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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Apr 2008
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Stress Multi-Index Analysis Expression Technique
Han, Seung-Heon ; Kim, Young-Kil ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1717~1722
A number of tools and equipment can measure the degree of stress. Stress measurement includes both psychological and physiological measurements. Considering only one of these elicits subjective or objective deficiency. Overcoming this problem requires a new stress index that combines these two measurements. Following people's personal traits, the measurement results also appear in diverse ways, but we can consider and study the general case obtained on the basis of the measurement tool. By using the index obtained by the psychological and physiological measurement tools, we obtain an integrated stress index. Therefore, we choose to use four stress measurement tools. The index of the result of each measurement tools is referred to as the multi-index. These indices are plotted on coordinates to analyze and diagnose the balance and tendency of the stress.
A Study of IT Outsourcing Model for a Public Institution
Oh, Yeon-Chil ; Park, So-Ah ; Lee, Young-Seok ; Yang, Hae-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1723~1730
The national IT outsourcing is actively achieved centering around the manufacturing enterprise and financial institution. The If outsourcing of the public institution is generalized. The IT development and operation management task are the field in which first an outsourcing is introduced due to a factor including the technological change, the efper increase in demand, and etc. Particularly, the core business of the public institution is the public service. Therefore, the core business of the public institution can concentrate on the core business and by drastically outsourcing the etc task ran improve an efficiency. Therefore, as to the IT outsourcing, the innovative method that can enhance the quality of the public service can become. In this paper, We analyze how the Supply Administration introducing the service level agreement (SLA: Service Level Agreement) and the problem that the Samsung SDS is faced with were solved. And the practical affairs guide-line for managing elements which can minimize trial and error and successfully implement the IT outsourcing is presented.
Design and Fabrication of Singly fed Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna with 2-stage LNA
Yun, Li-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1731~1736
In this paper, singly fed circularly polarized nearly-square patch antenna for receiving S-DMB is presented. It used teflon substrate of relative dielectric constant
and the sire is
. Experimental results of fabricated antenna show that input return loss and axial ratio are about 22MHz, 25MHz at the center resonant frequency, respectively. And fabricated LNA has gain of 27.5 [dB], NF of 1.27 [dB], input return loss of -15.4 [dB] and output return loss of -18.9 dB, respectively. Simulation results and experimental results are good agreements. This proposed antenna is well able to handheld gadgets for receiving S-DMB.
A Study on Simulation of Asymmetric Doppler Signals in a Weather Radar
Lee, Jong-Gil ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1737~1743
A weather radar extracts the weather information from the return echoes which consist of scattered electromagnetic wave signals from rain, cloud and dust particles, etc. The characteristics of Doppler weather signal and ground clutter should be analyzed to extract the accurate weather information. However, the conventional symmetric weather Doppler model is somewhat inappropriate in representing various weather situations. Therefore, the improved model is suggested to describe the skewness in the Doppler spectrum model. Using the suggested model, many various weather signals can be simulated efficiently in time and spectral domain according to weather situations, operation environment and system characteristics. This simulation method may be very helpful in verifying the accuracy of the weather information extraction algorithms and developing the new system for further performance improvement.
Design and Implementation of Parallel MPEG Encoder with MPI on Cluster System
Lee, Joa-Hyoung ; Jung, In-Bum ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1744~1750
As the computing and network technique move rm and spread widly, the usage of multimedia application becomes in general while the usage of text based application becomes low. Especially the application which treats the streaming media such as video or movie, one of multimedia data, holds a majority in the usage of computing. MPEG, one of the typical compression standard of streaming media, provides very high compression ratio so that general users could be close to the streaming media with easy usage. However, the encoding of MPEG requires lots of computing power and time. In the paper, we design and implement a parallel MPEG encoder with MPI in cluster envrionment to reduce the encoding time of MPEG.
Wavelet-based Electronic Watermarking Algorithm for Digital Holography Interference Patterns
Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Wi, Sung-Min ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1751~1758
Digital holography interference pattern generated by a computer calculation (CGH) is one of the most expensive contents and its usage is being expanded. Thus, it is highly necessary to protect the ownership of digital hologram. In this paper a hologram-domain and a frequency-domain electronic watermarking schemes were proposed. The hologram-domain scheme was only to compare the results to the ones from frequency-domain scheme and the frequence-domain scheme used 2-dimensional against the attaks. Especially the MDWT-domain scheme was very high robustness such that th error ratio at the worst case was only 3%. Thus, we expect that it is used as a good watermarking scheme of digital hologram with high performance.
