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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Characteristic on the Heating Deformation of Sleeve by Heating Method
Youn, Il-Joong ; Lyu, Sung-Ki ; An, Chang-Woo ; Ahn, In-Hyo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 1~7
Nowadays, out of other transmission parts, the sleeve is getting more and more important part for exact and smooth shifting from gear ratio change whenever drivers are needed. To exact and smooth shifting when drivers are needed, all the parts connected with gear shifting should be machined exactly and having dimensions designers are intended. Especially, in case of the sleeve that the most important functional part to shift from gear ratio change that drivers are intended, it needs high precision grade and quality in both sides runout and outer dia runout as well as inner spline small dia & large dia. Because it's assembled with the synchro hub spline and shifted directly with the mating cone. So, it should be applied the hear treatment(hereinafter referred to H.T.M.T) to prevent the friction and percussion loss from shifting with mating cone. At this time, the deformation problems are raised from almost H.T.M.T. process and it makes the inferior part.
A Study of Corrosion Resistance Improvement for Cr-Mo Steel in Long Term Service
Jin, Yeung-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 8~15
It is no wonder that mechanical structures are accompanied by problems related to corrosion after being exposed to long hours of work. Corrosion of mechanical structures has been the most serious problem in the field of industry. The present study employed a laser beam irradiation test to improve the corrosion resistance of degraded Cr-Mo steel, which was used for more than 60,000 hours. To find the optimum irradiation test condition for the corrosion resistance of degraded Cr-Mo steel, hardness and residual stress measurements, micro-structural observation, and the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) tests were performed with changes in laser beam test conditions including laser beam output, diameter, and velocity. Thus, the present study indicates that the optimum test condition and absorption energy for a laser beam test need to be determined to enhance corrosion resistance of degraded Cr-Mo steel.
A Knowledge-based Electrical Fire Cause Diagnosis System using Fuzzy Reasoning
Lee, Jong-Ho ; Kim, Doo-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 16~21
This paper presents a knowledge-based electrical fire cause diagnosis system using the fuzzy reasoning. The cause diagnosis of electrical fires may be approached either by studying electric facilities or by investigating cause using precision instruments at the fire site. However, cause diagnosis methods for electrical fires haven't been systematized yet. The system focused on database(DB) construction and cause diagnosis can diagnose the causes of electrical fires easily and efficiently. The cause diagnosis system for the electrical fire was implemented with entity-relational DB systems using Access 2000, one of DB development tools. Visual Basic is used as a DB building tool. The inference to confirm fire causes is conducted on the knowledge-based by combined approach of a case-based and a rule-based reasoning. A case-based cause diagnosis is designed to match the newly occurred fire case with the past fire cases stored in a DB by a kind of pattern recognition. The rule-based cause diagnosis includes intelligent objects having fuzzy attributes and rules, and is used for handling knowledge about cause reasoning. A rule-based using a fuzzy reasoning has been adopted. To infer the results from fire signs, a fuzzy operation of Yager sum was adopted. The reasoning is conducted on the rule-based reasoning that a rule-based DB system built with many rules derived from the existing diagnosis methods and the expertise in fire investigation. The cause diagnosis system proposes the causes obtained from the diagnosis process and showed possibility of electrical fire causes.
A Study for Development and Characteristics of Electrostatic Eliminator for Charged Particles
Jung, Yong-Chul ; Kim, Joon-Sam ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 22~30
On this study, we developed the electrostatic eliminator for charged particles in manufacturing process. The characteristics of the electrostatic eliminator were investigated, which is two kinds. The first one is Electrical Corona Discharged Type Ionizer. The second one is Photo Ionizer in using soft X-ray. From the experiment, we have obtained the following results. In case of Electrical Corona Discharged Ionizer, neutralization efficiency of charged particles were approximately saturated to 98% over 6.0kV, but as it is non-explosion proof, can not be used in flammable particle treatment process. While in case of photo Ionizer in using soft X-Ray, neutralization efficiency of charged particles were approximately 95%, and more its structure is explosion proof, could be used in flammable particle treatment process.
