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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Ocean Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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Application to Stabilizing Control of Nonlinear Mobile Inverted Pendulum Using Sliding Mode Technique
Choi, Nak-Soon ; Kang, Ming-Tao ; Kim, Hak-Kyeong ; Park, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Sang-Bong ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 1~7
This paper presents a sliding mode controller based on Ackermann's formula and applies it to stabilizing a two-wheeled mobile inverted pendulum in equilibrium. The mobile inverted pendulum is a system with an inverted pendulum on a mobile cart. The dynamic modeling of the mobile inverted pendulum was established under the assumptions of a cart with no slip and a pendulum with only planar motion. The proposed sliding mode controller was based upon a class of nonlinear systems whose nonlinear part of the modeling can be linearly parameterized. The sliding surface was obtained in an explicit form using Ackermann's formula, and then a control law was designed from reachability conditions and made the sliding surface attractive to the equilibrium state of the mobile inverted pendulum. The proposed controller was implemented in a Microchip PIC16F877 micro-controller. The developed overall control system is described. The simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the modeling and controller.
Adaptive Tracking Controller Design for Welding Mobile Manipulator with Unknown Parameters
Kim, Sang-Bong ; Phan, Tan-Tung ; Choi, Nak-Soon ; Kim, Hak-Kyeong ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 8~17
This paper presents an adaptive tracking control method for a welding mobile manipulator with several unknown parameters such as the last length of the manipulator, the wheel radius and the distance from the center to the wheel. The mobile manipulator consisted of the manipulator and the mobile-platform. Kinematic modelings for the manipulator and the mobile-platform with several unknown parameters were produced. The tracking error vectors for the manipulator and the mobile-platform were defined. These adaptive controllers were designed based on the Lyapunov function to guarantee the stability of the whole system when the mobile manipulator performs a welding task. Update laws were also designed to estimate the unknown dimensional parameters. To implement the designed controllers, a control system integrated with PIC16F877 microprocessors and a TMS320C32 DSP was developed. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
Wind Effects on Tidal Currents in Gamak Bay
Lee, Moon-Ock ; Kim, Byeong-Kuk ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 18~27
This study was conducted to examine the effect of wind on the circulation of seawater in Gamak Bay, which contains numerous farms for fish and shellfish but suffers a significant loss by fisheries nearly annually from harmful algal blooms. In numerical experiments with a simplified bathymetry for Gamak Bay, the wind in summer appeared to more strongly influence the east-westward flow than the south-northward flow. In winter, this trend was nearly similar to the summer but seemed to have a greater effect on the flow at the north-west of the bay than the flow at the south mouth of the bay. On the other hand, in numerical experiments with a realistic bathymetry for Gamak Bay, the wind in summer appeared to more strongly influence the east-westward flow than the south-northward flow. Furthermore, the effect of the wind was stronger at the south mouth of the bay than at the north-west of the bay. In contrast, the wind in winter affected the east-westward flow more strongly and its effect appeared stronger at the north-west of the bay than at the south mouth of the bay. In addition, the effect of the wind tended to increase with distance from the east to the west. Therefore, the tidal currents in Gamak Bay proved to be strongly influenced by the wind, in particular east-westward. However, some measures are urgently required to improve the water quality of the bay, since the south-northward flow turned out to be obstructed by an east-westward shoal located in the middle of the bay.
