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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of Smoke Emissions from Light Duty Diesel Vehicles Using Light Extinction Smoke Measurement Method under free Acceleration Test Mode
Kang, Il-Ho ; Lee, Choong-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1~8
Characteristics of smoke emission in light duty diesel vehicles was investigated according to the year of production, engine displacement volume, and mileage. The smoke emission was measured using light extinction smoke measurement method under free acceleration test mode. Total number of the tested vehicles was 180. The year of production of the tested vehicles distributed from 2002 to 2007. The displacement volumes of the tested vehicles were categorized as 2-liter, 2.5-liter, 2.7-liter, and 3-liter. The mileage of the tested vehicles distributed from 20,000 km to 400,000 km. The more recent in the year of production of the tested vehicles did not show clearly lower in smoke emissions. Smoke emission showed different values according to driver's pedal pushing pattern. Also, smoke emission peak for each free acceleration test initially increased and reach a maximum of the peak values. Afterwards, the smoke peak gradually decreased as number of test increased. A new guide line was proposed to determine the smoke value from the light duty diesel vehicles based on smoke emission peak patterns which were obtained with several repeated free acceleration tests.
Evaluation of Ramp Test Using Human Perception
Kim, Jung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 9~14
The objectives of this study were to compare the results of HSL (Health and Safety Laboratory) ramp test with perceived sense of slip onto the several different floor surfaces under contaminated conditions. There are a variety of approaches from biomechanical measurements to psychophysical test and human perception. However, controversies over these approaches still remain. Some widely accepted methods need to be improved. AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was used to evaluate the perception of slipperiness of seven different floor surfaces under the contaminated condition with glycerol solution. Twelve subjects worn same footwear and walked with self-selected step and cadence along the test floors. The angle of inclination obtained for water wet condition using 5 l/min with HSL ramp test was compared to perception of slipperiness. The surface roughness (
) related very well both AHP (r=0.95) and ramp test (r=0.92). The high significant correlation (r=0.90) was found between AHP and HSL ramp test.The HSL ramp test values (Coefficient of Friction, COF) according to subjective evaluation were divided into two categories. There were high correlations between test results (subjective evaluation, HSL ramp test) and surface roughness in Rz. Perception rating obtained with AHP showed a high correlation with COF obtained with HSL ramp test.
Fatigue Behavior of Fine Grained AM60 Magnesium Alloy Produced by Severe Plastic Deformation
You, In-Dong ; Lee, Man-Suk ; Kim, Ho-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 15~19
The fatigue behavior of AM60 magnesium alloy produced by equal channel angular pressing(ECAP) process was investigated through fatigue lifetime and fatigue crack propagation rate tests. The grain structure of the material was refined from 19.2
after 6 passes of ECAP at 493 K. The yield strength(YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increase after two passes but decrease with further pressing, although the grain size becomes finer with increasing pass number. The softening effect due to texture anisotropy overwhelmed the strengthening effect due to grain refinement after 2 passes. A large enhancement in fatigue strength was achieved after two ECAP passes. The current finding suggests that two passed material is better than the multi-passed material in view of the static strength and fatigue performance.
Fault Detection Signal for Mechanical Seal of Centrifugal Pump
Jeoung, Rae-Hyuck ; Lee, Byung-Kon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 20~27
Mechanical seals are one of main components of high speed centrifugal pumps. So, it is very important to detect the faults (scratch, notch, indentation, wear) of mechanical seals since the damage of seal can cause a critical failures or accidents of machinery system. In the past, many researchers mainly performed to detect the seal fault using the time signals measured from sensors. Recently, studies are focused on the development of on-line real time monitoring system. But study on the feature parameters used for fault detection of mechanical seals has a little been performed. In this paper, we showed feature parameters extracted from accelerated and acoustic signals by using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), alpha coefficient, statistical parameters. And also verified the possibility for fault detection of mechanical seal.
