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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 100, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 100, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 100, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 100, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Application of Remote Sensing Technology for Developing REDD+ Monitoring Systems
Park, Taejin ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Jung, Raesun ; Kim, Moon-Il ; Kwon, Tae-Hyub ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 315~326
In recent years, domestic and international interests focus on climate change, and importance of forest as carbon sink have been also increased. Particularly REDD+ mechanism expanded from REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) is expected to perform a new mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas in post 2012. To conduct this mechanism, countries which try to get a carbon credit have to certify effectiveness of their activities by MRV (Measuring, Reporting and Verification) system. This study analyzed the approaches for detecting land cover change and estimating carbon stock by remote sensing technology which is considered as the effective method to develop MRV system. The most appropriate remote sensing for detection of land cover change is optical medium resolution sensors and satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) according to cost efficiency and uncertainty assessment. In case of estimating carbon stock, integration of low uncertainty techniques, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), SAR, and cost efficient techniques, optical medium resolution sensors and satellite SAR, could be more appropriate. However, due to absence of certificate authority, guideline, and standard of uncertainty, we should pay continuously our attention on international information flow and establish appropriate methods. Moreover, to apply monitoring system to developing countries, close collaboration and monitoring method reflected characteristics of each countries should be considered.
Analysis of Health-related Push and Pull Factors in Mountain Climbing
Kim, Jae Jun ; Lee, Hye Rin ; Lee, Min Ha ; Kang, Min Ji ; Park, Su Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 327~333
This study was aimed to specify health-related push and pull factors in mountain climbing and provide effective management strategy for mountain-based recreational setting through the identification of the reciprocal relationship between the push and pull factors. The results of survey by 440 mountain climbers at Mt. Dobong, Mt. Bukhan, Mt. Kwanak, and Mt. Cheonggye showed that three dimensions were respectively derived from health-related 15 push items and 11 pull items; therapeutic care, mental health, physical fitness in push factors and cultural, socio-economic, and natural environment in pull factors. According to an analysis of influence between push and pull factors, natural environment was reported to be the greatest influencing pull factor on therapeutic care and physical fitness, and socio-economic environment was on mental health.
German Forest Recreation in Nature Parks (Naturpark)
Lee, Ju-Hyoung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 334~343
The purpose of the present research is to study the recreational use of German Nature Parks with comparing the Korean Recreational Forests. They were studied because both were not only founded for nature protection, but also for recreational use. The recreational offerings of German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests found to reflect the expectations of their recreation users. Therefore the recreational uses of both countries will be recognized throughout this study. To review recreational offerings, services and infrastructure, a complete search of all German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests was conducted. In summary, there were very good and varied activities that posed few demands on German Nature Parks. Some broad and very good offerings could be identified in the form of environmental education programs as well as many different kinds of services and infrastructure. Korean Recreational Forests were characterized by passive activities having few environmental education programs with only simple tour themes. The reason for this condition was that there were fewer holiday periods in Korea than in Germany and the conurbation life style in Korea, due to geological conditions, has led to less experience with nature.
Psychological Effects of Walking in the Urban Forest: Results of Field Tests in Shinjuku-gyoen, Japan
Song, Cho Rong ; Lee, Ju Young ; Park, Bum Jin ; Lee, Min Sun ; Matsuba, Naoya ; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 344~351
The aim of this study is to clarify the psychological effects of walking in the urban forest and to examine how the effects differ in accordance with individual personality. The study subjects comprised 18 male Japanese university students (21.0
0.8 years old). These subjects were instructed to walk predetermined 20-min courses in the urban forest and the city (control). Three questionnaires (POMS, STAI-S, and SCL-90) were administered to assess the subjects' psychological responses. The KG's Daily Life Questionnaire was used to examine the subject's personalities for presence of the Type A behavior pattern. The study found that walking in the urban forest improved the participants' positive mood and decreased their negative mood, anxiety, and other negative mental symptoms. Moreover, Type B subjects showed a bigger change than Type A subjects on the SCL-90's obsessive and compulsive scale. Our results supported the premise that walking in the urban forest has relaxing effects, and that these effects can differ in accordance with the subject's personality characteristics.