Sensitivity of Input Parameters in the Spectral Wave Model
Park, Hyo-Bong ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 28~36
Many researches have been done to define the physical parameters for the wave generation and transformation over a coastal region. However, most of these have been limited to the application of particular conditions, as they are generally too empirical. To yield more reasonable wave estimation using a spectral wave model, it is important to understand how they work for the wave estimation. This study involved a comprehensive sensitivity test against the spectral resolution and the physical source/sink terms of the spectral wave model using SWAN and TOMAWAC, which have the same physical background with several different empirical/theoretical formulations. The tests were conducted for the East Anglian coast, UK, which is characterized by a complex bathymetry due to several shoals and offshore sandbanks. For the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the models' performance with different input conditions, the wave elements and spectrums predicted at representative sites the East Anglia coast were compared/analyzed. The spectral resolution had no significant effect on the model results, but the lowest resolution on the frequency and direction induced underestimations of the wave height and period. The bottom friction and depth-induced breaking terms produced relatively high variations in the wave prediction, depending on which formulation was applied. The terms for the quadruplet and whitecapping had little effect on the wave estimation, whereas the triads tended to predict shorter and higher waves by energy transferring to higher frequencies.
A Study on the Behavior of Floating Debris and Fresh Water Diffusion According to Discharge of Namgang Dam
Kim, Yeon-Joong ; Yoon, Jung-Sung ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 37~46
Typhoon Rusa in 2002 was recorded as causing the biggest damage due to flood in our country. With the enormous damage to the land, the flood was totally discharged to the open sea. As a result, in the coastal area, the discharging of a river had a big influence in comparison to the scale of the coastal area, which suffered damaged due to the discharging of the river. As it cleared the land, the load was totally discharging into the sea, where it caused various problems due to its influence on the ecosystem. These included changes to the environment, like a difference in salinity and the inflow of a land load. Therefore, in this study, a Lagrangian particle tracking model was constructed using a flow model capable of solving the behavior of a river plume, supposing Sachon Bay. It is performed the research able to tendency-like valuation and reappearance about real event. The result was that the model was well approximated the sea area tendency and the river plume of the specific event.
Calculating Average Residence Time Distribution Using a Particle Tracking Model
Park, Sung-Eun ; Hong, Sok-Jin ; Lee, Won-Chan ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 47~52
A Lagrangian particle tracking model coupled with the Princeton Ocean Model were used to estimate the average residence time of coastal water in Masan Bay, Korea. Our interest in quantifying the transport time scales in Masan Bay was stimulated by the search for a mechanistic understanding of this spatial variability, which is consistent with the concept of spatially variable transport time scales. Tidal simulation was calibrated through a comparison with the results of semi-diurnal current and water elevation measured at the tidal stations of Masan, Gadeokdo. In the model simulations, particles were released in eight cases, including slack before ebb, peak ebb, slack before flood, and peak flood, during both spring and neap tides. The averaged values obtained from the particle release simulations were used for the average residence times of the coastal water in Masan Bay. The average residence times for the southeastern parts of Somodo and the Samho River, Masan Bay were estimated to be about 20~50days and 70~80days, respectively. The spatial difference for the average residence time was controlled by the tidal currents and distance from the mouth of the bay. Our results might provide useful for understanding the transport and behavior of coastal water in a bay and might be used to estimate the dissimilative capacity for environmental assessment.
A Study on the Environment of USV Wireless Communication
Hong, Sin-Pyo ; Jeong, Jong-Won ; Lee, Chi-Won ; Lee, Ho-Sik ; Choi, Han-Woo ; Park, In-Hong ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 53~57
Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) conduct various missions while exchanging information with control centers. Maritime security, coastal surveillance, and sea surface and undersea inspections are included in the important missions of USVs. To carry out these missions, large amounts of information are required from sensors, such as cameras, radars, and sonars. High bandwidth wireless communication is necessary to send this information to the control center in real time. In general, USVs are made using small boats. The motions of small boats are easily influenced by sea waves and the magnitude of changes in the attitude is large and the period of the changes is short in comparison with large ships. Thus, the direction of an antenna beam pattern for a wireless communication system in a USV can change rapidly, and with a large magnitude. In addition, since the reflection of electromagnetic waves on the sea surface is not negligible, the effect of multipath noises on the wireless communication system must be considered carefully. There are also several other elements that negatively affect wireless communication systems in USVs. This paper presents the wireless communication environment to be considered in the design and implementation of wide bandwidth communication systems for USVs. Short test results for wireless communication on the sea are also given.