Forensic Scientific Analysis for Glass Breakdown Patterns
Song, J.Y. ; Sa, S.H. ; Nam, J.W. ; Kim, D.H. ; Choi, Y.W. ; Kim, J.P. ; Goh, J.M. ; Park, N.K. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 28~35
We investigated the breakdown patterns of silica glass under the various impacts by forensic scientific analysis. The impacts were chosen by thermal and projectiles impact stress. Thermal impacts under the fire were constructed by changing the position of the flame with gas torches. Physical impacts were constructed with the projectiles of slingshots and rifles by changing the size of the projectiles at the surfaces and the initial distance. Also we identified incident angles of the projectiles by analysis of the punching portion at the glass surface. Under the thermal impacts, the breakdown patterns were various by changing the position of the flame. Especially, the configuration of breakdown patterns had radial shape with the position of the flame at the center of the glass sheet. Under the physical impacts by the projectiles, the breakdown patterns had always radial shape.
Prediction of Poor Contact by Analysis of Electrical Signal and Thermal Characteristics
Lee, Heung-Su ; Kim, Doo-Hyun ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Yoon-Bok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 36~41
Electrical Connections often cause fires due to poor contact. Occurrence rate of these fires tends to increase annually. The reason why poor contacts occur is often because it is the low mechanical pressure at the contact points. A typical connection method using mechanical pressure is a screw terminal type. This study reviewed these poor contact cases in the screw terminals. In order to get reproduction of such cases, two types of experiments were conducted. the first one was conducted under the normal contact condition, and the other one was conducted under the poor contact condition that screw terminal of breaker was loosen and did not meet the requirements of toque value. In both types of experiments, compulsory vibration was adopted as a variable to aggravate poor contacts. Each of various current values(4.5A, 9.0A, 13.5A) is input. In these experiments, relationships of a contact, electrical signal such as current and electric pulse by ZCT and thermal characteristics according to vibration effect are analyzed. The suggested data and results in this study provide the useful resources helping to investigate fires due to poor contact, and they develop the detector for poor contact and finally reduce the electrical fire occurrence rate.
Analysis of Current Signals for Overcurrent and Series Arc in Traditional Market Shops
Kim, Doo-Hyun ; Hwang, Dong-Kyu ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Sang-Ryull ; Lee, Jong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 42~48
This paper is aimed to analysis of electrical fire risk by overcurrent and series arc signals in traditional market shops Firstly, the field state investigation was conducted for shops at the traditional market (30 shops). At each shop in the traditional market, load characteristics were investigated and thermal characteristics in Panel were analyzed. Thermal characteristics in Panel is an indicator that can determine the impact of overcurrent. Results of the field state investigation found out four shops which showed abnormal thermal characteristics in Panel. Electrical load characteristics of these 4 shops were simulated by experimental setup consists of generator, motor and heater. In order to verify the electrical fire risk by electrical loads of 4 shops, arc and overcurrent experiments were conducted. The waveshapes of arc and overcurrent are investigated in both the time and frequency domains to find signal characteristics. The results obtained in this paper will be very helpful for the prevention of electrical fires occurred at the shops in the traditional market.
Analysis on Emergency Power Supplies in Buildings and a Model for Safe Operation of the Emergency Power System
Lee, Won-Kang ; Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 49~56
The purpose of this paper is to present a model for operating an emergency power system(EPS) that can secure a sufficient power supply used in case of a fire by analyzing the status of power supplies for emergency and firefighting operations. Investigations on the one of the causes of the operational failure of firefighting systems show evidence of EPS. Generally, when power to a building is interrupted, EPS supplies the emergency load(excepted firefighting load) first. When a power outage and a fire occur simultaneously, the EPS must be able to supply both the emergency load and the firefighting load, especially the firefighting load to the end. However, in order to save construction costs, emergency power generators in apartment, commercial, and business buildings can satisfy only one of the required loads. In cases like this, when a power outage and a fire occur simultaneously, there is a danger of firefighting equipment not operating due to insufficient power supply from the emergency generator. Therefore, an EPS must have a reserved firefighting power that can supply both the firefighting and the emergency load. Such EPS, when faced with a danger of an overload, will shut down the supply to all or part of the emergency load, thus securing a continuous power supply to the firefighting equipment. The generator power system with reserved firefighting power (RFP) will also have an indicator to show that the selective control is being used. General power generation systems for emergency load and firefighting load were found to have a demand factor of 50-60% with a lump. However, when installing an EPS, the builders must choose the higher demand factor suggested according to the official approval demand factor of the building.