The Study on the Lowest Limit Time of the Tending of Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Forest for the Control of Pine Sawyer (Monochamus alternatus)
Jeon, Kwon-Seok ; Park, Nam-Chang ; Yoon, Hee-Tak ; Hong, Sung-Cheon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 352~358
Field Cage plots (
) were established (7 units) to find the lowest limit time about the tending of red pine forest (Pinus densiflora) which can no longer be used as a habitat by Monochamus alternatus, vector insect of pine wilt disease at the experimental forest of the southern forest research center of the Korea forest research institute in February in 2010. Thinning slashes (length, 1 m; diameter, 5~10 cm) tended at the different times were put in cages, and 4~6 couples of adult M. alternatus were put into each the cage in June. Presence or absence the larval entrance holes and larval were determined in November in 2010. Incase of the combination 24, 18, 12 and 6-month-old thinning slashes from thinning times to the time of adult emergence inside a single cage, larval entrance holes were found in the 6-month-old and 12-month-old thinning slashes but larvae were found only in the 6-month-old thinning slashes (treatment 1). In case of the combination 24, 18, 15 and 12-month-old thinning slashes inside a single cage, larval entrance holes were found in the 15-month-old and 12-month-old thinning slashes but larvae were found only in the 12-month-old (treatment 2). When 24, 18, 15, 12 and 6-month-old thinning slashes with treated dry and humid condition were put separately inside each cage, larval entrance holes were found in the 18, 15, 12, 6-month-old thinning slashes without the relation of the dry and humid conditions. But larvae were found in the 15, 12, 6-month-old thinning slashes in the dry conditions and only in the 6-month-old thinning slashes in the humid conditions. Results indicated the lowest limit time which can no longer be used as a habitat by M. alternatus is before 24 month from the time of adult emergence.
Effects of Forest Tending Works on the Crown Fuel Characteristics of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Stands in Korea
Kim, Sungyong ; Lee, Byungdoo ; Seo, Yeonok ; Jang, Mina ; Lee, Young Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 359~366
The objective of this study was to analyze the changes of crown fire hazard possibility from the effects of forest tending works (FTW) in Pinus densiflora stands in Korea. The study sites were located in Youngju (FTW) and Bonghwa (Control) areas. Ten representative sample trees were destructively felled at each areas to analyze the crown fuel characteristics. The results of this study showed that crown fuel moisture content in Youngju and Bonghwa areas were 103.6% and 104.4%, respectively. The needles and twigs with less than 1cm diameter accounted 50.3% of the total crown fuel load in Youngju area and 62.0% in Bonghwa area. On the other hand, it was observed in Youngju that the canopy bulk density was 0.11
lower but have 1.3 m higher average canopy base height therefore having a possibility of lower crown fire hazard as compared to Bonghwa that had higher canopy bulk density and lower canopy base height.
Enhanced Strobilus Production and Metabolic Alterations in Larix kaempferi by Stem Girdling
Lee, Wi Young ; Park, Eung-Jun ; Kang, Jin Taek ; Ahn, Jin-Kwon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 367~373
The demand for Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) seeds has increased in Korea but their supply has been limited due to sporadic natural seed production. To enhance seed production, stem girdling was applied to 42-yearold Japanese larches, resulting in remarkable enhancement of strobilus production in terms of the rate of strobilusbearing tree and the number of strobilus per tree. Metabolic alterations in the girdled and the control trees were interrogated through GC/MS analysis. In the girdled tree, the contents of 14 individual metabolites including polar and non-polar compounds were significantly increased compared to the control. In the cambium and phloem tissues of girdled trees, the contents of pimaric acid, phosphoric acid, sucrose, and two different unknown compounds were enhanced, while the levels of malic acid, inositol, two different disaccharide, 11-trans-Octadecenoic acid and 4 different unknown compounds were decreased compared to the control. The girdled trees showed to be contained significantly higher amount of total nitrogen in the cambium and phloem tissues than that of control trees. Although the role of individual metabolites on enhanced strobilus production remains unclear, the approach presented in this study might provide useful information in elucidating metabolic network modulation induced by girdling and will be further applied for enhanced strobilus production in Japanese larch trees.