KKR code conversion for ALE middleware
Byun, Ji-Woong ; Byun, Yung-Cheol ; Lee, Dong-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1759~1766
RFID middleware is the system software that converts EPC data collected from RFID reader devices into meaningful data, that users want, and transfers the result to the users with a variety of protocols. ALE specification, the RFID middleware specification proposed by EPCglobal that is a leading group of do facto international standards with respect to RFID, can handle only EPC code. Meanwhile, a new code system which is called KKR was proposed by NIDA in order to represent RFID tag data in a specific manner and cultivate the domestic RFID industry. In this case, the existing RFID middleware can not process KKR code system because of inherent attributes of the system. In this paper, we proposed a method of KKR code conversion to properly process KKR code in ALE middieware, implemented our method in real, and adopted it into existing ALE middleware. Also, we proposed a new URN format for RFID tag data to manipulate KKR code in ALE middleware. By using the proposed method, the existing ALE middleware conforming to international specification can handle KKR code effectively, and the integration among RFID middleware and legacy systems can be easily supported also.
Developing the Visualization Engine for U-Healthcare
Kim, Seung-Wook ; Kim, Min-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1767~1772
As the interest on healthcare area in pursuit of well-being, health etc is increasing, u-Healthcare service that can monitor the condition of oneself's health anytime & anywhere is getting an attention. The existing health information system is consist of structure supporting the storage of estimation value and just simple display. But this needs to get a harmonious interaction to provide the health information exactly and speedily for efficient condition confirmation and diagnosis in health information system, In relation to this, this study proposed the developmental contents about visualization engine providing the beuer information discrimination and more user-friendly in various service of u-Healthcare.
A Method of Quadtree-Based Compression for the Image by Wavelet Transform
Kwak, Chil-Seong ; Kim, Ki-Moon ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1773~1779
Images play the most important role in human perception. In order to send the image information by the digital type, the compression is essential. Recently, a lot of studies on encoding algorithms for image by wavelet transform are going on. In this paper, a quadtree-based method of image compression applied to the images decomposed by wavelet transform by using the correlations between pixels and '0' data grouping is proposed. For the proposed method, the experimental gray image with
size and 8[bit], is used. And, the performance of proposed method is evaluated to compare with DCT compression method.
A Study on OFDM Technique for High-speed Data Transmission in Underwater
Han, Jeong-Woo ; Kim, Se-Young ; Kim, Ki-Man ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1780~1786
The performance of underwater wireless communication system is influenced on channel characteristic. Especially, a delay spread cause by reverberation and multi-path happen the ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) and reduces the communication performance. In this paper, we study the application of high speed data transmission in underwater to use the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) technique for robust the reverberation and multi-path. we confirm the performance of communication in underwater to use the model for actually underwater channel simulation model. As a result, we acquired the BER of modulation techniques. The BER of single carrier is
and BER of multi currier is
in 1000m. Transmission of single carrier is 5 kbps.
Minutiae Extraction Algorithms and Fingerprint Acquisition System using the Data Structure
Park, Jong-Min ; Lee, Jung-Oh ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1787~1793
Fingerprint Recognition System is made up of Off-line treatment and On-line treatment; the one is registering all the information of there trieving features which are retrieved in the digitalized fingerprint getting out of the analog fingerprint through the fingerprint acquisition device and the other is the treatment making the decision whether the users are approved to be accessed to the system or not with matching them with the fingerprint features which are retrieved and database from the input fingerprint when the users are approaching the system to use. In this paper, we propose a new data structure, called Union and Division, for processing binarized digital fingerprint image efficiently. We present a minutiae extraction algorithm that is using Union and Division and consists of binarization, noise removal, minutiae extraction stages.
The Construction of the Digital Logic Switching Functions using PLA
Park, Chun-Myoung ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1794~1800
This paper presents a method of constructing the digital logic switching functions using PLA. First of all, we propose a MIN and MAX algebra arithmetic operation based on the Post algebra. And we discuss the T-gate which is used for realization of the MIN and MAX algebra arithmetic operation. Next, we discuss the MIN array and MAX array which are basic circuit of the PLA, also we discuss the literal property. For the purpose of the design for the digital logic switching functions using PLA, we Propose the variable partition, modular structure design, literal generator, decoder and invertor. The proposed method is the more compactable and extensibility.