Study on Dangerous Factors and Damage Pattern Analysis of Leaking Water from Water Purifiers
Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 57~62
The purpose of this paper is to find dangerous factors of a water purifier when water leaks due to inappropriate use and analyze the patterns of damaged parts in order to provide data for the examination of the cause of the problem. If the water purifier is inspected and managed by a non-specialist, when the FLC(Float Level Controller) at the top is inclined, water leakage may occur to the water purifier. The leaked water flows onto the cables and hoses and enters the thermostat terminal, heater, PCB, power supply connection connector, etc., becoming a dangerous factor that may cause a system failure, fire, etc. Due to the water that entered the input terminal, low noise and white smoke were generated at first. However, the flame gradually propagated due to the continuous inflow of moisture. It was found that when moisture reached the PCB, a carbonized conductive path was formed at the varistor terminal, input terminal, semiconductor device terminal, etc., and the flame became larger, which might result in a fire. From the metal microscope analysis of a damaged condenser terminal, it was found that the amorphous structure unique to copper cable disappeared, and voids, boundary surface and disorderly fine particles occurred. Also, in the case of the connector into which moisture penetrated, fusion and deformation occurred at the cable connection clips. The result of analysis of the power supply cable connector using a thermal image camera showed that most of the heat was generated from the cable connection clips and the temperature at the connection center was normal.
An Experimental Study on the Minimum Ignition Energy in Low Voltage Spark Discharge by Electrode Material
Choi, Sang-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 63~70
In the hazardous areas where explosive gases, vapor or mists exist, electrical apparatus and installations must be the explosion-proof construction to prevent or limit the danger of the ignition of potentially explosive atmosphere. In Korea, nine types of protection have been specified in the government regulations at present: flameproof enclosure, pressurization, oil immersion, increased safety, intrinsic safety, non-incendive, powder filling, encapsulation, and special types. Among these types, the intrinsic safety has the construction which limit or by-pass igniting the electric energy using electronic devices. This type has lots of merits but at the same time requires a high-degree of technology. In this paper, we investigated several dominating factors which affect the minimum ignition energy; this energy plays a very important role in design and evaluation of the intrinsic safety type electrical apparatus. Electrode material, which is one of the most important factors, was intensively studied for the five sorts of material(Al, Cd, Mg, Sn, and Zn) with performing experiment in a low-voltage inductive circuit using IEC-type(International Electro-technical Commission) spark apparatus. The experimental results show that the minimum ignition energy of electrode material is varied: highest in Cd and lowest in Sn. We also confirmed the effect of electrode make-and-break speed.
Extinguishing Concentration of Inert Gases in Heptane Pool Fires
Jung, Tae-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 71~76
The coflow velocity effect on the minimum extinguishing concentration(MEC) was investigated experimentally in heptane cup-burner flames. Various inert gases(
, He) were added into the oxidizer to find the critical concentration and the effectiveness of the agents on flame extinction. The experimental results showed that the MECs were increased with increasing coflow velocity for most inert gases except helium, but the higher coflow velocity induced the lower burning rates of heptane. This indicated that the increase of coflow velocity resulted in the decrease of fuel velocity evaporated from fuel surface, and hence the stain rate on the reaction zone was also decreased. In the case of helium as a additive, the extinguishing concentration was independent of the coflow velocity because the heat conductivity was ten times larger than the other inert gases and flow effect by a strain rate might be compensated for heat loss to the surroundings.
A Study on Improving Management of Substances Requiring Preparation for Accidents Facilities
Kim, S.B. ; Park, C.H. ; Cho, M.S. ; Lee, J.S. ; Kim, J.M. ; Noh, H.R. ; Seok, G.S. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 77~82
The leakage of toxic chemicals impact seriously on human being and environment, therefore during their treatment process, a proper management system is necessary to control their toxic effect. This study was designed to suggest the management regulation that supports business managers and facilities management. There are no extra regulation to control emergency accidents and terrors in chemical facilities. Developed countries like USA operate the management standards to control the toxic chemical and facilities according to their toxicity and processes. In order to solve this problem, we have analysed the advanced nations standard methods of security in chemical plants to study the new security management regulation which helps to prevent the chemical accidents. Especially, in USA, CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety), SVA (Security Vulnerability Assessment) and RBPSs (Risk-Based Performance Standards) of DHS (Department of Homeland Security) were invest I gated. On the basis of the results, we have suggested the application methods of the security and safety regulation in Korea.