Development of Implemental Procedure for K-Risk Based Inspection
Lee, Hern-Chang ; Shin, Pyong-Sik ; Lim, Dae-Sik ; Kim, Tae-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 31~37
To apply easily the K-RBI program in domestic industries, an implemental procedure for K-RBI program was prepared. The K-RBI program had been developed, based on API-581 BRD. Therefore, through the usage of the developed K-RBI program and the implemental procedure, industries would have a benefit from reduced costs by modifying a frequency of an inspection efficiently. Also, the reliability of facilities would be maximized through improvement of an inspection method for facilities, considering its risk.
A Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Gas Explosion due to Vent Shape and Size
Chae, Soo-Hyun ; Jung, Soo-Il ; Lee, Young-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 38~44
The majority of both small and large-scale experiments on gas explosion have been carried out in the explosion instruments with cylindrical tubes of a high length/diameter ratio and vessels of a high height/length ratio, focusing on investigating the interaction between propagating flame and obstacles inside the tubes or vessels. The results revealed that there is a strong interaction between the propagating flame and turbulence formed after the flame passes the obstacle. However this paper focuses on analyzing the pressure impact or profile outside the vent in vented gas explosion in a partially confined chamber by performing gas explosion experiments in a reduced-scale experimental assembly properly constructed. This study has considered eight different cases in gas explosion based on variation of three kinds of parameters such as height of vessel, shape of the vent and vent size, and reveals that the large vessel with big size circle vent is more danger to the target than others because the overpressure is spread out faraway horizontally and vertically.
Measurements of Autoigniton Temperature(AIT) and Time Lag of BTX(Benzene, Toluene, Xylenes)
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 45~52
The AITs(autoignition temperatures) describe the minimum temperature to which a substance must be heated, without the application of a flame or spark, which will cause that substance to ignite. The AITs are often used as a factor in determining the upper temperature limit for processing operations and conditions for handling, storage and transportation, and in determining potential fire hazard from accidental contact with hot surfaces. The measurement AITs are dependent upon many factors, namely initial temperature, pressure, volume, fuel/air stoichiometry, catalyst material, concentration of vapor, time lag. Therefore, the AITs reported by different ignition conditions are sometimes significantly different. This study measured the AITs of benzene, toluene and xylene isomers from time lag using AS1M E659-78 apparatus. The experimental ignition delay times were a good agreement with the calculated ignition delay times by the proposed equations wtih a few A.A.D.(average absolute deviation). Also The experimental AITs of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene were
A Development on Assessment Method of PVC Gloves Used in Pest Control Program
Lee, Su-Gil ; Lee, Nae-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 53~58
Following a Mediterranean fruit fly outbreak in South Australia, a bait spray program involving the pesticides like malathion(MAL) was carried out. During the application, dermal exposure was considered for the pest controllers wearing PVC gloves. However there is a lack of information about PVC glove performance like break through times and permeation rates with MAL, therefore, a new analytical method for HPLC-UV was developed. A standard permeation test cell was used in this study. From the results of this study, more than 96% solubility of MAL was provided at 30% isopropyl alcohol in distilled water as a collecting media. However, there was significant decomposition of MAL when the solutions were kept at over
for 2-3 hours. As a mobile phase, 50% acetonitrile water solution (pH 6.0) gave the greater sensitivity compared with other compositions of acetonitrile solution. The arm section of the gloves had shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates compared with the palm. There was no malathion solution breakthrough up to 24 hours using the 1% MAL working strength solution. When the temperature was changed from
, the breakthrough times were decreased by 14.5% on palm and 37.5% on arm, and permeation rates were increased significantly. The findings of this study indicate that further investigations on used gloves, periods of use and varying working conditions like tasks and seasons should be carried out to assess potential worst case scenarios.
