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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Forest Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
Editor in Chief :
Man Yong Shin
Volume & Issues
Volume 100, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 100, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 100, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 100, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Bootstrap Evaluation of Stem Density and Biomass Expansion Factors in Pinus rigida Stands in Korea
Seo, Yeon-Ok ; Lee, Young-Jin ; Pyo, Jung-Kee ; Kim, Rae-Hyun ; Son, Yeong-Son ; Lee, Kyeong-Hak ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 535~539
This study was conducted to examine the bootstrap evaluation of the stem density and biomass expansion factor for Pinus rigida plantations in Korea. The stem density (g/
) in less than 20 tree years were 0.460 while more than 21 tree years were 0.456 respectively. Biomass expansion factor of less than 20 years and more than 21 years were 2.013, 1.171, respectively. The results of 100 and 500 bootstrap iterations, stem density (g/
) in less than 20 years were 0.456~0.462 while more than 21 years were 0.457~0.456 respectively. Biomass expansion factor of less than 20 years and more than 21 years were 1.990~2.039, 1.173~1.170, respectively. The mean differences between observed biomass factor and average parameter estimates showed within 5 percent differences. The split datasets of younger stands and old stands were compared to the results of bootstrap simulations. The stem density in less than 20 years of mean difference were 0.441~1.049% while more than 21years were 0.123~0.206% respectively. Biomass expansion factor in less than 20 years and more than 21 years were -1.102~1.340%, -0.024~0.215% respectively. Younger stand had relatively higher errors compared to the old stand. The results of stem density and biomass expansion factor using the bootstrap simulation method indicated approximately 1.1% and 1.4%, respectively.
A Comparison of Pixel- and Segment-based Classification for Tree Species Classification using QuickBird Imagery
Chung, Sang-Young ; Yim, Jong-Su ; Shin, Man-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 540~547
This study was conducted to compare classification accuracy by tree species using QuickBird imagery for pixel- and segment-based classifications that have been mostly applied to classify land covers. A total of 398 points was used as training and reference data. Based on this points, the points were classified into fourteen land cover classes: four coniferous and seven deciduous tree species in forest classes, and three non-forested classes. In pixel-based classification, three images obtained by using raw spectral values, three tasseled indices, and three components from principal component analysis were produced. For the both classification processes, the maximum likelihood method was applied. In the pixel-based classification, it was resulted that the classification accuracy with raw spectral values was better than those by the other band combinations. As resulted that, the segment-based classification with a scale factor of 50% provided the most accurate classification (overall accuracy:76% and
value:0.74) compared to the other scale factors and pixel-based classification.
International Trend of REDD Discussion and It's Policy Implication
Kim, Tong-Il ; Kim, Seong-Il ; Teplyakov, Victor K. ; Lee, Dong-Ho ; Choi, Ga-Young ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 548~557
REDD is recognized as a cost-effective and the most appropriate way of managing global GHG emissions. It is negotiated in a global context under the UNFCCC. The main issues of the REDD mechanism are divided into two parts: 1) developing forest carbon verification and measurement system for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, 2) establishing an appropriate system of incentives for developing countries. REDD can provide stability in carbon offset credits. However, the most important task is to establish a clear legal framework and appropriate governance structures with relevant countries. There is a wide opportunities for Republic of Korea to take a lead in cutting off greenhouse gasses in the Post-Kyoto period.
