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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Safety
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
A Study on Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Al 7075-T651(II)
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 3~10
Fatigue crack growth rates in commercial plate of high strength Al 7075-T651 were investigated for the T-L direction in air, water and sea water. In this paper the effect of cyclic load wave-form(trapezoid and triangle) on fatigue crack growth rates in air, water and sea water environments were investigated using standard LEFM testing procedures. It was founded that the fatigue crack growth behaviors were not affected by cyclic load wave-forms. In region II (stable crack growth region), the fatigue crack growth behaviors were insensitive to cyclic load wave-forms and were sensitive to environment i.e. fatigue crack growth behaviors were higher in sea water than in air for all cyclic load wave-form. The result of fractographical morphology in air, water and sea water by SEM showed obvious dimple rupture and typical striation in air, but transgranular fracture surface in water and sea water. The values m are not affected by corrosion environments but C are different values.
A Study on Fatigue Life Assessment Procedure for a Container Crane
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 11~18
Proper fatigue life prediction procedures are needed for mechanical structures which requires high durability and reliability. In this paper, a fatigue life prediction procedure has been developed for predicting fatigue life of moving structure under variable loadings. The developed procedure was efficiently applied for a fatigue life calculation of a container crane. Especially, the procedure is useful for safety assessment by computer simulation. A computer program was developed for fatigue life assessment by adopting the forementioned procedure.
A Study on the Anisotropy of Al 7075 Rolling Material in Fatigue Crack Growth Process
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 19~25
The research has extracted two kinds of specimen, one is rolling direction material(R-material) and the other rectangular of rolling direction(V-material), from Al alloy 7075 rolled. We have come to a conclusion by measuring crack propagation behavior with movement type microscope and Replica. 1) R-material shows 130% higher, approx. 39.2MPa in fatigue strength than V-material, approx. 29.4MPa. 2) In crack proportion, contrary to V-material growing directly toward specimen axis, R-material grows neared to shear direction. 3) The life proves that R-material is approx. 122% higher than V-material at 43.1MPa and approx. 135% higher at 47MPa. 4) The correlation between fatigue crack length and fracture life ratio applied to 'log(2a)=A+B (
)'equation shows inappropriate, because property value of Al alloy is low and the difference of chemical composition is high comparing with steel material
Numerical Study on Convective Heat Transfer in a Compartment Fire - I. Evaluation of Numerical Method and Natural Convection-
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 26~31
In a compartment fire, convective heat transfer dominates spread of the fire and smoke movement before flash-over occurs, and natural convection is very important in particular when there are no openings. The finite volume method with SIMPLE algorithm was applied to a square cavity similar to a compartment without an opening. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the method and to simulate natural convection from a hot body in the cavity. The results without the hot body showed an excellent agreement with those of previous studies. Streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers were computed for different Rayleigh numbers.
Development of a Simplified Design Method for LBB Application to Nuclear Piping
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 32~41
If the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept is applicable to the nuclear piping design, it is not necessary to consider the dynamic effect due to pipe rupture. Therefore, the construction cost can be significantly reduced by eliminating unnecessary pipe whip restraints and jet impingement devices. The objective of this paper is to develop the Piping Evaluation Diagram (PED) for efficient application of LBB concept to piping system at an initial piping design stage. For this purpose, the 3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the crack stability. And the stress-strain curve based on the pipe material tests were used to calculate the detectable leakage crack length. Finally, the present PED which was composed as a function of NOP load and allowable SSE load, was developed for an application of LBB concept to the safety injection and shutdown cooling line in Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR).
Chaos on the Rocking Vibration of Rigid Block Under Two Dimensional Sinusodial Excitation (In the Case of No Sliding Occurrence)
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 42~51
This research deals with the non-linearities associated with impact and sliding for the rocking behavior of rigid block subjected to two dimensional excitation of horizontal and vertical direction. The non-linearities examined of impact between block and base: The transition of two governing rocking equations, the abrupt reduction in kinetic energy associated with impact. In this study, the rocking vibration system of two types are considered for several friction condition. One is the undamped rocking vibration system, disregarding energy dissipation at impact and the other is the damped rocking system, including energy dissipation at impact. The response analysis by non-dimensional rocking equation is carried out for the change of excitation amplitude. The chaos responses were discovered in the wide response region, particularly, in the case of high vertical excitation and their chaos characteristics are examined by Poincare map, power spectra and Lyapunov Exponent. The complex behavior of chaos response, in the phase space, were illustrated by Poincare map. Therefore, Poincare map will be a significant material in order to understand chaos of rocking system.
