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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Safety
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
A Study on Construction of 3D Virtual Space from Digital Map
Sung, Won-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 1~6
This study describes a construction procedure of 3D virtual space using the NGIS data and its application to simulation. 3D space topography is modeled by using DEM consisted with triangular regular network. The elevations of nodal points of DEM are calculated through the interpolation with contour line and elevation points from the NGIS. Also, data for 2D roads and their environments, such as trees, lamps, and traffic signals, were extracted from the NGIS and projected on the DEM surfaces to get 3D virtual space. To give a reality to 3D virtual space and accelerate its graphic speed, data were converted into the directX format. It is believed that the virtual space constructed in this work can be applicable to the ubiqutous because DEM data can be converted to the AutoCAD format and ASCII code.
A Study on Risk Evaluation and Classification of Fire Equipments for Certification
Choi, Gi-Heung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 7~12
This study focuses on the classification of fire equipments for certification based on the risk evaluation. In general, known statistics on fire equipment-related accidents needs to be used for risk evaluation. When statistics is not available, however, expected frequency and severity of accident for individual equipment can be taken into account in evaluating the related risks. Based on the level of inherent risks, each equipment is then classified into three categories for certification. For equipments that risk evaluation is not possible, characteristics of those products such as reliability are considered for classification. Once classified, each equipment is assigned an appropriate certification module.
A Study on Enhancement of Thermoelectric Cooling System Performance by Piezoelectric Actuator
Yang, Ho-Dong ; Yoon, Hee-Sung ; Oh, Yool-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 13~19
The thermoelectric cooling system consisted of the thermoelectric module, a heat sink and a cooling fan, respectively. Also, the piezoelectric actuator was applied to improve the performance of thermoelectric cooling system and investigate the heat transfer phenomenon. The temperature distribution of test section was measured to investigate cooling characteristics of thermoelectric cooling system. The flow phenomenon of test section was visualized using visualization device. When the piezoelectric actuator was applied to the heat transfer process of thermoelectric cooling system, acoustic streaming was occurred in test section. The acoustic streaming was occurred forced convection flow, and was regularly formed the temperature distribution in test section. The results clearly show that the acoustic streaming is one of the prime effects to enhance the convection heat transfer and can enhance the performance of thermoelectric cooling system.
Creep Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperature
Chung, Chin-Sung ; Kim, Ho-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 20~26
The creep deformation behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy was examined in the temperature range from 573 to 673K (0.62 to 0.73 Tm) under various constant stresses covering low strain rate range from
. At low stress level, the stress exponent for the steady-state creep rate was ~3 and the present results were in good agreement with the prediction of Takeuchi and Argon model. At high stress level, the stress exponent was ~5 and the present results were in good agreement with the prediction of Weertman model. The transition of deformation mechanism from solute drag creep to dislocation climb creep could be explained in terms of solute-atmospherebreakaway concept.
Unsteady Flow Effects on Extinguishing Concentrations in Jet Diffusion Flames
Ji, Jung-Hoon ; Oh, Chang-Bo ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 27~31
An experimental study on the unsteady effect of the extinction limit was performed in ethene jet diffusion flames. To impose the unsteadiness on jet flames, the amplitude and frequency of a co-flow velocity was varied, and the two inert gases,
, were used to dilute the oxidizer for extinguishing concentration. The experimental results shows that large amplitude of velocity induces a low extinguishing concentration, which implies that flow variation affects the blow out mechanism. Also, the flow oscillation effects under high frequency attenuates the flame extinction. These results means that flow unsteadiness extends the extinction limit and finally minimum extinction concentration by inert gases. When the Stoke's 2nd Problem is introduced to explain the flow unsteadiness on extinction concentration, the solution predicts the effect of amplitude and frequency of velocity well, and hence it is concluded the effect of low frequency velocity excitation was attributed only to flow effect.
The Development of the Analysis Program for the Electric Shock Accidents Occurred in the TN and TT System
Lee, Seok-Won ; Ryu, Bo-Hyuk ; Kim, Hyung-Seok ; Jung, Won-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 32~38
According to the statistics from the Ministry of labor, 70~80 people died by work-related electric shock accidents in the workplace and this number is about 10~20 times higher than those of the foreign countries such as Japan and the United Kingdom in frequencies and rates per 100,000. The electrocution deaths had decreased from several hundred in 1990s to 67 in 2002, since then there has been little change over the last 5 years. To reduce this number of the electrocution death, it is necessary to analyze the sources of the accidents and to implement the suitable measures for preventing the similar accidents from occurring. But there is not any consensus standard method or procedures for accident investigation yet. And the results solely depend on the ability of the investigator. Because of the demand of eliminating technical barrier for free trading, the IEC 60364 is adopted as a regulation for low voltage electrical installations in Korea. The facilities designed and constructed by IEC 60364 are increasing. The facilities by IEC 60364 have different features in comparison with the facilities by Korea eletro technical regulation, and these features combined with parameters of electric shock accident can greatly affect the consequences of the electric accidents. The accident analysis program for electric shock injuries in Terra Neutral(TN) and Terra Terra(TT) system was developed in this paper, which was based on KOSHA Electric Shock Analysis Program(ESAP).