Development of Revegetation Measures using Boring Technique in Rock Slopes − Focus on Lespedeza cyrtobotrya-
Ma, Ho-Seop ; Kang, Won-Seok ; Park, Jin-Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 558~564
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of early revegetation by analyzing the characteristics of germination and growth of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya using boring technique in rock slopes. After making up a growing basis of approximately 20 cm depth and 10 cm diameter by using a boring machine, the surface of rock slopes was planted with vegetation-plant. The number of germinating populations by soil media was 23 in H.s, 22 in T.s, 12 in M.s, and 1 in M.g.s. The germination rate (%) by soil media was 19.2% in H.s, 18.3% in T.s, 10.0% in M.s and 0.8% in M.g.s. In monthly changes of growth rate, the aspect was northwest direction, the soil media was M.s, and the treatment was microorganism plot. The main factors affecting survivorship and growth of population were soil media and treatment plot. The interaction between each factor had a good effects in bearing
soil media, bearing
treatment plot, soil media
treatment plot. but, it is recommended that the mulching of vegetation plant is highly needed to help the germination of seed and growth of vegetation because of loss of seed and soil media occurred due to rainfall. Therefore, The result suggests that the revegetation technique using boring in rock slope was very efficient in respect of the early revegetation and the landscape.
Forest Stand Structure and Interspecific Association in the Habitats of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum
Kim, Hye-Jin ; Yun, Chung-Weon ; Doh, Eun-Soo ; Chang, Jun-Pok ; Choi, Myung-Suk ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ; Park, Hee-Kwon ; Shin, Hak-Sub ; Lee, Seo-Hui ; Bae, Kwan-Ho ; Cho, Hyun-Je ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 565~576
This study was conducted to describe forest stand characteristics of the habitats of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum population from the ecological analysis of classification of vegetation types, importance values, species diversity, interspecific association and community similarity in Ulleung Island and Mt. Hambaek, in which investigated by 48 plots (10 m
10 m). The vegetation studied was classified into 1 community group, 2 communities, 2 groups and 3 subgroups for a species unit and divided by 5 units for a vegetation unit. In the Fagus engleriana group (vegetation unit 1, 2 and 3), importance value of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum in herb layer showed relatively higher value than other units. Importance value of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum in herb layer had higher value. In the analysis of interspecific association, most of the species associated positively to A. victorialis var. platyphyllum belonged to habitat features of valley area and sub-alpine zone. Therefore, it was considered that the growing environment of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum population was closely correlated to soil moisture and air humidity.
Genetic Variation of nSSR Markers in Natural Populations of Abies koreana and Abies nephrolepis in South Korea
Hong, Yong-Pyo ; Ahn, Ji-Young ; Kim, Young-Mi ; Yang, Byeong-Hoon ; Song, Jeong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 577~584
To estimate level of genetic variation and genetic differentiation among populations of 3 populations in Abies koreana and 5 populations in Abies nephrolepis, 5 nSSR markers were analyzed. Except 1 locus where too many alleles were observed excessively, population genetic parameters were recalculated with 4 loci. Mean expected heterozygosities (
) were 0.292 in A. koreana and 0.220 in A. nephrolepis, respectively. In both species, positive fixation coefficient was estimated (F=0.065 for A. koreana and F=0.095 for A. nephrolepis), which suggests that there is an excess of homozygotes relative to Hardy-Weinberg expectations within populations. Relatively high degree of population differentiation was observed in A. koreana (
=0.063). compared to that of A. nephrolepis (
=0.039). From 3-level Hierarchical estimation of F-staticstics, only 4.9% of the genetic variation was allocated between species (
), which suggested that most of genetic variation was shared between two species. On the basis of results from analysis of genetic relationships among populations, 2 populations of A. koreana (Mt. Halla and Mt. Deogyu) were genetically distinct from the populations of A. nephrolepis but a population of Mt. Jiri was allocated within a group of populations of A. nephrolepis. Populations of both species seemed to have undergone genetic drift due to gradual decrease in population size induced by global warming after the last glacier, which resulted in increase of homozygotes by inbreeding. It could be also postulated that these species might be diverged recently and It is likely that the two species have not fully speciated yet.