Analysis of QoS Assurance with PCF and Queuing Disciplines in Home Network
Basukala, Roja Kiran ; Pyun, Jae-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1801~1807
A home network is a collection and connection of many electronic and electrical devices in home in order to make daily life comfortable, entertaining and safe. The convergence of Ethernet and wireless technology to a single shared broadband connection in residential gateway is the key feature of the home network. This kind of heterogeneous network has realized the need to implement different QoS mechanisms. Basically, in this paper we propose to integrate IP QoS and Wireless QoS mechanisms for QoS assurance in home network. This paper compares the combination of PCF with two queuing algorithms Low Latency Queuing (LLQ) and Custom Queuing (CQ) and concludes that the combination of CQ and PCF performs best for home network.
Studying on Expansion of Realtime Blocking List Conception for Spam E-mail Filtering
Kim, Jong-Min ; Kim, Hion-Gun ; Kim, Bong-Gi ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1808~1814
In addition to RBL function, which is used to applying for spam e-mail filtering, as an effective way to deal with the recently widespread spam types, this paper proposes how to extract URL that was comprised in the original e-mail, apply it to RBL, and expand it. The BotNet, which is used to using for sending spam mails these days, has a problem that it is not able to solve with the distributed addresses of sent mails in spam e-mails. In general, as these spam e-mails are sent from the infected Zombi PC of individual user, the sent address itself is not efficient and is meaningless to use in RBL. As an effective way to filter spam e-mail sent by BotNet, this paper analyzes URLs that contained in the original spam e-mail and proposes how to effectively improve filter rate, based on the distribution data of URL site tempting users. This paper proposes the sending mechanism of spam e-mails from BotNet and the methods to realize those types of spam e-mails. In order to gather analyzable spam e-mails, this paper also carries out an experiment by configuring trap system of spam e-mail. By analyzing spam e-mails, which have been received during the certain period of experiment, this paper shows that the expanded RBL method, using URLs that contained in spam e-mails, is effective way to improve the filter distribution of spam e-mail.
Design and Implementation of User-Centered Document Generation System Using RFID Information
Park, Hee-Sook ; Park, Tae-Hee ; Tak, Chung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1815~1821
Recently, Since growth of the ubiquitous computing environment and development of networking technology, User is a possible to connect the Internet out of constraints of time and space. Using RFID of core technique of ubiquitous computing, various application cases are increasing rapidly. In this paper, we propose design of the User-Centered Document Generation System which can makes several format of documents using RFID information stored in relational database. Our system can makes HTML file, EXCEL file and XML document file that provide for users over internet. Also, whenever user need to the document that can save easy and conveniently them on local computer and then is a possible to exploit them for other works.
Calibration of a Low Grade MEMS IMU Using a High Performance Reference Sensor
Chang, Keun-Hyung ; Chun, Se-Bum ; Sung, Sang-Kyung ; Lee, Eun-Sung ; Jun, Hyang-Sig ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1822~1829
Calibration of an MEMS inertial measurement unit is very important process for obtaining precise navigation performance. In this paper, one method is proposed to overcome a limitations on cost and efficiency using a relatively higher grade sensor and a rate table. The same dynamic input is applied to both the reference and the target sensors during and after calibration process, then the results are analyzed. The experimental results show that the proposed method is very effective and useful in practice.
Distance measurement using Zigbee communication solution
Kim, Young-Keun ; Hur, Chang-Wu ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1830~1834
At the present day, devices for measurement and control of data by wireless based computer have been generalized. The devices with low cost and high performance have been spotlighted. If Zigbee communication solution is used in dangerous places and places that can not in use wire communication, computer can process data without limitation. Zigbee communication solution is effective in power consumption as compared with RF or bluetooth and can use battery. System cost of Zigbee also is very low, so can install lots of nodes. The system made in this paper transmit by wireless many LMCs(Laser Measuring Control) of wireless transmission system for distance measurement and many slave Zigbee to a master Zigbee.