A Study on the Safety Management of the Electrostatic in Working Clothes at the Gas Station
Lee, Geum-Hwan ; Chung, Jae-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 39~44
In order to prevent fire and explosion due to the electrostatic discharge at the Gas Station etc. This result will be applied to standard in the future. Wearing the non-electrostatic removing wear, Charged voltage of human body is 3,980V(MIE is approximately 0.79mJ). There is a possibility of fire explosion because the MIE of LP gas is 0.25mJ. In accordance with using period(whasing times), Charged voltage is shown that propensity is increased. Electrostatic charge amount is upper standard(
C) of the hazard of electrostatic removing wear. There is a possibility of fire and explosion. Therefore, countermeasure and management are needed about gas station worker.
A Study on the Reconfiguration in the Regulation of Electric Safety Management for the Guarantee of Safety
Chung, Jae-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 45~49
This study is to prepare a reasonable basis for the improvement of the electrical safety management regulation. The standards in domestic and foreign countries for the application of new and renewable energy facilities and other devices are analyzed. Other regulations excluding the electrical safety fields and wide surveys are also carried out. Consequently, it is asked that the classification between normal and self electrical facilities should be clear and deregulation for small businesses has to be followed. This study is showed that standards investigates of receiving equipment below 600V above 75kW, eletrical safety manager employment of manufacturing industry and Mid-night electric power. And, it is showed that consignment permission and Consignment inspection periodic relaxation about wind development equipment below 1,000kW, consignment of Technical Development equipment for new and renewable energy below 250kW.
A Comparative Study on the Electrostatic Eliminator of Piezo Type Ionizer and Pulse AC Corona Type Ionizer
Kwon, Sung-Yul ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Jae-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 50~54
Ionizer is used for improving manufacturing process and reducing inferior goods in the clean room. As a general rule, neutralization of the electrostatic charge is most important to make TFT-LCD, PDP and OLED. Pulse AC-static eliminator with output voltage of about 10.5kV has been used these days as neutralization device. But this device has a problem with lower performance which was caused by particles-adhesion on the electrode when it has been used for a long time. So we studied to solve the problem with lower performance using high Frequency(72kHz) static eliminator which was produced by Piezo transformer device, and compared Pulse-AC type with Piezo-electronic device such as decay time and ion balance for 10 weeks periods. As a result of this study, we found that Piezo transformer device has been maintained normal condition for 10 weeks. Also, we made the rule by this study, normally Piezo transformer device has to clean the electrode during every 11th weeks.
A Study on the Activation Energy and Characteristics of the Heat Decomposition of Flour
Kwon, Sung-Yul ; Choi, Jae-Wook ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Jae-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 55~62
After examining the characteristics of the heat decomposition of the 80~120mesh flour using the Mini cup pressure vessel test and determining the apparent activation energy in a spontaneous combustion, the conclusion is as follows. The heat decomposition of flour occurs at around
and the peak for the maximum rise in pressure appears at around
. The decomposition pressure against various temperature in the vessel shows the maximum value of
. When the thickness of the sample is 3cm, the maximum temperature and the critical temperature of ignition are
, respectively; the critical temperature is
when the thickness of the sample is 5cm, and
when the sample is 7cm. In addition, the apparent velocity calculated using the method of least squares is 35.0407Kcal/mol.