The Investigation of Compatibility of Combustible Characteristics for n-Tridecane
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 83~88
For the safe handling of n-tridecane, the lower flash points and AITs(auto-ignition temperatures) by ignition delay time were experimented. Also lower explosion limits by the lower flash points were calculated. The lower flash points of n-tridecane by using closed-cup tester were experimented
. The lower flash points and fire point of n-tridecane by using open cup tester were experimented 100 oC and 103 oC, respectively. This study measured relationship between the AITs and the ignition delay times by using ASTM E659 apparatus for n-tridecane. The experimental AIT of n-tridecane was 223 oC. The calculated lower explosion limit by using measured lower flash point 92 oC for n-tridecane was 0.6 Vol.%.
A Study on the Concentration Variations of VOCs and Formaldehyde on the Type of Interior Materials of New Vehicles by Simulation Program
Yi, Young-Seop ; Kim, In-Bum ; Ko, Won-Kyoung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 89~95
The concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) and Formaldehyde(HCHO) for interior materials of new vehicles are estimated and recognized by using the simulation program known as IAQx. The concentrations of contaminants are estimated and evaluated by the ventilation rates of new domestic vehicles and the required ventilation rates for new vehicles are estimated through the given contaminant data. This study is conducted to compare the ventilation rates for the contaminants between the discontinuously ventilated new vehicles and the continuously ventilated new vehicles using the simulation program. The equation of ventilation rate of new vehicles is acquired to be able to lower initial concentrations below the standard level under different conditions for both business and personal commuting.
Chemical Resistance Characteristics of Concrete Surface Coating Agent with Flexibility
Han, Sang-Hoon ; Yoon, Ju-Yong ; Lee, Byung-Ro ; Hong, Ki-Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 96~103
The purpose of this study is evaluate the ability of coating materials developed in order to prevent the durability deterioration of the concrete structure. Neutralization test, freezing and thawing test, and sulfate resistance test were performed in this study. Test results show that the developed coating material is effective against durability deterioration.
Development of Design Charts to Estimate Member Forces on Basement Wall
Kim, Young-Chan ; Kim, Ju-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 104~110
It is a common practice to design basement walls acting as a one-way slab or plate with idealized boundary conditions, resulting in potentially inefficient design. The walls are often supported by buttress columns and side walls in the vertical direction, thereby acting as a two-way slab. In this study, structural behavior of single-story, three-span basement wall subjected to lateral soil pressure was investigated. Three dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to determine the force distribution on the wall. Based on the numerical studies, a regression analysis was carried out to determine the design values of moments in vertical and horizontal directions as well as shear forces on the wall and design charts are developed. The proposed design method with accompanying design charts would enable practicing engineers to estimate member forces on the wall for preliminary design purpose without resorting to finite element analysis. Numerical examples demonstrated the applicability of the proposed method.
Quantitative Safety Assessment for Hydrogen Station
Seong, D.H. ; Rhie, K.W. ; Kim, T.H. ; Oh, D.S. ; Oh, Y.D. ; Seo, D.H. ; Kim, Y.G. ; Kim, E.J. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 111~116
This study is about the quantitative safety assessment of hydrogen station in Korea operating with on-site type. This was written by background information that before qualitative safety assessment to write. For the qualitative safety assessment method, the study used FMEA(failure mode & effect analysis) and HAZOP(hazard & operability), and adopted the FTA(fault tree analysis) as the quantitative safety assessment method. To write the FTA, we wrote FT by Top event that hydrogen leakage can be called most serious accident of hydrogen station. Each base event collect reliability data by reliability data handbook, THERP-HRA and estimation of the engineering. Assessment looked at the high frequency and the possible risk through Gate, Importance, m.cutsets analysis.