Fuzzy Control for High Performance of Induction Motor Using Electric Vehicles
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 52~61
This paper proposes the application of fuzzy control for high performance control of induction motor using electric vehicles. A fuzzy controller converts a set of liguistic rules based on expert knowledge into a automatic control strategy. Such controllers have often been found superior to conventional controllers especially when information being processed is inexact and uncertain. A system with fast torque response is very beneficial in applications where direct self control (DSC) is highly desirable. The response of DSC is slower during startup and during change in command torque. Fuzzy control is used for implementation of DSC to improve its slow response. Simulation implementation of the fuzzy logic controller was carried out to verify the behavior of the controller. The simulation results with fuzzy control are compared with those of the conventional DSC. The starting flux and torque response and the responses to the step changes in command torque with fuzzy implementation show a considerable improvement over the conventional control. The steady state responses in both the cases are the same.
A Study on the EPS Process of Quantitative Risk Assessment for the Safety Decision Making
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 62~69
The quantitative risk assessment and consequence analysis by accident scenario in the process of EPS(Expendable Poly Stylene) reaction process are conducted. And the decision making process is studied followed by selecting various alternatives to safety management and facility improvement. The result are as follows; 1) The object of decision making through comprehensive risk assessment are the scenario which can cause four major accident, which are made by process analysis, work analysis and hazard identification. 2) Frequency analysis of ETA, FTA, HRA and consequence analysis of accident to each have been conducted. The each frequency values are yielded
to scenario 2,
scenario 3 and
to scenario 4. The each scenarios have been conducted consequence analysis. 3) The calculated values have been obtained 4.00 to scenario 1, 3.25 to scenario 2, 2.43 to scenario 3 and 1.34 to scenario 4, as the weight value had been applied to the quantitative and normalized criteria of all components. As a risk criteria, scenario 1 have been selected, which is the most dangerous scenario as a result of ranking the scenario. 4) According to the importance of FTA and contribute to scenario 1, the cost-benefit values are yielded
to final alternative(Al),
to final alternative(A2) and
to final alternative(A3). As a result of final alternative(Al) has been selected, which is the most optimized alternative.
Voltage Control and Security Assessment of Power System Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 70~76
In this paper, a mixed-integer programming approach is presented for adjusting the voltage profiles in a power system. The advent of large-scaled system makes the reactive power and voltage problem-an attempt to achieve an overall improvement of system security, service quality and economy-more complex and seriously, Although the problem is originally a nonlinear optimization problem, it can be formulated as a mixed integer linear programming(MILP) problem without deteriorating of solution accuracy to a certain extent. The MILP code is developed by the branch and bound process search for the optimal solution. The variable for modeling transformer tap positions is handled as discrete one, and other variables continuous ones. Numerical data resulting from case study using a modified IEEE 30 bus system with outaged line show that the MILP can produce more reductions of magnitude in the operating cost. The convergence characteristics of the results are also presented and discussed.
The Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on the Electrical Conductivity Characteristics in Low Density Polyethylene Film
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 77~82
In this paper, physical properties and electrical conductivity of electron beam irradiated low density polyethylene are studied. The specimens of thickness 100
irradiated as each 1 Mrad, 2 Mrad, 4 Mrad, 8 Mrad, 16 Mrad and virgin are used in this experiment. FTIR analysis shows strong absorptions by methyl groups in wavenumbers 720
, and did not show any evidences of the presence of residual carbonyl groups. From the DSC analysis, the crystalline melting point of electron beam irradiated specimen is lower than that of virgin specimen. 1 Mrad irradiated sample shows the stable electrical conductivity characteristics with both temperature and electric field.
The Electrical Properties of Film due to the Mixture Ratio of Linear Lour Density Polyethylene and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 83~89
The electrical properties due to mixture ratio of linear low density polyethylene(LLDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA) films are studied. An experimental specimen is selected as LLDPE/EVA of thickness 200
produced by mixture ratio of 50 : 50, 60 : 40, 70 : 30 and 80 : 2 wt%. In temperature range from
, the measurement of volume resistivity using a highmegohm meter is performed within 10 minutes since each voltage of DC 100 V, 250 V, 500 V and 1000 V is applied, according to the step voltage method. From FT-IR spectrum for an analysis of physical properties, it can be confirmed that LLDPE blended with EVA shows an absence of carbonyl groups(1735
, C=0) and ether groups(1242
, C-O). The peak of LLDPE and EVA made of mixture ratio of 70 : 30 at 2
in the results of XRD is higher than the others. In the experiment for volume resistivity characteristics in order to investigate the electrical properties of specimen, it is confirmed that volume resistivity is decreased with the increase of the molecular motion and temperature.
A Study on Spontaneous Ignition of Painting Waste
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 90~96
The characteristics of spontaneous ignition of painting waste was investigated at constant ambient temperature in oven. As the results of experiments, the spontaneous ignition temperature decreased as the sample vessel became large, and the spontaneous ignition temperature of the sample in small, intermediate and large vessels was
respectively. The apparent activation energy calculated by the Frank-Kamentskii's thermal ignition theory was 34.73 kcal/mol.