Experiments of Unmanned Underwater Vehicle's 3 Degrees of Freedom Motion Applied the SLAM based on the Unscented Kalman Filter
Hwang, A-Rom ; Seong, Woo-Jae ; Jun, Bong-Huan ; Lee, Pan-Mook ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 58~68
The increased use of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) has led to the development of alternative navigational methods that do not employ acoustic beacons and dead reckoning sensors. This paper describes a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) scheme that uses range sonars mounted on a small UUV. A SLAM scheme is an alternative navigation method for measuring the environment through which the vehicle is passing and providing the relative position of the UUV. A technique for a SLAM algorithm that uses several ranging sonars is presented. This technique utilizes an unscented Kalman filter to estimate the locations of the UUV and surrounding objects. In order to work efficiently, the nearest neighbor standard filter is introduced as the data association algorithm in the SLAM for associating the stored targets returned by the sonar at each time step. The proposed SLAM algorithm was tested by experiments under various three degrees of freedom motion conditions. The results of these experiments showed that the proposed SLAM algorithm was capable of estimating the position of the UUV and the surrounding objects and demonstrated that the algorithm will perform well in various environments.
A Study on the Characteristics of Delayed Hydride Cracking in Zr-2.5Nb Pressure Tube with the Heating-up and Heat-treatment
Na, Eun-Young ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 69~73
The objective of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of Zr-2.5Nb alloy. The DHC model has some defects: first, it cannot explain why the DHC velocity (DHCV) becomes constant regardless of an applied stress intensity factor, even though the stress gradient is affected by the applied stress intensity factor at the notch tip. Second, it cannot explain why the DHCV has a strong dependence on the method of approaching the test temperature by a cool-down or a heating-up, even under the same stress gradient, and third, it cannot predict any hydride size effect on the DHC velocity. The DHC tests were conducted on Zr-2.5Nb compact tension specimens with the test temperatures reached by a heating-up method and a cool-down method. Crack velocities were measured in hydrided specimens, which were cooled from solution-treatment temperatures at different rates by being furnace-cooled, water-quenched, and liquid nitrogen-quenched. The resulting hydride size, morphology, and distributions were examined by optical metallography. It was found that fast cooling rates, which produce very finely dispersed hydrides, result in higher crack growth rates. This different DHC behavior of the Zr-2.5Nb tube with the cooling rate after a homogenization treatment is due to the precipitation of the
-hydrides only in the water-quenched Zr-2.5Nb tube. This experiment will provide supporting evidence that the terminal solid solubility of a dissolution (TSSD) of
-hydrides is higher than that of
A Study on the Mechanical Properties by High-Frequency Induction Hardening of SCM440 Steel
Ahn, Seok-Hwan ; Nam, Ki-Woo ; Kim, Tae-Il ; Lee, Mun-Yong ; Kim, Dong-Kyu ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 74~80
Surface hardening treatments, such as using the high-frequency induction hardening method, are widely used to increase the fatigue life and prevent the failure of materials by locally increasing the surface hardness. This method, in particular, brings an improvement in static strength by compressive residual surface stress due to the hardening. In this study, the mechanical properties of high-frequency induction hardened SCM440 steel were investigated. These results were also compared with those for base metal and a Q/T (tempering after quenching) treatment specimen. The test results showed that partially high-frequency induction hardened SCM440 steel specimens were more improved in static strength, surface hardness, fatigue limit, and anti-wear than the base metal and Q/T treatment specimens. In particular, the fatigue limit of the high-frequency induction hardened SCM440 steel increased by more than about 52% compared to that of base metal and by about 25% compared to that of the Q/T specimen.