Early Detecting Damaged Trees by Pine Wilt Disease Using DI(Detection Index) from Portable Near Infrared Camera
Kim, Moon-Il ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Kwon, Tae-Hyub ; Kwak, Doo-Ahn ; Kim, You-Seung ; Lee, Seung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 374~381
The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of early detection of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD) using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from ADC (Agricultural Digital Camera) imageries. The PWD induces the different patterns of reduction of NDVI between healthy trees and infected trees, due to the withered leaves on the infected trees. Based on these phenomena, the DI showing the NDVI variations of trees by time series was employed to detect the infected trees. To find out the differences of DI level between normal and infected trees, DIs of trees from May to August in 2007 were calculated and these were analyzed with GLM (General Linear Models) in SAS 9.2. As a result, the difference of DI between in June and August shows the most significant level (0.0001). The discriminant analysis was performed between normal and infected trees, using the DI of June and August. As the result, hit ratio of trees and the accuracy of grouping with Jack-knife method were shown 71.9% and 73.5%, respectively. These results showed that the DI is effective to detect the trees infected by the PWD and it is useful to prevent the PWD.
Identification of Trekkers' Characteristics: Focusing on Jirisan-round Trail Users
Kang, Mihee ; Jung, Hui ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 382~391
The purpose of this study was to understand Jirisan-round Trail trekkers' socioeconomic and travel characteristics, travel motivations, and travel attitudes. On-site and email surveys were carried out from July to November of 2008 and a total of 1,026 individuals' data were analyzed. Survey results showed that the percentages of middle age users, highly educated, and professionals/managers were relatively higher among trekkers of Jirisan-round Trail. And they traveled with a small group, collected destination-related information before traveling, and showed a high level of satisfaction. Especially they had not only strong motivations for admiring, understanding, and experiencing the nature but also positive travel attitudes. Based on the results of a cluster analysis, the trekkers of Jirisan-round Trail were divided into two groups, ecotourists and nature tourists. The ecotourists group showed relatively enthusiastic participation, more nature-oriented and culturally sensitive travel attitudes, and a higher satisfaction. The results would be used for establishing effective management strategies for building environmentally and socially responsible trekking culture.
Use of a Bootstrap Method for Estimating Basic Wood Density for Pinus densiflora in Korea
Pyo, Jung Kee ; Son, Yeong Mo ; Kim, Yeong Hwan ; Kim, Rae Hyun ; Lee, Kyeong Hak ; Lee, Young Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 392~396
The purpose of this study was to develop the basic wood density (Abbreviated BWD) for Pinus densiflora and to evaluate the applicability of bootstrap simulation method. The data sets were divided into two groups based on eco-types in Korea, one from Gangwon type and the other from Jungbu type. The estimated BWDs derived from bootstrap simulation, which is one of the non-parametric statistics, were 0.418 (
) in the Pinus densiflora in Gangwon while 0.464 (
) in the Pinus densiflora in Jungbu. To evaluate the bootstrap simulation, the mean BWD, standard error and 95% confidence interval of probability density were estimated. The number of replication were 100, 500, 1,000, and 5,000 times that showed constant 95% confidence interval, while tended to decrease in terms of standard errors. The results of this study could be very useful to apply basic wood density values to calculate reliable carbon stocks for Pinus densiflora in Korea.
Breeding Ecology of Tits Parus spp. Using Artificial Nest Boxes in a Deciduous Forest
Rhim, Shin-Jae ; Son, Sueng Hun ; Kim, Kyu-Jung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 397~401
This study was conducted to clarify the breeding ecology of tits Parus spp. used artificial nest boxes in a deciduous forest at the Ansung Campus, Chung-Ang University from March through July, 2006 to 2010. Varied tit Parus varius, marsh tit P. palustris and great tit P. major bred in artificial nest boxes during our study period. There were no differences in number of breeding bird pairs among different entrance diameters of artificial nest boxes. The number of breeding pairs of great tits was the most highest among tits and that of varied tits was the least. Great tits mainly used 40 mm and 35 mm artificial nest box entrance diameter and marsh tits preferred 30 mm entrance diameter. In three tits species, there were differences in first egg date, clutch size, brood size, egg incubation period, nestling care period and breeding success among study years. It is needed the study on long-term ecological research about breeding ecology of tits related with habitat conditions.