Analysis on the Profitability of Cultivating Acer mono
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Jung, Byung-Heon ; Bae, Sang-Won ; Kim, Eui-Gyeong ; Kim, Hyeon-Geun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 585~590
The purpose of this research is to suggest economic feasibility of cultivating Acer Mono by using profitability analysis to forest owners. To achieve this research objective, forest owner household survey with intensive cultivating has been conducted about a sap production on its age of tree. And input costs and sap production costs are calculated with silvicultural system from plant to regeneration cutting. Total income is the sum of its sap sales and thinning and regeneration cutting. The method of profitability analysis was used on the NPV(Net Present Value) and IRR(internal rate of return). Finally, when 3% discount rate is applied, NPV is about 59,436 thousand won and IRR value is 9.22% at this point. This result, therefore, proves that cultivating Acer Mono is economical feasibility to forest owners.
Application of CBM-CFS3 Model to Assess Carbon Stock and Age Class Changes Over Long Term Forest Planning in a Korea's National Forest
Jang, Kwang-Min ; Won, Hyun-Kyu ; Kim, Young-Hwan ; Tak, Kwang-IL ; Shin, Man-Yong ; Lee, Kyeong-Hak ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 591~597
Forest carbon stock changes in a national forest were assessed by CBM-CFS3 model with different management scenarios to support decision making for a long term forest planning. Management scenarios were composed with 4 different levels of timber harvesting - current harvesting level (scenario1), 30% increment in each period (scenario2), 3 times increment (scenario3), and 5 times increment (scenario4). For each scenarios, changes in total carbon stocks, carbon stocks of each carbon pools, carbon stocks of harvested wood products (HWP) and age class structure were estimated over 100-year planning horizon. The estimated total carbon stock including HWP at the end of final period (100 years) was 433.1 tC/ha under scenario 1, but the age class structure has skewed right to the upper classes, which is not desirable for sustainable forest management. Under the scenario 4, however, the total carbon stock decrease to 385.5 tC/ha and the area of old growth forest show a significant decline. The estimated total carbon stock under scenario 2 and 3 were 411.7 tC/ha and 410.5 tC/ha respectively, and it was able to maintain the initial level of the forest carbon stocks during the planning horizon. Also the age class structures under the scenario 2 and 3 were evenly distributed from class 1 to class 8. Overall, scenario 2 and 3 were the most acceptable forest management options, in terms of carbon stock changes and age class structure.
Characteristics of Growth and Seedling Quality of 1-Year-Old Container Seedlings of Quercus myrsinaefolia by Shading and Fertilizing Treatment
Sung, Hwan-In ; Song, Ki-Sun ; Cha, Young-Geun ; Kim, Jong-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 598~608
The purpose of this study was to examine potential effects of shading and fertilizing treatment - two basic applicable factors in production of 1-year-old container seedling - on growth and seedling quality of Quercus myrsinaefolia, one of evergreen tree species in warm temperate zone of Korean. Every experimental process was conducted in a facility that consisted of compartments under the lighting control with full sunlight and shading (35%, 55% and 75% of full sunlight). Based on fertilizing treatment, this study made an experiment in 4 groups of container seedling: control (non-treated seedlings) and 1000, 2000, 3000 ppm group (3 groups with different concentrations of water-soluble fertilizer (N:P:K=19:19:19, v/v). Seedlings under 55% shading with 2000 ppm concentration showed the highest height (totaling 21.1 cm), and under 35% shading with 2000 ppm concentration showed the highest root collar diameter growth (totaling 3.96 mm) among others. All three fertilizing groups except control showed H/D ratio ranging from 4.27 to 5.26 regardless of fertilizer concentration under 35% and 55% shading where container seedlings showed a tendency toward excellent growth of height and root collar diameter. Overall, 2000 ppm group under 55% shading showed highest dry mass production of leaves (1,292 g) among others, while 2000 ppm group under 35% shading showed highest dry mass production of shoots and roots (0.592 g and 0.998 g, respectively) among others. Also, it was found that 2000 ppm group under 35% shading showed the highest dry mass production of whole seedling, which was followed by 2000 ppm group under 55% shading and 3000 ppm group under 35% shading, respectively. According to analysis on LWR of Quercus myrsinaefolia depending on shading and fertilizing treatment, it was found that 3000 ppm group under 75% shading showed highest LWR level among others, whereas every fertilized group showed lower RWR level than control without fertilizing regardless of shading levels. In general, all fertilized groups under 55% shading had relatively high quality index (QI), and 2000 ppm group under 35% shading had highest QI among others. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that shading level ranging from 35 to 55% and fertilizing concentration of 2,000 ppm are suitable for producing 1-year-old container seedlings of Quercus myrsinaefolia with excellent growth and high quality index.