Emergency Evacuation Scenario Study of Urban Metro Vehicle Running on Elevated Guideway
Kim, Young-Sang ; Maeng, Hee-Young ; Wang, Jong-Bae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 117~124
There have been recently introduced new types of urban metro vehicles called LRT (Light Rail Transit) running on elevated guideway such as Uijeongbu VAL(which stands for V
hicule Automatique L
ger: Automatic Light Rail Vehicle) system, Yong-In LIM(Linear Induction Motor) system, Incheon international airport MAGLEV(Magnetic Levitated Vehicle) system and Daegu monorail system. Most of accidents by the vehicles are bound to happen on elevated guideway. Therefore, it is of vital importance to analyze hazards related to vehicles running on elevated guideway and study emergency evacuation scenarios applicable in case of accidents on elevated guideway so as to secure the safety of the new types of urban metro vehicles. In this study, FTA(Fault Tree Analysis) model was developed to identify all possible hazards, and all possible evacuation scenarios were studied. It was also confirmed that each hazard can be corresponded to one or more evacuation scenarios. This result shows that passengers can be evacuated according to one of the scenarios identified in this study in case of an accident of "Train Stranded on Elevated Guideway".
Relationship between Job Stress and Work Ability
Lee, Yu-Jeong ; Chang, Seong-Rok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 125~130
According to the Korea National Statistical Office data in 2010, the population over ages of 65 years would possess to 11.3% whole population of Korea in 2011 denoting Korea is already in the aging society. Old age is associated with inevitable time-dependent losses in physical capabilities. However the maintenance of physical capabilities is essential for continuing independence in old age. The work ability index(WAI) was constructed to reveal how well a worker is able to perform his work. This study focused on the discovery of an industrial and age-related influences on the work ability and job stress of workers in the shipbuilding, house managing, apartment construction industry. For this, the study conducted a job stress test using the Korean Occupational Stress Questionnaire Short Form, and employee performance evaluations using the Work Ability Index (WAI) of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) on 3,228 workers in the shipbuilding, house managing and apartment construction industry. SPSS 12.0 K statistics program was used for statistics analysis and significance was verified with the Kruskal-Wallis test, a corporate body of nonparametric statistical analysis. As a result, employee performance had significant differences, depending on age, an industrial and years of service. The mean WAI score of the shipbuilding industry was lower than that of the other industry. Additionally, it was found that employee work ability decreased more as job stress increased.
Quantified Comparison of Work Characteristics for Musculoskeletal Hazards Assessment of Industrial Workers
Lim, Hyeon-Kyo ; Yun, Jong-Hun ; Luo, Meiling ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 131~140
Though there might exist not a few differences between cyclic works and atypical works, many researchers have applied the same assessment techniques that used for repetitive works, which may result introduce bias in their conclusions. This research aimed to verify whether there exist non-negligible work characteristics and/or dissimilarity among works with different work nature and whether one of the most prevalent assessment techniques for assessing ergonomic hazards of musculoskeletal disorders, REBA, can be applied to atypical works. For a general hospital, an automobile repair shop, and two auto-part assembly plants which manufactures quite different parts, a questionnaire survey and field investigation and ergonomic assessment were carried out and analyzed statistically with reference to the 3rd Quantification technique. The results showed that there exist remarkable difference between physical factors in cyclic works and atypical non-cyclic works. As for repetitive work, body posture was significant factors affecting on musculoskeletal disorders while atypical works seemed to have none which implied that the necessity of taking psychosocial factors into account for assessment of hazards. Complain rate in repetitive works was highest shoulder, back, and neck or wrist in sequence. However, there existed no consistent trend in complain rate in atypical works. And, though weight of manufacturing objects was a common factor that can partly explain musculoskeletal complain, time duration was significant in atypical work whereas repeatability and body posture were significant in repetitive works. As being the results, to summarize, it could be said that application of conventional ergonomic assessment techniques regardless of repetitiveness would be fruitless, and that the necessity of a unique methodology focused on atypical non-cyclic works should not be neglected.
Traffic Accident Analysis of Link Sections Using Panel Data in the Case of Cheongju Arterial Roads
Kim, Jun-Young ; Na, Hee ; Park, Byung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 141~146
This study deals with the accident model using panel data which are composed of time series data of 2005 through 2007 and cross sectional data of link sections in Cheongju. Panel data are repeatedly collected over time from the same sample. The purpose of the study is to develop the traffic accident model using the above panel data. In pursuing the above, this study gives particular attentions to deriving the optimal models among various models including TSCSREG (Time Series Cross Section Regression). The main results are as follows. First, 8 panel data models which explained the various effects of accidents were developed. Second,
values of fixed effect models were analyzed to be higher than those of random effect models. Finally, such the variables as the sum of the number of crosswalk on intersections and sum of the number of intersections were analyzed to be positive to the accidents.