Crown Fuel Characteristics and Fuel Load Estimation of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. in Bonghwa, Gyeongbuk
Jang, Mina ; Lee, Byungdoo ; Seo, Yeonok ; Kim, Sungyong ; Lee, Young Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 402~407
The objectives of this study were to analyze the crown vertical structure, crown bulk density, and to develop regression models for predicting crown fuel load using the data from 10 destructively sampled Pinus densiflora trees in Bonghwa, Gyeongbuk. The fuel loads were observed higher in the middle portion of the vertical distribution of crown followed by the lower portion and upper portion of Pinus densiflora, respectively. Approximately 25% crown fuel load was found in the needle while 33% was observed in the branches with <1 cm diameter with a total of 58% available fuel loads. The average crown bulk density was 0.45
, and 0.27
of this was available in the needles and branches with <1 cm diameters. The resulting models in linear equations were able to account for 84% and 88% of the observed variation, while the allometric equations with diameter at breast height as the single predictor showed better results to account for 90% and 95% of the observed variation in the available crown fuel loads and total crown fuel loads, respectively. The suggested equations in this study could provide quantitative fuel load attributes for crown fire behavior models and fire management of red pine stands in Bonghwa areas.
Antioxidative Activity of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts
Chang, Jun Pok ; Doh, Eun Soo ; Kil, Ki Jung ; Yang, Jae Kyung ; Yun, Chung Weon ; Lee, Gun Hee ; Jung, Yun Hae ; Ji, Yoon Sun ; Kim, Bo Ram ; Choi, Myung Suk ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 408~416
Leaf and bulb of wild garlic (Allium victorials var. platyphyllum) from Ulleung Island and Gangneung region were extracted with water and 70% ethanol and investigated on its antioxidative activity. Total polyphenol content of Ulleung island wild garlic was higher than that of Gangneung region. Total polyphenol content in bulb was high compared to content of the leaves, and 70% ethanol extract of Ulleung Island leaf was high in 72.50 mg/g. Flavonoid content in leaf was higher than that of bulb, 70% ethanol extract of Ulleung Island leaf was high in 73.30 mg/g. Electron donating activity of 70% ethanol extract from Ulleung island and water extracts (55.13%) from Gangneung were higher than those of other extracts. Bulb extracts on electron donating activity were higher than those of the leaf extracts. SOD like activity of extracts was high in 70% ethanol extract of wild gallic leaf cultivated at Gangneung. Hydroxy radical scavenging activity of wild gallic was high in leaf extracts compared to activity of bulb extracts. Hydroxy radical scavenging activity (58.85%) of Ulleung island wild gallic leaf extracts was higher than that of the wild gallic leaves of Gangneung. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity was both high in water and 70% ethanol leaf extracts of Ulleung island and Gangneung region, especially, 70% ethanol extract of leaves from Ulleung island was the highest 73.33%. These results suggest that extracts from wild garlic could be used as an antioxidative functional food source.
Effects of forest tending on Landslide
Youn, Ho Joong ; Woo, Choongshik ; Lee, Chang Woo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 417~422
In general, forest tending work contributes to preventing landslides by enhancing forest health. In order to quantify beneficial effects of forest tending, landslide occurrences in forest tending area and those in non-forest tending area were compared and analyzed. The landslide had been hit hard in Inje and Pyeongchang county, Gangwon province, following Typhoon 'Bilis' on July 15, 2006. Data on forest tending of Pinus koraiensis and Larix kaempferi stands were acquired from the Inje National Forest Station, North regional forest service. The rate of landslide occurrence was increased sharply just after forest tending work and was decreased as time goes by. The analysis also found that the change in landslide frequency was slight by age class in the non-forest tending area, while it decreased as age class increased in the forest tending area.