The Development of Risk Assessment Program PML-Chem
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 97~102
This study is to develope the quantitative risk assessment program for consequence analysis of fire and explosion (PML-Chem), which is applicable to the chemical plants. The advantages of PML-Chem is easy to use and acquire results. Especially, PML-Chem was embedded real weather condition database for major chemical plants in
complex in country. Also, reliability of PML-Chem was verified through comparing PML-Chem with PHAST-Professional which is already commercial.
Risk Assessment of Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds in Ulsan Industrial Complex Area
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 103~108
This study focused on risk assessment for inhalation of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Ulsan industrial complex area. For non-carcinogenic risk, even the highest hazard index of toluene was estimated to be
, which was much lower than 1. The total hazard index of VOCs was estimated to be
. However, lifetime average cancer risk from the inhalation of airborne VOCs was estimated to be about
, which was much higher than a risk standard of
. The risk of
. came from benzene, the only human carcinogen among VOCs, while that of
from probable human carcinogens including 1,3-butadiene and 1,2-dichloroethane. About 70% and 20% of total VOC cancer risk was due to the inhalation of 1,3-butadiene and 1,2-dichloroethane, respectively. Therefore, proper risk management of these 3 VOCs was required for the protection of health from cancer burden in Ulsan industrial complex area.
A Study on the Damaging Distance and the Explosion Effect by the LPG Release
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 109~115
The release of gas from the LPG storage tank by the rupture or leakage can occure explosion and this causes serious damage to people and structures. In this study, the explosion effect and damaging distance were measured for the LPG cloud explosion to perform the quantitative risk assessment for the PSM, and the effective parameters on the explosion were found. The gas dispersion and mass contaminant in the explosion limits were calculated by using DEGADIS, and it was converted to TNT equivalency and damaging distance. As a result, the wind speed was the most effective parameter on the diffusion rate and TNT equivalency, and the damaging distance were increased with decrease of wind speed and surface roughness.
A Study on the Characteristics of Creep in Kaolinite Soil Subjected to Uplift Capacity
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 116~121
When plate anchors are embedded in soft clay, they may undergo a deformation under the pressure of sustained load. The critical depth at which the transition from a shallow to a deep anchor takes place depends on the properties of soil. Laboratory model tests were performed for the short-term net ultimate uplift capacity of a circular anchors with respect to various embedment depths and moisture content in saturated kaolinite. The tests have been conducted with the anchor at two different moisture contents. Based on the model test results, empirical relationships between the net load, rate of strain, and time have been developed. In creep tests of kaolinite for load versus ultimate uplift capacity, the displacement of plate anchors rapidly increases during the primary stage but thereafter becomes constant over a period of time.
Effects of Thermal Conductivities on Temperature History of Massive Concrete Structures
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 122~126
In this study, using the temperature history analysis, the influences of the conductive values of wooden form, which are specified by Korean Standard for Concrete and ACI Practice Manual for Concrete, on the temperature history were examined. And, the calculated temperature history is compared with the measured temperature history. In the examination for the influences of the conductive values of wooden form, the value recommended by the Korean Standard can more closely predict the themperature history at the points which the variation of the boundary condition should be considered.
Analysis of the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and industrial accidents
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 127~139
Two studies were conducted to examine the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and industrial accidents. In the preliminary study, focus group interviews were conducted with employees working in manufacturing and construction sector, safety managers, and government officials to understand factors that were associated with industrial accidents. Based on interviews, a questionnaire survey was constructed to assess individual factors (such as self-efficacy beliefs, following safety procedures, life-satisfaction, and stress) that were identified as affecting industrial accidents (such as minor and major accident rates). The questionnaire were administered to a total of 917 respondents (542 employees working in the manufacturing and construction sector, 210 safety managers, and 165 government employee officials overseeing government regulations). The result indicated that three subscales of self-efficacy for employees (self-regulation, enlisting social support, and controlling the environment) were negatively correlated with the company's industrial accident rates. Moreover, those employees with higher self-efficacy were more likely to follow safety procedures and had higher life-satisfaction and lower stress levels. For safety managers, the self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with better implementation and higher effectiveness of the educational programs and negatively correlated with their company's accident rates.
A Study on the Actual Condition and Improvement of Safety Management for Promising Small & Medium Enterprise (In Capital City Area)
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 140~147
Currently, the consumer pattern is directed to small quantity and high variety these days. World market is led by technological innovations and changes rapidly. To survive in this environment, the raising of small and medium enterprises is highly desirable. In the context of nationwide restructuring, competitive medium and small industries which are in good financial status should lead the nation's economy. But general ignorance of the safety issues could lead to a miss management of this industry in this field. In this study, actual condition and improvement of safety management are as follows; We have to 1) find out the factors which endangers this industry, and set a proper guideline for safety management. 2) encourage safety management of these industries by themselves, and advertise and provide technical support for using PC and internet. 3) set a higher standard of safety issue when accrediting a prospective medium and small industry, and have a firm control of this issue once accredited. 4) supply more governmental financial aids to terms of safety issues for medium and small industries.