A Study on Development of Traffic Accident Merging Index for Local Governments
Rim, Cheoul-Woong ; Cho, Jeong-Kwon ; Kim, Su-Yeol ; Kim, Ju-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 147~152
Traffic Accident Merging Index (TAMI) is developed for TMACS (Traffic Safety Information Management Complex System). TAMI is calculated by combining 'Severity Index' and 'Frequency'. The existing indexes are Traffic deaths per 100,000 population, Traffic deaths per 100,000 inhabitants/per billion veh-km, etc. However, there is no consistency in using them among local governments, so it can create confusion. Moreover, the index level is too complicated to understand. Therefore, this study suggests new traffic safety index, TAMI. It will work to improve the weaknesses and present accurate status of traffic safety in local governments.
A Basic Study on Analysis of Influencing factor of Bus Accidents in Bus Lane Section
Park, Jun-Tae ; Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Kim, Jung-Yeol ; Jang, Il-Jun ; Lim, Joon-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 153~160
Various social problems such as traffic congestion, car accidents and environmental problems(air pollution, noises etc.) have been happening in the Seoul metropolitan area that has the car oriented traffic system providing cars continuously. Along with this, the financial burden caused by current oil price anxiety made paradigm shift from caroriented to public transportation-oriented. Its typical example is an arterial branch bus system changing(bus lane through the center of main road) started in Seoul in July, 2004. But study on safety analysis of bus lane and characteristic of accidents are not sufficient enough to now. The bus lanes are expanded to provide roads for better traffic operation and accidents between buses and pedestrians or ordinary vehicles are considered main problems. This study divided each bus route of median bus lane(bus-only lane through the center of main roads) and bus lane at roadside by intersection and collected and analysed data about influence variables of bus accidents chosen in each section. We constructed a logistic model using collected data. As a result, bus lane at roadside are used by both buses and other kinds of vehicles differently from median bus lane and showed such characteristic in accident influence. Therefore access management to factors causing conflict and improvement of operation management are required. In case of median bus lane, the more buses moving general vehicle lane and traffic volume of section were, the more accidents happened. In case that stop line of center lane is not backward, view blocking of vehicles turning left caused accidents.
Accident Analysis of 3-legged and 4-legged Roundabouts
Park, Min-Kyu ; Park, Byung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 161~166
This study deals with the accident of roundabout. The objective is to analyze the traffic accidents occurred in 3-legged and 4-legged roundabouts through the developed models. In developing the multiple linear regression models, this study uses the number of traffic accidents as a dependent variable and such the variables as geometric structures, traffic characters and others as the independent variables. The correlation and multicollinearity of variables were analyzed using SPSS17.0. The main results are as follows. First, R-square value of developed models were analyzed to be 0.851(3-leg) and 0.689(4-leg), respectively. Second, the independent variables in the 3-legged roundabout accident model were analyzed to be the traffic volume and number of crosswalk, and the variables in the 4-legged roundabouts were evaluated to be the traffic volume and signal. Finally, the paired t-test shows that the predicted values and observed values are not statistically different.
A Study of the Relationship between Driver's Anxiety EEG & Driving Speed in Motorway Sections
Lim, Joon-Bum ; Lee, Soo-Beom ; Kim, Keun-Hyuk ; Kim, Sang-Youp ; Choi, Jai-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 167~175
For establishing a standard of design element of the smart highway, this study investigated driver's anxiety EEG according to running speeds and geometric designs. Also, the experiment was implemented on 60 subjects. Based on running speed data and brainwave data, which were obtained from the experiment, this study analyzes anxiety EEG according to running speeds and geometric designs, and finally draws a forecasting model of anxiety EEG by selecting affecting factors of anxiety EEG. Forecasting model shows that left curve is the most influential on anxiety EEG figure. The reason is because when driver is driving on the first-lane, his or her visibility is impeded by a median strip. For this reason, anxiety EEG figure increases. And also steep downward slope and large radius of curve are heavily influential on driver's anxiety EEG figure. It is judged that anxiety EEG figure is increased by high speed on those section. Thus, the forecasting model of anxiety EEG suggested on this study will be utilized for design phase, and will decide the design speed on the superhighway. So, it will be used to make practical and safety road.