A Study on the Low Power LDO Having the Characteristics of Superior IR Drop
Lee, Kook-Pyo ; Pyo, Chang-Soo ; Koh, Si-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1835~1839
Power management is a very important issue in portable electronic applications. Portable electronic devices require very efficient power management like LDO to increase the battery life. As the voltage variation of battery power is large in the application of cell phone, camera, laptop, automotive, industry application and so on, battery power is not directly used and LDO is used to supply the power of internal circuit. Besides, LDO can supply DC voltage that is lower than bauer voltage and constant DC voltage that is not related to largely fluctuated battery power. In the study, the power-save mode current and IR-drop characteristics are analyzed from a LDO with on-chip fabricated in 0.18-um CMOS technology.
Analysis of Channel Doping Concentration Dependent Subthreshold Characteristics for Double Gate MOSFET
Jung, Hak-Kee ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1840~1844
In this paper, the influence of channel doping concentration, which the most important factor is as double gate MOSFET is fabricated, on transport characteristics has been analyzed in the subthreshold region. The analytical model is used to derive transport model based on Poisson equation. The thermionic omission and tunneling current to have an influence on subthreshold current conduction are analyzed, and the relationship of doping concentration and subthreshold swings of this paper are compared with those of Medici two dimensional simulation, to verify this model. As a result, transport model presented in this paper is good agreement with two dimensional simulation model, and the transport characteristics have been considered according to the dimensional parameters of double gate MOSFET.
A Study on Motion Estimation Encoder Supporting Variable Block Size for H.264/AVC
Kim, Won-Sam ; Sohn, Seung-Il ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1845~1852
The key elements of inter prediction are motion estimation(ME) and motion compensation(MC). Motion estimation is to find the optimum motion vectors, not only by using a distance criteria like the SAD, but also by taking into account the resulting number of 비트s in the 비트 stream. Motion compensation is compensate for movement of blocks of current frame. Inter-prediction Encoding is always the main bottleneck in high-quality streaming applications. Therefore, in real-time streaming applications, dedicated hardware for executing Inter-prediction is required. In this paper, we studied a motion estimator(ME) for H.264/AVC. The designed motion estimator is based on 2-D systolic array and it connects processing elements for fast SAD(Sum of Absolute Difference) calculation in parallel. By providing different path for the upper and lower lesion of each reference data and adjusting the input sequence, consecutive calculation for motion estimation is executed without pipeline stall. With data reuse technique, it reduces memory access, and there is no extra delay for finding optimal partitions and motion vectors. The motion estimator supports variable-block size and takes 328 cycles for macro-block calculation. The proposed architecture is local memory-free different from paper  using local memory. This motion estimation encoder can be applicable to real-time video processing.
Enhancement of 3D image resolution in computational integral imaging reconstruction by a combination of a round mapping model and interpolation methods
Shin, Dong-Hak ; Yoo, Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1853~1859
In this paper, we propose a novel method to improve the visual quality of reconstructed images for 3D pattern recognition based on the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR). The proposed CIIR method provides improved 3D reconstructed images by superimposing magnified elemental images by a combination of a round mapping model and image interpolation algorithms. To objectively evaluate the proposed method, we introduce an experimental framework for a computational pickup process and a CIIR process using a Gaussian function and evaluate the proposed method. We also carry out experiments on 3D objects and present their results.
Numerical Optimization of NRZ 40Gbps WDM systems
Lee, Jong-Hyung ; Han, Dae-Hyun ; Lee, Yong-Jae ; Choi, Byeong-Yoon ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1860~1865
40Gbps WDMSystems have been studied by numerical simulation to optimize their performance. Standard single mode fiber is assumed, and the most popular modulation format, NRZ, is used for the study. These assumptions are valid when existing WDM systems are required to upgrade their performance to 40Gbps. It is shown that the standard single mode fiber can transmit optical signals over 4800 (BER < 10-15) by optimizing optical and electrical filter characteristics at the receiver and by compensation of dispersion. In addition, when the system performance is mainly limited by ASE noise of EDFAs, it is found that flattop-shaped optical filter at the receiver gives a better result than Gaussian-shaped filter unless the insertion loss of the optical filter is larger than 5dB.
