongoh ; Sim, Seonghyun ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 357~368
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.357
This study analyzed structural changes and asymmetry of price volatility during the period before and after a point of structural change in price volatility, using the Korean fresh common squid daily retail price data from January 1, 2004 to September 30, 2015. This study utilized the following analytical methods: the unit-root test was applied to ensure the stability of the data, the Quandt-Andrews breakpoint test was applied to find the point of structural change, and the Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle GARCH and EGARCH models were applied to investigate the asymmetry of price volatility. The empirical results of this study are as follows. First, ADF, PP, KPSS and Zivot-Andrews tests showed that the daily retail price change rate of the Korean fresh common squid differentiated by logarithm was stable. Secondly, the ARIMA (2,1,2) model was selected by information criteria such as AIC, SC, and HQ. Thirdly, the Quandt-Andrews breakpoint test found that a single structural change in price volatility occurred on June 11, 2009. Fourthly, the Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle GARCH and EGARCH models showed that estimates of coefficients within the models were statistically significant before and after structural change and also that asymmetry as a leverage effect existed before and after structural change.
Demands to Develop Marine Science Technology to Reduce Damage of Disasters Caused by Marine Accidents
Jang, Duckhee ; Kang, Gil-Mo ; Kim, Jin-Young ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2015, Pages 369~383
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2015.37.4.369
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the demands for developing marine science technology to reduce fatalities caused by marine accidents. For this purpose, we analyzed the contents of about 77,000 news articles posted for a month after the tragedy of the Sewol (April 16~May 15) to identify keywords and then we used the Social Network Analysis (SNA) for each keyword. The findings of the analysis show that there are five networks and that each one reveals different aspects about technology development to prepare for marine accidents. Based on these findings, we categorized three kinds of demands for technology development from the perspective of marine science technology: provision of the information about the marine environment, development of equipment and technology to overcome extreme environments, and the establishment of a field support system.