A Study on the Preparation of Halogen Free M-P Flame Retardant and Its Application to Composite Material
Lee, Soon-Hong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 63~71
In order to improve flame retardancy, the halogen free organic melamine phosphate(M-P) flame retardant was synthesized from melamine and phosphoric acid by the reaction of precipitation. The ignition test was carried out preparing hybrid flame retardant compound(
) consisting of organic M-P and inorganic Mg
as a flame retardant in the polyolefin resins. The flame retardancy and mechanical properties of flame retardant aluminum composite panel(
-ACP) were performed to investigate the possibility of the composite material, which was contained M-P, as a inner core for
-ACP. For this study, the results of ignition test indicate that a char formation and drip suppressing effect, and combustion time reduced as the content of M-P increased. The limited oxygen index(LOI) values were measured 17.4vol% and 31.5vol% for LDPE only and
-3(M-P content: 15wt%), respectively. And it was verified that the
-3 was needed more oxygen quantity with the increase of M-P content when it combustion. Also, the results from thermogravimetric analysis were observed endothermic peak at
, it was confirmed predominant thermal stability though the wide temperature range by the mixture of M-P and Mg
. The LDPE-ACP (using only LDPE as a inner core),
of heat release rate(HRR) and 13.43MJ/m2 of total heat release(THR) were measured while the
of HRR and 1.84MJ/m2 of THR were measured by results of cone calorimeter test. In case of
-ACP, the average gas emission amount of CO and
could be decreased down to 25% and 20%, respectively, in comparison with LDPE-ACP. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, bending strength and adhesion strength of
-ACP were revealed slightly high values
and 120N/25mm, respectively, compared with LDPE-ACP. It was confirmed that flame retardancy was improved with the synergy effect because of char formation by M-P and hydrolysis by Mg
. The result of this study suggest that
can be applied for an adequate halogen free flame retardant composite material as a inner core for ACP.
A Study of Dermal and Ocular Exposure to Isocyanate-Based Paints in Crash Repair Workshops
Lee, Su-Gil ; Pisaniello, Dino ; Lee, Nae-Woo ; Tkaczuk, Michael ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 72~78
Exposure to HDI(hexamethylene di-isocyanate) commonly used in vehicle crash repair workshops remains a leading cause of occupational asthma. Although skin and eye contamination are considered as absorption routes, there are no occupational exposure standards for skin and ocular exposure. This is the reason why there are more empirical data should be provided. Therefore this study was to determine contamination levels of HDI on the skin, eyes, work surfaces, respirators and eye protectors. There was evidence of contamination on a variety of work surfaces, for example, door handles, bench top and spray gun, etc. A high proportion(47~80%) of skin wipe samples from neck, forehead, back hand, palm and wrist was positive for HDI contamination, even though spray time was relatively brief. The contamination levels from spraying inside spray booth were generally higher than outside booth due to poor work practices and inappropriate personal protective use like safety gloves. Apprentices had higher exposure levels than the qualified painters, likely due to lack of the recognition of safety and hygiene. The extent of contamination inside the PPE might provide an indication of the potential for respiratory & skin exposure and ocular exposure. Eye fluid samples from 4 out of 14 workers had the positive detection of HDI contamination, due to poor work practices like no or inappropriate eye protection. Considering the potential for dermal & ocular exposure to contribute to possible health symptoms including respiratory sensitization, the empirical data point to a need for improving work practices and appropriate PPE selection, use and maintenance.
Examination of Value Engineering for Bridge Superstructures using Analytic Hierarchy Process
Park, Jang-Ho ; Shin, Yung-Seok ; Ahn, Ye-Jun ; Lee, Kwang-Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 79~85
This study presents an algorithm to select the best alternative plane among various bridge superstructure types(Steel box girder, Rational girder, PSC-I girder) using Value Engineering(VE). Economical efficiency, landscape, constructability, maintenance, stability, function of bridge superstructure were taken into consideration in the designing of bridge. Economical efficiency was evaluated for each alternative plan with optimal design considering Life Cycle Cost(LCC). Repair and rehabilitation histories and some factors were set to get reasonable results. In the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP), consistency of Pairwise Comparisons Matrix was evaluated and the best plan was determined.
New Paradigm on the Safety Check of Concrete Gravity Dams at Earthquake
Bae, Jung-Joo ; Kim, Yon-Gon ; Lee, Jee-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 86~92
In the safety check of gravity dams at earthquake, there have been two types of analysis conducted simultaneously; one is stability analysis and the other stress analysis. But those are essentially the same calculation other than the former considers the dams rigid, while the latter considers the dams' dynamic characteristics which results in the amplification of response acceleration on the upper part of dam body. In this paper, the identity of those two methods is verified by example calculation in terms of stability check of gravity dam. It can be concluded that if stress analysis were performed, stability check of gravity dam could be accomplished with the results from stress analysis, removing unnecessary present dual calculation practice.
Reinforcement Location of Plate Girders with Two Longitudinal Stiffeners
Son, Byung-Jik ; Lee, Kyu-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 93~102
Because steel girder bridge has big slenderness ratio, buckling is very important in design. Local buckling of plate girders having two longitudinal stiffeners in different positions under various load conditions is investigated. Various parametric study according to the change of web height, transverse stiffeners and load conditions are examined. These parametric studies are performed by numerical simulation utilizing finite element method. The objective of this study is to present the rational reinforcement location of two longitudinal stiffeners. The results of analysis are compared to that recommended by korean specifications for road bridges(2003).