Changes of Leaf Characteristics, Pigment Content and Photosynthesis of Forsythia saxatilis under Two Different Light Intensities
Hang, Sim-Hee ; Kim, Du-Hyun ; Kim, Gil-Nam ; Byun, Jae-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 609~615
Forsythia saxatilis is a Korean endemic plant designated as rare and endangered by the Korea Forest Service (KFS). Growth and physiological characteristics of F. saxatilis were investigated under two different light intensities in order to figure out an appropriate growth environment for conservation and restoration of the species in its natural habitat. Shoot length, leaf size and weight, photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic parameters were measured for F. saxatilis grown at two experimental plots under relative light intensities (RLI) of 20% and 60% of the full sun, respectively. Fresh leaf weight of plants grown under high relative light intensities (RLI-60) exceeded that of plants grown at 20% RLI. The ratio of fresh leaf weight to leaf size at RLI-60 was 1.47 times superior comparing to that recorded at RLI-20. The content of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were higher in plants grown at RLI-60, whereas the ratio of total chlorophyll to carotenoid content was higher in the leaves at RLI-20. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at RLI-60 were, respectively, 2.5, 2.65 and 1.79 times higher comparing to those recorded at RLI-20. Water use efficiency, however, was higher at RLI-20. The chlorophyll/nitrogen ratio was 1.83 times higher at RLI-20 than at RLI-60. In contrast, the ratio of net photosynthesis to chlorophyll content at RLI-60 was 2.58 times higher than that of RLI-20. In conclusion, light intensity might be the major factor affecting growth and physiological characteristics of F. saxatilis grown under canopy of tall tree species.
Effects of Region and Age on Nut Quality of Major Chestnut Cultivars (Castanea spp.) cultivated in the Central Region of Korea
Kim, Mahn-Jo ; Lee, Uk ; Park, Yun-Mi ; Hwang, Suk-In ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 616~622
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of region and age on nut quality of major chestnut cultivars (Castanea spp.) cultivated in the central region of Korea to provide basic data for nut quality control and processing of postharvest. In the survey of by regions and ages, Buyeo and 'Hyogo57' showed the highest value by regions and cultivars, respectively. Also, there were statistically significant differences among regions and cultivars in the value of soluble solid content and kernel hardness. In the soluble solid content, Gongju showed the highest value among regions, and 'Tsukuba' among cultivars was the highest, 20.5%. Cheongyang showed the highest value of kernel hardness among regions, and 'Tanzawa' among cultivars showed the lowest value of kernel hardness, 8.75 kg/cm2. In 'Tanzawa', 'Okkwang' and 'Tsukuba', soluble solid content and kernel hardness showed statistically significant differences according to age, but no correlation with age.