The Quantitative Assessment of Occupational Accident Reduction by the Injury Ratio Survey Regulations
Ahn, Hong-Seob ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 59~66
Injury Ratio Survey Regulations(IRS) was introduced to the construction industry in the Republic of Korea since 1992 and brought positive effect on occupational accidents reduction. There were tremendous decrease of injury ratios and enforcing of contractors' safety organizations from the beginning of IRS. In spite of these positive results, there were some negative effects such as contractors' shrinking injury reports to keep good injury ratios since these figures had a great impact on pre-qualification stage of bidding when general contractors were competing for new construction projects. Thus, this study aims to devote on lessening construction injury and elimination of above negative impacts through the quantitative statistic analysis of the effectiveness on the occupational accidents prevention of IRS. According to this assessment, there were decrease of from 6.37% to 44.34% in the accident ratios compared to those of non-IRS groups and decrease of from 3.32% to 83.51 % in the accident ratios compared to those of general industry including the unreported accidents.
Risk Assessment for Hazardous Construction Work Recognized by Workers
Son, Ki-Sang ; Lee, Shin-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 67~72
This study is to investigate the related materials such as domestic law regulation, research paper, research report, and the other material, and to suggest suitable counter measures, to find out hazard degree for its works of workers and work place through direct survey, in order to determine risk score of each hazardous work which is designated by the Government, without consideration of labour's consciousness against risk level at a site. Therefore, a new questionnaire survey related to the decision of risk level are made and distributed to find out what risk level each worker recognizes. Also, the authors tried to approach reasonable conclusions after discussing reasonability of qualification standard and improving ideas of worker at hazardous work places with worker, faculty member, H&S manager, labour union. And the results show hazard degrees by each work kind of the above: 3.75 for working with machinery, 3.7 for steel structure, 3.5 for operation of tower crane, 3.51 for retaining wall, 3.85 for form work, 3.46 for scaffolding are obtained. This quantified risk can be applied to establishing a reasonable system to keep safe against hazardous works.
A Study on Resisting Force of H-Shaped Beam Using Glass Web Plate
Son, Ki-Sang ; Jeon, Chang-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 73~80
Generally beam design depends on the yielding and maximum strength of each member varying with its section shape. Web plate of H-shape beam has not been substituted with glass plate, because it is known that its strength and heat properties are different and it is limited to substitute the existing steel web with glass element. Ceiling height of each room should be decreased with more than 60-80cm due to the beam. Differently from this condition, glass web beam has a good point to see through it and sunshine can be penetrate into the other size especially when it is installed as of outside wall. And also, it can be safer due to controlling room inside easier, if the strength is applicate. This study is to show some applicability after finding out the properties using the test. The test members with a size of
being SS41 rolled steel having THK 9mm flange while having 8,10mm and reinforced glass 12mm thickness is bonded with epoxy bond under the condition of temperature
, humidity 50%, bonding power 24Mpa. It is show reinforced glass has 5 times of fracture stress more than the common glass but
difference between these 2 kinds of glass was shown. Reinforce glass did not support the original upper flange after fracture but the common glass did the upper flange after unloading. Generally reinforced glass is stronger than the common one but the common glass having a part of crack on it, compared with reinforced glass having the overall fracture could be more useful in case of needing ductility.
The Shear Lag Phenomenon in Bundled Tube Structure According to the Arrangement of Structural Members
Kim, Young-Chan ; Kim, Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 81~86
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of column spacing and beam size on the lateral displacement and shear lag phenomenon in bundled tube system. According to the parametric study in which the spacing of columns, the size of columns and girders in bundled tube were selected as a parameter, it is the most efficient to increase the size of the interior columns with the largest reduction of lateral drift if the steel tonnage of a frame can be increased. It was noticed that the shear lag was affected more by the exterior stiffness factor and ratio than by the interior ones when column spacing was changed, and when the size of column was changed, the reverse phenomenon was happened. And The change of column spacing affected shear lag, lateral drift, and tonnage more than that of column size or girder size.
Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction Considering Complicated Soil Profile
Park, Jang-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 87~93
When a structure is constructed at the site composed of soil, the behavior of a structure is much affected by the characteristics of soil. Therefore, the effect of soil-structure interaction is an important consideration in the design of a structure at the site composed of soil. Precise analysis of soil-structure interaction requires a proper description of soil profile. However, most of approaches are nearly unpractical for soil exhibiting material discontinuity and complex geometry since those cannot consider precisely complicated soil profiles. To overcome these difficulties, an improved integration method is adopted and enables to integrate easily over an element with material discontinuity. As a result the mesh can be generated rapidly and highly structured, leading to regular and precise stiffness matrix. The influence of soil profile on the response is examined by the presented method. It is seen that the presented method can be easily used on soil-structure interaction problems with complicated soil profile and produce reliable results regardless of material discontinuities.
A Reliability Analysis on the To-Box Reinforcement Method of PSC Beam Bridges
Bang, Myung-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 94~100
The goal of this study is to show the way to increase the safety of deteriorated PSC beam bridges by the to-box reinforcing method. This method is to change the open girder section into the closed box section by connecting bottom flanges of neighboring PSC girders with the precast panels embedding PS tendons at the anchor block. The box section is composed of three concrete members with different casting ages, RC slab, PSC beam, precast panel. This different aging requires a time-dependent analysis considering construction sequences. Reliability index and failure probability are produced by the AFOSM reliability analysis. Transversely five schemes and longitudinally two schemes are considered. The full reinforcing scheme, transversely and longitudinally, shows the highest reliability index, but it requires more cost for retrofit. The partial reinforcing scheme 4, 4-1 are recommended in this study as the economically best scheme.
A Study on the Strength Change of Used Pipe Support(III)
Paik, Shin-Won ; Choi, Soon-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 101~106
Formwork is a temporary structure that supports its weight and that of freshly placed concrete as well as construction live loads. In constructions site, pipe supports are usually used as shores which are consisted of the slab formwork. The strength of a pipe support is decreasing as it is frequently being used at the construction site. Among the accidents and failures that occur during concrete construction, there are many formwork failures which usually happen at the time concrete is being placed. The objective of this study is to find out the strength change of used pipe support and unused pipe supports according to aging. In this study, 2857 pipe supports were prepared. Among these pipe supports, 2337 pipe supports were lent to the construction companies free of charge. 520 pipe supports were kept on the outside. Compressive strength was measured by knife edge test and plate test at each 3 month. Test results show that the strength of unused pipe supports as well as used pipe supports was decreasing according to age, use frequency and load carrier, and the strength of used pipe supports was lower than the strength of unused pipe supports at the same age. So, the strength of used pipe supports from 191 days to present day was not satisfied the specification of KS F 8001. In this study, the strength of pipe support according to age, use frequency and load carrier was predicted using SPSS 12.0. It was known that the strength of pipe support using for 5 years was reduced to 42.8%. According to these results, it shows that attention has to be paid to formwork design using used pipe supports. Therefore, the present study results will be able to provide a finn base to prevent formwork collapses.
Assessment of Long-Term Effectiveness of Speed Monitoring Displays on Speed Variation
Lee, Sang-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 107~113
Speeding is one of major causes of frequent and severe traffic accidents in school zones. In this paper, the long-term effectiveness of speed monitoring displays (SMD) on speed variability was investigated through a field study in a school zone environment. The performance difference was discussed with several dependent variables including average speed, 85th percentile speed, and distribution of speed. Study results showed that the speed of vehicles began to reduce where the driver recognized the presence of an SMD, and about 12.4 percent (5.8km/h) of average speed was reduced at the SMD location. This speed reduction was observed throughout the day regardless of time of day. Statistical tests showed that the speed difference was statistically significant. In addition, analysis results of speed distribution showed that the number of speeding vehicle was greatly reduced after the SMD was installed, and 85th percentile speed also decreased from 54.3km1h to 45.0km/h. Therefore, it was concluded that the application of SMD produced a positive impact on the driver's behavior for a long period of times.