Investigation of Flexural Toughness Development of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete at Early Ages
Lee, Chang-Joon ; Shin, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 103~110
Since the mechanical properties of cement-based materials are time-dependent due to the prolonged cement hydration process, those of fiber reinforced concrete(FRC) may also be time-dependent. Toughness is one of important properties of FRC. Therefore, it should be investigated toughness development of FRCs with curing ages to fully understand the time-dependent characteristics of FRCs. To this end, the effect of curing ages on flexural toughness development of steel fiber reinforced concrete is studied. Three point bending test with notched beam specimen was adapted for this study. Hooked-end steel fiber(DRAMIX 40/30) was used as a fiber ingredient to investigate w/c ratio and fiber volume fraction effect on toughness development during curing. Three different water-cement ratios(0.44, 0.5 and 0.6) and fiber volume fractions(0%, 0.5% and 1%) were used as influence factors. Each mixture specimens were tested at five different ages, 0.5, 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. The study shows that flexure toughness development with age is quite different than other concrete material properties such as compressive strength. The study also shows that the toughness development trend correlates more closely to water/cement ratio than to fiber volume fraction.
Accident Characteristics by Age Construction Workers
Park, Jong-Hyun ; Lee, Chan-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 111~118
As the construction project gets bigger in scale, the actual construction itself is becoming more complex. The construction accidents occupy 26.18 percent of total death disaster according to the accidents report in 2007. It is the highest figure among the entire industry, and it shows how serious the construction accident is. In order to reduce accidents occurred in the construction industry, we should find the accident characteristics of construction workers by age. In this study, we investigated 589 cases of fatal accidents, and classified them by trades, type of works, the things that caused the accident, how they occurred, and size. We then identified accident characteristics for each group by analysing them in accordance with workers age. The result of analysis showed that in carpenter and common laborer, the number of death accidents increased as the workers age increased. Another characteristics were that the number of death accidents increased as the age increased in finishing work and reinforced concrete construction and in a smaller-scale businesses, respectively. Common labor was the trade with the highest number of death accidents and the laborers of 50 age or higher in age in finishing working type were the most vulnerable to death accidents.
The Assessment of the Risk Index in the Bridge Construction by the AHP Method
Lee, Myeong-Gu ; Jeong, Myeong-Jin ; Kim, Kyu-Dong ; Choi, Soon-Ju ; Park, Seung-Kook ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 119~123
The purpose of this study is to verify the assessment of the risk index by the AHP method effective in the bridge construction. We compared that by the AHP method with the risk index by the accident analysis in the bridge construction. This method results in the useful tool deciding the assessment of the risk index according to work type in the bridge construction.
Safety Management Information System in Construction Work - Focus on Apartment Work -
Park, Jong-Keun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 124~131
In any form of construction work, it is essential that accidents be prevented at every stage, from foundation preparation to build completion. For this, it is necessary to use models that can assess risk and provide instructions for safe work processes so that the risk of accidents is reduced. Currently, however, very few models can perform these tasks. In this paper, we present a model that assesses risk quantitatively by analyzing the risk factors involved in each stage of construction, such as foundation work, temporary work, structural work, equipment work, and finishing work. The model performs assessment based on examples of accidents and by investigating actual conditions during construction. In addition, we present in this paper a safety management system developed to assess risk during construction and to effectively train laborers.
A Study on Factors Influencing the Work Ability Index of Shipbuilding Industry Workers
Chang, Seong-Rok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 132~135
The population over 65 years of age in Korea will be 10.3% of the entire population in 2008 indicating that Korea is already in an aging society. In addition, it is expected that Korea will be in an aged society in 2018 (population over 65 years of age : 14.3%) and that it will be in a post-aged society in 2026 (20.8%). Consequently, aged workers may also increase. It is well-known that the possibility to work longer and to live better is highly related to the work ability of individual. The objective of this study was to evaluate the work ability of each age group using the Work Ability Index(WAI) in the shipbuilding industry, and to assess the effects of social psychological stress, drinking characteristics, smoking characteristics, etc. on the WAI score. The results showed no significant difference on the effects of aging, drinking, and smoking characteristics. Interestingly, a statistical analysis on the effects of social psychological stress revealed a significant difference by stress levels. The difference of the average WAI score between the healthy group and the high risk group was about 10 points. Based on this result, it can be concluded that the stress level is an influential factor on WAI.