A Study on the Basic Directions for Forest Rehabilitation Programs Considering to Economic and Social Conditions of North Korea
Park, Kyung Seok ; Lee, Seong Youn ; Park, So Young ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 423~431
The changes of forest degradation in North Korea have closely been related to political, economic and social conditions at all different times. The deforestation by local people for their livelihood has been accelerated when the recession has been worsened due to the 1990's collapse of socialism and the years of natural disasters, and the fall of the centralized and planned economy system. The serious recession in the 1990's has brought many changes in the North Korean society since the 2000's. Not only the underground economy, but also the market in which personal trades are occurred have been expanded as the distribution system of the planned economy system had fallen. In addition, even many state institutions have also increased timber harvest for export to acquire insufficient foreign currency. Eventually, North Korea felt the limits of utilization of forest resources under socialism then started to seek measures to restore devastated forest, while realizing the need of support from the international society. Therefore, some NGOs of South Korea started to give financial support on building tree nurseries in which seedlings for planting are produced to help the rehabilitation of the degraded forests in North Korea. Therefore, Planning of the basic directions for forest rehabilitation programs considering to economic and social conditions of North Korea are needed based on the successful rehabilitation experience of South Korea in the 1970's. First of all, relationships which was built after collapse of centrally planned economy between districts, businesses and workers must be consider to rehabilitate forests in North Korea. Secondly, due to the nature of forest rehabilitation projects this is very needs voluntary participation of resident for a long time, and then forest rehabilitation projects can create jobs for local resident, they can obtain continuous income on the forest rehabilitation projects field in order to promote resident's work in forest rehabilitation projects. Thirdly, the rate dependence on forests of the residents living must keep the level down by rural development projects going side by side with forest rehabilitation projects. Fourthly, use of exsisting forest management system in North Korea is also needed to ensure administrative power and labor for grand scale plantations in a short period of time. Meanwhile after the success of Forest Rehabilitation, it is very important to improve exsisting forest management system.
Growth and Fruiting Characteristics, and Nut Qualities of Castanea crenata by Low-Concentrated Liquid Fertilizer
Lee, Uk ; Hwang, Suk-In ; Kim, Mahn-Jo ; Kim, Ji-Hye ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 432~440
The objective of this study was to investigate growth and fruiting characteristics (e.g., nut qualities) of chestnut (Castanea cerenata) after applying various fertilizer treatments at the cultivation site in Suncheon. Fertilizer treatments were designed as follow: liquid fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer, and control. Both liquid and chemical fertilizer treatments provided the best growth in height and basal diameter. In addition, these two treatments were very effective for crown width of the trees between both east-west and north-south orientation. The liquid fertilizer treatment was effective on total length of the fruiting branch and length of the bearing to terminate part. Both liquid and chemical fertilizer treatments produced the longest length of basal to bearing part compared to the other two treatments. The liquid fertilizer treatment showed the most thickened basal diameter of the fruiting branch and the greatest diameter of above and below the bearing burr part. Elongation Index of the fruiting branch (EI) was the highest with liquid fertilizer treatment and the remaining four indices (Production Index of fruiting branch, PI; Ratio of Diameter between below and above bearing burr part, RD; Growth Index of fruiting branch diameter, GI; Thickness Index of fruiting branch or dormant branch, TI) were the highest with the chemical fertilizer treatment. Total number of produced branch per fruiting mother branch and number of small and weak branches per fruiting mother branch were highest on the control and liquid fertilizer treatment; however, all treatments produced similar numbers. The chemical and organic fertilizer treatments produced a high number of fruiting branches per fruiting mother branch, while organic and liquid fertilizer treatments produced a high number of burr per fruiting branch. The rate of commercializing on the basis of nut weight and quantity was higher on control (87.5%) than chemical fertilizer treatment (84.6%); however, the rate was even lower on liquid fertilizer treatment (84.3%) and organic fertilizer treatment (82.7%). The liquid fertilizer treatment showed the highest average of nut weight, while chemical fertilizer treatment showed the highest average number of fruiting burr. There was no significant difference in average number of normal nuts per burr among treatments. The yield per tree was high on chemical (8.2 kg) and liquid (8.0 kg) fertilizer treatments, but there was no significant difference among treatments. In the rate of nut grade on the basis of nut weight and quantity, the liquid fertilizer treatment, 43.5% and 34.3% more than large nut respectively, produced higher value chestnuts compared to other treatments.