An Improved Musculoskeletal Discomfort Assessment Questionnaire
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 148~154
A self-report musculoskeletal assessment tool was adapted following field use by ergonomic analysis teams and was administrated to 100 employees of ChangWon techno-complex. Results were analyzed to determine of the self-report could adequately predict whether or not an employee reportedly sought medical treatment for a work-related discomfort. It is anticipated this tool can be utilized as an easily administrated, proactive surveillance instrument to assist in early identification of ergonomic concerns and to help prioritize jobs for intervention.
A Maintenance Policy Determination of Dependent k-out-of-n:G System with Setup Cost
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 155~162
reliability from components reliability. In this case, it assumes that components failure is mutually independent, but it may not true in real systems. In this study, the mean cost per unit time is computed as the ratio of mean life to the mean cost. The mean life is obtained by the reliability function under power rule model. The mean cost is obtained by the mathematical model based on the inspection interval. A heuristic method is proposed to determine the optimal number of redundant units and the optimal inspection interval to minimize the mean cost per unit time. The assumptions of this study are as following : First, in the load-sharing k-out-of-n:G system, total loads are applied to the system and shared by the operating components. Secondly, the number of failed components affects the failure rate of surviving components as a function of the total load applied. Finally, the relation between the load and the failure rate of surviving components is set by the power rule model. For the practical application of the above methods, numerical examples are presented.
Effective Safety Education Schemes at Construction Sites for Enhancing Safety Consciousness of Workers and Engineers
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 163~169
Safety education should not only prevent workers from industrial accidents but also contribute to improve the productivity of manufacturing plants or construction sites. In practice this do not happen because workers do not realize the importance of safety education. This study aims to suggest a methodology to improve safety education of construction sites by surveying conditions of safety education and the safety consciousness of workers and engineers. The results showed that most education except regular educations were nominally carried out. Lectures and audio-visual education were mainly used as educational methods. After trainees attended the education session they completed a written survey, the most dissatisfied factor about safety education was education circumstances, of which rate was around 36%. The proportion of construction engineers who thought that safety management was contributable to cost reduction was 35%, to construction period 20%, and to quality enhancement 48%. Based on these results, this research pointed out the need to review training manuals, the development of educational programs, improvement of educational facilities to improve safety education of construction sites, and finally to discussed these issues.
Development of Safety Management Software Related to the Safety Level of Small & Medium Size Construction Sites
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 170~177
In these days, large construction companies computerize safety management function and use softwares but small and medium ones do not have any or little in Korea, although it is much mote necessary for the latter having high accident ratios than for the former to make efforts to develop computerized safety management tools. That is, a reason why no safety management program has been developed and construction accident are required to be reduced outstandingly, computerized safety management systems are much needed to be developed. Thus, safety management software named SAFETY PLUS has been developed in this research that has 4 management scopes classified by the size of construction project. The utilization of SAFETY PLUS will be able to increase both effectiveness and efficiency of safety management efforts and result in drastic decrease of construction accidents.
Analysis of Limitations on Human Reliability Analysis in Nuclear Power Plants and Development of Requirements for an Advanced Method
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 178~191
More than twenty methods were suggested for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the field of safety analysis for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). However, there is still a high uncertainty on the analysis and a difficulty in performing HRA. New methods and approaches are under studying to overcome such limitations of current HRA. This paper presents some results of study to analysis limitations of current HRA in viewpoint of user, i.e., HRA analyst. The limitation analysis was based on 89 human error events modeled in a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) project for NPPs in Korea. Total 17 specific limitations were identified and categorized into seven groups. Important analysis has also been undertaken to assess the order of priority among those limitations. Finally, seven requirements with priority ranking were generated for an advanced framework and methodology of HRA.
Rotation-Invariant Fingerprint Identification System for Security Verification
S.H. Lee ; D.H. Ryu ; M.S. Park ; C.S. Ryu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 192~199
We propose a rotation invariant fingerprint identification system based on the circular harmonic filter(CHF) and binary phase extraction joint transform correlator(BPEJTC) for validation and security verification. It is shown that this system has the shift and rotation robust properties and can recognize the fingerprint in real-time. The complex circular harmonic filter, which is used to obtain the rotation invariance, is converted into the real-valued filter for real-time implementation. Experimental results show that this system has a good performance in the rotated fingerprints.
Reinforcing Program for Safety Values in Company
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 14, issue 2, 1999, Pages 200~207