A Study on the Preventive Measures against Fall Injuries in Manufacturing Industry Focusing on the Portable Ladders
Kim, Hyung-Seok ; Lee, Seok-Won ; Jung, Won-Jae ; Ryu, Bo-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 136~143
The injuries as a result of fall accidents is the one of the most common kind of injuries in Korea, especially fall from height is the top most common kind for fatal injuries. Futhermore, the number of fall injuries in manufacturing industry has been steadily increasing from 2000 to 2007. In 2007 the number of fall fatal injuries increased 10.6 % in comparison with the number in 2006. These numbers are 6~17 times higher than those for foreign countries such as the U.K and the USA. So, it is needed to make a study to reduce these numbers for manufacturing industry. To get the goals, we did research as followings. First, this study analyzed statistics by industry, by fall height, by common agent and so on to gain an insight into real aspect of fall injuries. It showed that ladder is the commonly cited agent for manufacturing industry, and 3 risky activities ; the ladder work, the load/unload work, and the maintenance work. Secondly, this study made a survey of manufacturing workers for their understandings of the most 3 risky activities. It showed that 'tendency to work easily' and 'difficulty of applying measures due to inherent working conditions' are main reasons for workers not to implement the preventive measures against the fall accidents. Thirdly, this study tested the slip characteristics of ladder base and lungs. The tests were done based on ANSI standard and KS. In addition to the standard condition, this study performed slip tests in wet and sandy conditions and compared the results with the those of standard condition. It showed that friction coefficient is standard condition > wet condition > sandy condition, and the friction coefficient of ladder for sandy condition is measured to be reduced by 63.9% compared with that for standard condition. Finally, this study developed safety work models for using of portable ladders in consideration of the safety standards of foreign countries such as the U.K, the USA, and the Australia.
A Study on the Processing Method of Reliability Database using 2-Bayes Theory
Lee, M.S. ; Rhie, K.W. ; Kim, T.H. ; Yoon, I.K. ; Oh, Y.D. ; Seo, D.H. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 144~149
The safety assessment for facility industry is now being periodically performed in Korea. For the purpose of scientific safety management, QRA(Quantitative Risk Assessment) is also being performed, and reliability data of the facilities is essential to perform the assessment. The necessary reliability data for QRA have been generally announced the values in other process industries, which results in the drop of risk reliability. The most appropriate method is to perform a direct reliability analysis towards the facilities undergoing safety assessment. In this study, the distinction between homogeneous sample estimation and multi-sample estimation of reliability data clarify using 2-Bayes theory.
A Study on the Reliability Analysis of Al Oil Pressure Switch for Automobiles
Cho, Myung-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Rhie, Kwang-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 150~156
The oil pressure switch(OPS) for automobile is very important part to prevent an overheated engine and other problems by checking the operation of an engine oil system and displaying oil signs on a dashboard. OPS is the part that receives various stress caused by temperature, vibration, and corrosion in an engine room. Regarding existing steel OPS cases, there occur field errors due to the rust, and much concern comes from the low anticorrosion caused by CR6+ Free according to the restrictions of heavy metals. Therefore, the study analyzed average life, the failure rate, and reliability through the tests of performance according to temperature changes, mechanical strength, and run-test in order to confirm if the use of the oil pressure switch with Al of anti-corrosion can improves the reliability, instead of the existing steel products.
The Safety Assessment of Surrounding Dose on Nuclear Medicine Test by Use The F-18 FDG
Kwak, Byung-Joon ; Ji, Tae-Jeong ; Min, Byung-In ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 24, issue 6, 2009, Pages 157~162
Radioactive medicines are used a lot owing to the increase of a PET-CT examination using glucose metabolism useful for the early diagnosis of diseases. Therefore, the spatial dose that is generated from patients and their surroundings causes the patients' guardians and health professional to be exposed to radiation. However, they get unnecessarily exposed to radiation because medical institutions lack in space for isolation and recognition of the examination. This research intended to examine the spatial dose rates by measuring the dose emitted from the patient for 48 hours to whom F-18 FDG was administered. The spatial dose rates that were measured 100cm away from the patient's body after F-18 FDG was injected were
Sv/hr at 60-minute point,
Sv/hr at 90-minute point,
Sv/hr at 6-hour point, and
Sv/hr at 12-hour point. When the dose that the guardian and health professional got was converted into the annual(240-day working) accumulative dose, it was examined that the guardian received 81.56 mSv/yr and health professional received 49.36mSv/yr. In addition, the result has revealed that the dose that the patient received from one time of PET-CT examination was 3.75mSv/yr, which is 1.5 times more when compared with the annual natural radiation exposure dose.