Host Preference and Habitat Characteristics of the Endangered Mistletoe Species, Loranthus tanakae in Korea
Lee, Su-Gwang ; Kang, Ho-Duck ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 441~448
The objective of this study was to clarify the distribution, host preference and habitat characterstics of the endangered mistletoe species, Loranthus tanakae in Korea. Seven sites were selected for sampling in Gangwon Province, located in middle of Korea. Parameters including DBH, attached height, twig death, and the number of L. tanakae and Viscum album var. coloratum per tree for all infected individuals were investigated. One thousand, two hundred and seventy L. tanakae plants were found on the 420 host trees with 665 V. album var. coloratum on 227 of the trees. The infested host trees belonged to eight species and one variety species from six genera and five families. The highest percentage (86.9%) of individuals of L. tanakae were growing on Fagaceae. The infected trees occurred between altitudes of 420 m and 1,250 m above the sea level, but most of them were between 600 m and 900 m. The mean DBH and heights of parasitism were 38.6 cm and 13.0 m, respectively. Twig death was also observed on 300 host trees (71.4%) and 1.5 twig per tree. Most of the populations and the distribution of L. tanakae were highly affected by DBH out of some individual tree characteristics.
Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration with Embryogenic Tissue Lines in Pinus densiflora
Kim, Yong Wook ; Shin, Han Na ; Moon, Heung Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 449~454
This experiment was conducted to evaluate growth rate among 15 embryogenic tissue lines (ETLs), comparison of maturation on somatic embryos (SEs) with 13 ETLs and efficiency with various concentrations of gelrite on SEs germination in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora). In comparison of ETLs growth rate (folds) with 15 lines, the 05-4 line (5.3 folds) showed the highest rate, on the other hand, the lowest one was recorded in the line of 05-37 (1.4 folds). The 13 ETLs were tested for the extent of SEs production. The best production was recorded in the line of 05-4 (39.8/90 mg F.W.). However, most of ETLs, except 5 lines (05-4, 12, 21, 29 and 37), did not produce SEs at all, therefore, big differences in the ability of SEs production existed among the ETLs tested. Effects of various gelrite concentrations for SEs germination with 3 ETLs were also compared. The highest result was obtained from 0.2% gelrite concentration with 05-4 line (47.3%), there was a inclination that the rate of germination was gradually declined over 0.2% gelrite concentration with the 05-4 and 29 lines. respectively. In contrast, in the line of 05-37, no SEs germination occurred on medium with 0.1 or 0.2% gelrite. In conclusion, the growth rate, SEs production and germination frequency were appeared to deeply depended on the ETLs.
Spatial Upscaling of Aboveground Biomass Estimation using National Forest Inventory Data and Forest Type Map
Kim, Eun-Sook ; Kim, Kyoung-Min ; Lee, Jung-Bin ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Kim, Chong-Chan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 455~465
In order to assess and mitigate climate change, the role of forest biomass as carbon sink has to be understood spatially and quantitatively. Since existing forest statistics can not provide spatial information about forest resources, it is needed to predict spatial distribution of forest biomass under an alternative scheme. This study focuses on developing an upscaling method that expands forest variables from plot to landscape scale to estimate spatially explicit aboveground biomass(AGB). For this, forest stand variables were extracted from National Forest Inventory(NFI) data and used to develop AGB regression models by tree species. Dominant/codominant height and crown density were used as explanatory variables of AGB regression models. Spatial distribution of AGB could be estimated using AGB models, forest type map and the stand height map that was developed by forest type map and height regression models. Finally, it was estimated that total amount of forest AGB in Danyang was 6,606,324 ton. This estimate was within standard error of AGB statistics calculated by sample-based estimator, which was 6,518,178 ton. This AGB upscaling method can provide the means that can easily estimate biomass in large area. But because forest type map used as base map was produced using categorical data, this method has limits to improve a precision of AGB map.