Maximum Crack Width Control in Concrete Bridges Affected By Corrosion
Cho, Tae-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 114~121
As one of the serviceability limit states, the prediction and control of crack width in reinforced concrete bridges or PSC bridges are very important for the design of durable structures. However, the current bridge design specifications do not provide quantitative information for the prediction and control of crack width affected by the initiation and propagation of corrosion. Considering life span of concrete bridges, an improved control equation about the crack width affected by time-dependent general corrosion is proposed. The developed corrosion and crack width control models can be used for the design and the maintenance of prestressed and non-prestressed reinforcements by varying time, w/c, cover depth, and geometries of the sections. It can also help the rational criteria for the quantitative management and the prediction of remaining life of concrete structures.
Psychophysical Load for Females Depending on Arm Posture, Repetition of Wrist Motion and External Load
Kee, Do-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 122~126
This study investigated effect of arm posture, wrist motion repetition and external load on perceived discomfort through an experiment. Eleven female college students participated in the experiment, where shoulder, elbow and wrist motion, wrist motion repetition, and external load were used as independent variables. The results showed that only external load had a significant effect on perceived discomfort. The perceived discomfort linearly increased with external load. Based on the results of this and the previous study for males, it was concluded that effect of external load on perceived discomfort was larger than that of other posture and motion repetition related variables. This implies that effect of external load is the most important factor considered in the first place when assessing postural load.
Development of a Road-map for Promoting Product Safety Standards
Lim, Hyeon-Kyo ; Ko, Byung-In ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 127~136
In 2002 Product Liability Act newly got into effect in Korea so that efforts for Product Safety got a new chance to promote safety standardization. Under the supervision of the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards (ATS) and the Korea Standards Association (KSA), the enterprise titled "Standardization of Product Safety" took the first step in 2000. Thenceforth a lot of standards and guidelines for product safety have been developed. The results of the enterprise were in the type of technical manual as well as report, technical guidelines, and specific technical safety standards. In this paper, the authors narrated those sequential efforts for Product Safety, and introduced the basic concept on which standardization of Product Safety Management System was conducted and individual safety standard has been developed. Based on this systematic concept, a global road-map as well as specific road-maps for developing safety standards in individual industry were supplied. Finally, suggestions for proceeding to the whole risk management system including other risky factors were appended.
A Validity Verification of Human Error Probability using a Fuzzy Model
Jang, Tong-Il ; Lee, Yong-Hee ; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 21, issue 3, 2006, Pages 137~142
Quantification of error possibility, in an HRA process, should be performed so that the result of the qualitative analysis can be utilized in other areas in conjunction with overall safety estimation results. And also, the quantification is an essential process to analyze the error possibility in detail and to obtain countermeasures for the errors through screening procedures. In previous studies for the quantification of error possibility, nominal values were assigned by the experts' judgements and utilized as corresponding probabilities. The values assigned by experts' experiences and judgements, however, require verifications on their reliability. In this study, the validity of new error possibility values in new MCR design was verified by using the Onisawa's model which utilizes fuzzy linguistic values to estimate human error probabilities. With the model of error probabilities are represented as analyst's estimations and natural language expression instead of numerical values. As results, the experts' estimation values about error probabilities are well agreed to the existing error probability estimation model. Thus, it was concluded that the occurrence probabilities of errors derived from the human error analysis process can be assessed by nominal values suggested in the previous studies. It is also expected that our analysis method can supplement the conventional HRA method because the nominal values are based on the consideration of various influencing factors such as PSFs.