The Study of Burned-Area Analysis Method for Forest-fire Damaged Area - Investigation for ImSil County, GyeongJu City -
Kang, Seo-Young ; Lee, Jung-Yun ; Kim, Hong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 176~181
In this research the 2009 spring occurred during forest fire ImSil and research destination GyeongJu has been selected. Research in the field of the target time exploratory Boundary Data through after air photos, satellite photos and topographic map by using the combustion area was calculated. 2009 March 1-forest fire occurs on the day of the weather information and weather changes wildfire in the check in any affected. Study research destination of combustion is ImSil 161 ha, GyeongJu 270.93 ha. The impact of the weather-temperature dry weather forest fires this favorable situation to occur and the wind directions and the spread of the mountain wind speed was less impact has no arguments.
A Study on Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Forest Fires Depending on Region and Altitude
Park, Young-Ju ; Lee, Hae-Pyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 182~188
In this study we analyzed carbon emissions of leaves of a Pinus densiflora which is vulnerable to a forest fire using the cone calorimeter in order to analyze greenhouse gas emissions from forest fires depending on region and altitude. Fuels were collected from 9 regions[Hongcheon(Gangwon-do), Chungsong(Gyeongbuk-do), Yanhpyeong (Gyeonggi-do), Jecheon(Chungchongbuk-do), Gongju(Chungcheongnam-do), Wuju(Jeollabuk-do), Youngam(Jeollanam-do), Busan and Jeju-do)] and 9 altitudes(80 m, 450 m, 900 m, 1000 m, 1100 m, 1200 m, 1300 m, 1400 m and 1500 m) and then, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions contained in a weight of 50 g of fuel were analyzed. According to the results, there were differences in carbon emissions by regional groups, as the average carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions in 9 regions were nearly 43.5929 g to 52.8868 g, and 0.8842 g to 3.6422 g, respectively. Busan and Jecheon had relatively higher carbon dioxide emissions and especially, Busan had 1.23 times higher carbon dioxide emissions than Jeju-do. Also, Gongju, Chungcheongnamo Province and Busan had relatively higher carbon monoxide emissions and especially, Gongju and Pusan had relatively higher carbon monoxide emissions and especially, Gongju had 4.12 higher carbon monoxide emissions than Hongcheon. In addition, there were differences in carbon emissions too depending on altitude, since carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions in 9 altitudes were respectively, 40.7015 g to 68.9297 g and 1.3923 g to 12.2918 g. At the altitude of 80m, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions were respectively, 68.9297 g and 12.2918 g, and at the altitude of 450m, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions were respectively, 65.5115 g and 11.2497 g. These results show that pine trees at the lower altitude discharge relatively more carbon. It is considered that this analysis on carbon emissions depending on region and altitude can be effectively used for predicting greenhouse gas emissions and establishing statistical data from forest fires in each region and altitude.
A Study on the Weighting of Fire Safety Attributes for Fire Risk Assessment in Historic Buildings - Focused on NakSansa-
Lee, Ji-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Safety , volume 27, issue 3, 2012, Pages 189~196
Fire is one of the greatest threats to historical buildings not only to the building's occupants but also to the building's structure and contents. The purpose of this research is to evaluate fire risk in historical buildings in Korea through a series of survey and review. In this research, a multicriteria decision-making approach involving Analytical Hierarchy Process has been designed to determine a weighted index to identify factors and quantify fire risk. Fire risk ranking systems of historical building has been developed in some applications, for example, BOCA, WISCONSIN, FSES and HFRI. According to the such derived fire risk indexing, the Human Activity index showed the highest risk, followed by Historic Buildings, Fire Safety Systems, and then Natural Environmental Causes. Comparison of these factors indicates that the derived risk values differ from case to case. It is proposed that a performance-based design approach should consider the building & occupant characteristics, locations and historical significance, resulting in a more accurate and effective evaluation of fire risk.