Analysis of Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Carbon Emissions in Deforestation Using GIS and Administrative Data
Park, Jinwoo ; Lee, Jungsoo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 466~475
This study purposed to analyze the spatial pattern and the amount of carbon emission at the deforestation area based on the administrative and GIS data. The total size of deforestation area in last nine years (2000-2008) was about 649 ha, and it was occurred annually about 72 ha. The occurrence rate of deforestation per administrative area in Wonju was about 0.74%. It was 0.34% higher than that of Kwangwondo, and 0.06% less than that of National rate. On the other hand, the forms of deforestation by purpose were not related to the administrative district unit. The number of deforestation forms was highest at settlements. second most frequent form is other land. Grassland showed the lowest score. In addition, the deforestations were more occurred which is closed to the existing housing and building rather than roads. The number of deforestation was 1.2 times higher based on 300m. Seventy percent of deforestation was occurred which is less than 0.5 ha in size, and it increased to 91% when the size is less than 1ha. The total size of theoretical carbon emission based on deforestation area was estimated at 23,424 tc, and average annual carbon emission was estimated by 2,603 tc. Carbon emission per ha was 36.1 tC/ha. This study results will be useful to construct the greenhouse gas statistical verification system against the Post-2012 by GIS.
Degradation Assessment of Forest Trails in Gyeongnam Domain of Mt. Jiri
Park, Jae-Hyeon ; Huh, Keun-Young ; Lim, Hong-Geun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 476~482
As part of studies on the reduction of forest trails degradation caused by high users density; this study was carried out to investigate soil physical properties of forest trails of Gyeongnam Domain in Mt. Jiri; Southeast Korea. Since the forest were opened for leisure trailing in 2008; the average soil erosion amounts per a square meter on the forest trails were 0.0015
from Inweol to Gumgeo; 0.0018
from Dongang to Suchol; and 0.0027
from Suchol to Chungam for 3 years. But; from Chungam to Agyang; the erosion was almost not occurred because it was recently opened. The soil hardness in 5 cm depth was significantly higher than in 10 cm depth. It indicates that intensive soil compaction by users has mainly affected in 5 cm soil depth until now on. In three forest trails compacted intensively; the porosity of 0-7.5 cm soil layer was down to 1.4-1.5 times compared to that in 2008. In additions; the bulk density was up to 1.6-3.1 times compared to the controls; which were not opened to users. As a result; the degradation caused by high users density would keep occurring on the three forest trails unless any counterplans are considered for the degradation reduction. At the moment; users distribution to other forest trails and long-term sabbatical years would be the most effective counterplans to keep from users gravitation on the three forest trails.
A Study on Type Classification of Erosion Control Dam using Ecosystem Connectivity
Koo, Gil-Bon ; Kim, Min-Sik ; Kim, Chul ; Yu, Seung-Mun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 483~493
Erosion control dams play a primary role in preventing or controlling natural disasters (landslide and debris flow etc.) and also conserve ecosystem in forested watersheds. This study examines structural characteristics of the dams such as the height of ecosystem control and the ecosystem permeability of the erosion control dams under standard drawings and the existing construction works. The objective of this study was to characterize the type classification of erosion control dams as ecosystem. Average permeability was highest on eco-piller dam (63.0%), followed in increasing order by wire rope (13.9%), silt dam (10.9%), multifunctional dam (7.2%), and gravity dam (0.4%). The height of ecosystem control was highest on gravity dam (3.2m), followed in increasing order by multifunctional dam (1.7m), wire rope dam (1.2 m), silt dam (0.6 m), and eco-piller dam (0.0 m). Criteria for defining the height of ecosystem control was indefinite. We grouped erosion control dams into three functional types (eco-connection, eco-semi connection, and eco-disconnection) by considering physical and structural characteristics such as the ecosystem permeability and the height of ecosystem control. The type of eco-connection (permeability > 20%) had connection areas from streambed to adjacent riparian areas, and these connection areas serve as ecosystem corridors for fauna and flora. Typical wildlife species includes mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. The type of eco-semi connection (5%< permeability < 20%) had < 2 m in the eco-barrier height from streambed, however, this type of dams partially serve as wildlife corridors and often provide fish ways. The type of eco-disconnection (permeability < 5%) had > 2 m in the eco-barrier height from streambed, thereby preventing wildlife movement.