The Estimation of Defect of Mono Cast Nylon by Infrared Thermography
Han, Jeong-Seb ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 81~86
Infrared thermography was used to determine the location, size, and depth of defects under the surface of M.C nylon. Defects were created in a specimen by back-drilling circular holes. These defects were located at the maximum temperature difference that occurred. The sizes of the defects could be calculated by means of the full width at half of the maximum temperature difference. The depth of a defect could be calculated by the peak time and the maximum temperature difference. The maximum temperature difference between a defect and normal part was decreased with the depth of the defect. And the peak time also slowly appeared with the depth of the defect.
Control of Welding Distortion for Thin Panel Block Structure Using Plastic Counter-Deforming Method
Kim, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 87~91
The welding distortion of a hull structure in the shipbuilding industry is inevitable at each assembly stage. The geometric inaccuracy caused by welding distortion tends to preclude the introduction of automation and mechanization and requires additional man-hours for adjustment work during the following assembly stage. To overcome this problem, a distortion control method should be applied. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop an accurate prediction method that can explicitly account for the influence of various factors on the welding distortion. The validity of this prediction method must also be clarified through experiments. For the purpose of reducing the weld-induced bending deflection, this paper proposes the plastic counter-deforming method (PCDM), which uses line heating as the optimum distortion control method. The validity of this method was substantiated by a number of numerical simulations and actual measurements.
Development of Structural CFRP according to BMS Certification Standard
Kang, Byong-Yun ; Son, Chang-Suk ; Moon, Chang-Kwon ; Nam, Ki-Woo ; Kim, Yoon-Hae ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 92~97
In order to export aircraft components or substructures, it is necessary to get a certification from the main company for the components or an airworthiness certification from the FAA. In Korea, those processes are performed by a small number of private companies for aircraft components. However, airworthiness certification has never been done in the company. To export an assembled aircraft, whether small or large, it is obligatory to get a certification for the aircraft being exported. Currently, the Korean government is trying to get BASA agreement in a few years. For a mid-size company, it is easier to get the NADCAP audit process for the supply of aircraft components to the main company. In this paper, the overall process of aircraft certification is discussed and airworthiness certification is treated for export aircraft. Moreover, the NADCAP audit process is described in detail by introducing example parts made of composite material. This detailed process would be very helpful to a small or mid-size company that wants to develop and deliver aircraft components to foreign companies.
Study of Laminating Strategy for FRP Hull Using Resin Infusion Simulation
Jeong, Jin-Wook ; Lee, Byung-Sung ; Kang, Byung-Yoon ; Han, Gab-Su ; Suh, Sung-Bu ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 98~103
The resin infusion method is the latest technology of FRP laminating and cleaning to improve FRP hull quality. This method is focused on how to arrange infusion channels for the laminiating strategy. The laminating strategy using the resin infusion method has been utilized to complete the infusion work and remove the cavities on the FRP surface within the curing time. It is resulting from the arrangement of infusion and vacuum channels, the resin property, and the combination of FRP. This strategy has been depended on the field experience for manufacturing FRP without the resin infusion simulation. This study can help to improve the efficiency of FRP fabrication with the laminating strategy including the resin infusion simulation instead of the field experience.
Consideration of the Lifting Lug Structure using the Hybrid Structural Design System
Ham, Juh-Hyeok ; Kim, Dong-Jin ;
Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology, volume 23, issue 2, 2009, Pages 104~109
In the view of the importance of material reduction due to the jump in oil and steel prices, an optimized structural system for lifting lugs was developed. Such a system is needed hundreds of thousands of times a year. A direct design process was added to this developed optimized system to increase the design efficiency and provide a way of directly inserting a designer's decisions into the design system process. In order to verify the system efficiency and convenience, several new prototype lug shapes were suggested using the developed system. From these research results, it was found that the slope of the main plate of the lug structure has a tendency to move from about 45 degrees to about 60 degrees and the design weight was reduced from an initial value of about 32kgf to about
after the redesign. Based on these initial research results, an efficient reduction in steel weight was expected considering the enormous consumption of lug structures per year. Additionally, a more detail structural analysis through local strength evaluations will be performed to verify the efficiency of the optimum structural design for a lug structure.