A Design of Mobile Web Server Framework for SOAP Transaction and Performance Enhancement in Web2.0
Kim, Yong-Tae ; Jeong, Yoon-Su ; Park, Gil-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1866~1874
Existing web server lowers the whole capacity of system because of the problem on the processing load of server by closing connection increasing code handshake operation, and remarkable decrease of server capacity if it is the state of overload. Also, there occurs disadvantages of increasing connection tine about client's request and response time because handling of client's multi-requests is not smooth because of thread block and it requests a lot of time and resources for revitalization of thread. Therefore, this paper proposes the extended web server which provides the technique for delay handling and improves the overload of server for better system capacity, communication support, and the unification which is the advantage of web service. And it evaluates the existing system(implemented at Tomcat 5.5) and the proposed mobile web server architecture. The extended server architecture provides excellent exchange condition for system capacity and evaluates improved web server architecture which combines multi-thread with thread pool. The proposed web service architecture in this paper got the better result of improved capacity benefit than the evaluation result of original Tomcat 5.5.
WiMAX Security Mechanism for Minimizing Performance load of Base Station
Jeong, Yoon-Su ; Kim, Yong-Tae ; Park, Gil-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1875~1882
Nowadays, usage of mobile unit which has a characteristic of low cost and high efficiency is being generalized because of frequent use of internet-based variable service and application in IEEE 802.16 WiMAX. A study for handling a security problem of high speed internet service is rising while the use of a mobile is being generalized. This paper suggests a security mechanism which provides safety from certification load of SS and a security attack as well as a basic function which is provided from IEEE 802.16e standard to satisfy security demand of IEEE802.16 WiMAX. The proposed mechanism exchangeskey material information for TEK and data code by using 난수(?) and secret value created by SS and BS, also reduces capacity load of BS not to perform an additional certificate procedure of BS by using the early certification information and certificate of SS.
A Study on the Mobile Context construct Algorism Modeling for Ubiquitous
Kang, Myoung-Ku ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1883~1889
In order to realize future ubiquitous, it needs to establish an environment witch service is provided to an user without user's awareness. This study suggests the mobile context awareness algorithm for that. With DB collected using LBS technology, it aims to recognize service status of a terminal and to maximize user's convenience by offering service through continuous inter-operability for various demand and environment of users against the status of a terminal. To realize the algorithm, it adds a terminal status deduction process to MSC. And then, it suggests the algorithm witch determines terminal status depending on status parameter defined by analyzing LBS-based short information by MSC. It realize C code.
Noise and Operating Properties of Si Vertical Hall Device
Ryu, Ji-Goo ; Kim, Nam-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1890~1896
In this paper, the Si vertical Hall devices ale fabricated by using standard bipolar process and investigated in terms of the opeating and noise properties. The sensitivity of device with P+ isolation dam(type B) has been increased up to about 1.2 times compared to that device without the dam also noise has been increased. With the condition of f=I[KHz], band-width 1[Hz], the resolution of magnetic-field detection were about
/ type B and
/ type A, respectively, thus we must consider correlation the low noise or good resolution and high sensitivity in the situation for device geometry design or even for the materials.
Cracks Detection of Concrete Slab Surface using ART2 based Quantization
Kim, Kwang-Baek ; Cho, Jae-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1897~1902
In computer vision analysis of detecting concrete slab surface cracks, there are many difficulties to overcome. Target images often have defamations due to the light condition and other external environment. Another difficulties in detecting concrete crack image is that there is no clear distinction in intensity between the crack and the surface since the surface is often irregular. In this paper, we apply ART2 based quantization in order to classify target concrete slab surface images into several areas with respect to the light intensity. From those quantized areas, we investigate the distribution of real cracks and noises. Then, we extract candidate crack areas after applying noise removal process to areas which have be th oracle and noises. Finally, crack areas are recognized by using morphological features of cracks from such candidate areas. In experiment with real world concrete slab structure images, our algorithm has advantage in recognizing accuracy of cracks to other algorithms especially in relatively brighter areas of concrete surface.
The analysis and evaluation of a cooperation with computer which affects to the achievement degree for studying
Lee, Yun-Bae ; Cho, Youn-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, volume 12, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1903~1908
The present time, their affect on modern teaching-learning methodology, especially that of cooperative learning is most noticeable through E-learning, ICT(Information Communication Technology), application of Computer, and the Internet. This paper evaluate and analyze a cooperation with computer which affects to the achievement degree for studying. Especially, this paper analyzes the degree and duration of computer usage, and then analyzes the ripple effects on the individuals positivity and participation. And, this paper estimate the different of students' scholastics attainment according to sex, environment and computer usage ability.