Study on Application of IUCN Management Category System on Baekdudaegan Protected Area
Kim, Seongil ; Kang, Mihee ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 494~503
This study was aimed at applying the IUCN category system to the Baekdudaegan Protected Area. A classification key was developed to apply the system to the overlapped designated protected areas inside of Baekdudaegan Protected Area. Korea national parks and forests managers' and experts' opinions were collected and they all agreed to the use of multiple classification in Baekdudaegan Protected Area. For example, the type of natural forests among the Forest Genetic Resources Reserves was classified to be IUCN Category Ia while other types of Forest Genetic Resources Reserve was classified to be Category IV. And the Protected Forest Landscape was classified to be Category V while the other types of protected forests were classified to be Category VI. The study suggests the need of classification of forest protected areas including Baekdudaegan Protected Area using IUCN system accompanying with protected areas management effectiveness evaluation.
Characteristic Community Type Classification of Forest Vegetation in South Korea
Yun, Chung-Weon ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Lee, Byung-Chun ; Shin, Joon-Hwan ; Yang, Hee Moon ; Lim, Jong Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 504~521
This study was carried out phytosociological forest community analysis, the sampled dada were collected and studied by 1,456 plots from 1993 to 2009 for 17 years in the 22 mountain area of South Korea. Four opposed species groups were classified and 10 vegetation units were divided as a result of forest vegetation classification. The 10 units were closely correlated with major environmental factors such as geological features, climatic conditions, topographical configurations, and etc. Therefore the forest vegetation of South Korea could be conclusively abstracted by 10 vegetation units and 7 eco-types.
Considerations of Countermeasure Tasks in the Fields of Forest and Forestry in Korea through Case Study on "The Nagoya Protocol (Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing)"
Lee, Gwan Gyu ; Kim, Jun Soon ; Jung, Haw Young ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 3, 2011, Pages 522~534
The aim of this study is to draw forth the tasks for establishing the right of native biology in Korea through the case study on 'Access on genetic resources and Benefit Sharing'. For this purpose, this study decided on its research subject by selecting Hoodia, on which ABS treaty was made the most recently, through the examination of the representative ABS precedents on plant species. This study analyzed the process background of ABS on Hoodia, and compared & analyzed the ABS procedures of 'Bonn Guidelines' adopted by the 6th Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2002 and Hoodia case. Together with the ABS major issues in common drawn as a result of this analysis, and "Nagoya Protocol" adopted by the 10th Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity, this study intended to shed a light on the impending tasks which Korea faces at present and its role relationship. The research results are as follows: 1. It is required that species habitats should be divided based on biological classification and its subsequent community should be established with the development of infrastructure such as a community's independent production, management and monitoring of bio-species. 2. There needs to be a designation of ABS National Focal Point for sharing of ABS-related general information, boosting of implementation of the relevant convention. 3. There needs to be the establishment of ABS convention system consequent on legislative, administrative, political procedures, and designation of the Competent National Authorities for the provision of the format of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Mutually Agreed Terms (MAT) and their contents assessment and confirmation. 4. There should be the establishment of integrated management system of ABS-related research and development of forest biological resources and its relevant research projects. 5. There should be information development through the distribution of responsibility and role between the ministries and offices concerned according to bio-resources, and there needs to be efforts in aiming for opening a working group of academic-industrial institutions for developing a mutually interchangeable system. 6. It's required that the efficient access between industrial circles and the people should be promoted by setting up ABS support center of biological resources in ministry and office's charge. 7. There should be a selection of a national supervisory organization for securement of the right of a local community and monitoring of ABS convention implementation, and a countermeasure system for preventing outflow of forest bioresources. Conclusively, it's judged that it will be possible to inquire into the countermeasures for the establishment of the native forest biology dominion through such research results.