The Detection and Density Fluctuation of Mulberry Dwarf Phytoplasma using Nested-PCR and Competitive-PCR Methods
Chae, Seung-Min ; Lee, Sol ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ; Lee, Hyok-In ; Han, Sang-Sub ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 623~629
The detectable levels and population fluctuations of phytoplasmas infecting dwarf mulberry trees were investigated using nested-PCR and competitive-PCR methods. Samples of five different types were studied : A. petiole of a leaf that displays dwarf symptoms, B. petiole from apparently healthy leaf residing on a branch also supports a leaf with dwarf symptoms, C. the branch portion that supports a leaf with dwarf symptoms, D. the leaf petiole from healthy appearing leaves on branch with no dwarf symptoms, and branch portion of branch with no dwarf symptoms, E. the rootlets of trees with dwarf symptoms. These 5-parts were collected from each tree during June - April, once in every two months. The phytoplasma was detected from all parts of collected mulberry samples during all seasons using nested-PCR with AS-1/AS-2 primer pairs. The phytoplasma was detected until
dilution using direct-PCR method, but it was detected until
dilution by the nested-PCR method. The density of pytoplasma was found to be
in mulberry trees. The density of phytoplasma was observed throughout the year in all samples of mulberry trees. The highest rates of phytoplasma was found in the samples B and C during the early growing season followed by the sample A and D during the dormant season. Samples C and E displayed the highest phytoplasma density followed sample D. The density of phytoplasma appeared stable during all the seasons for samples C and A. The result of the present study demonstrates the utility of nested-PCR and competitive-PCR for detection and determination of population fluctuations of phytoplasmas in plant tissues.
Economic Feasibility of REDD Project for Preventing Deforestation in North Korea
Jo, Jang-Hwan ; Koo, Ja-Choon ; Youn, Yeo-Chang ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 630~638
This study aims to verify the economic validity of the REDD project in North Korea by estimating the potential carbon credits and the cost of REDD project. The REDD potential credits of North Korea are estimated based on the international statistics of forest area and population from 1990 to 2010, and the cost of REDD project is estimated indirectly by annual land opportunity cost of agriculture assuming that South Korea will aid the food production per area in North Korea. When the 25% reduction scenario was applied to the annual deforestation rate in North Korea, the potential REDD credits were estimated to be 4,232 million~5,290 milliont
. for 20 years. It would account for 28~35% of South Korea's national medium-term greenhouse gas reduction target. On the other hand, the break-even price of REDD project was calculated as the profit of agriculture in the land available by forest conversion in North Korea. It was estimated to be
. when the non-permanence risk of forest conserved through a REDD contract is assumed to be 20%. This price is higher than the price of REDD carbon credit
. dealt in the 2010 voluntary carbon market, leading to no economic feasibility. However, REDD project provides co-benefits besides climate mitigation. As previous studies indicate, the break-even price is lower than
., which is the social marginal cost of greenhouse gas emissions by loss of forest. Therefore REDD in North Korea can be justified against the social benefits. The economic feasibility of REDD project in North Korea can be largely influenced by the risk percentage. Thus, North Korean REDD project needs a strong guarantee and involvement by the government and people of North Korea to assure the project's economic feasibility.
Factor Analysis on Citizen's Motives to Tree Burial and Choice Conditions to Tree Burial Site
Woo, Jae-Wook ; Byun, Woo-Hyuk ; Park, Won-Kyung ; Kim, Min-Soo ; Yim, Min-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 639~649
The purpose of this study aimed to analyze factors on motives to tree burial and choice conditions to tree burial site in order to suggest policy direction for the desirable settlement of tree burial. For those purpose, this study performed questionnaire, targeting 522 visitors of funeral hall all around Korea. As the result, the factors of motives to tree burial were extracted as follows: funeral ceremony progressed along with trees, simplicity, memorial site's easy insurance, environmental friendliness and consideration toward descendants. The factors on choice conditions to tree burial sites were extracted as follows: beauty of natural scenery, emotional mood as a memorial site, convenience, stability and economic feasibility. Based on the results of factor analysis, this study suggested policies related to motives to tree burial as follows: develop various types of tree burial sites, develop a funeral ceremony suitable for tree burial, come into wide use of tree burial as a social welfare service, develop tree burial methods capable of many burials, and improve professionalism to manage tree burial system. In addition, this study proposed related choice conditions to tree burial sites as follows: establish natural forest scenery, convert existing graveyards into tree burial sites, select easily accessible places for tree burial sites, form tree burial sites as places for both rest and memory, and reduce using fee of tree burial site.
An Analysis on the Satisfaction of Service Quality for Seasonal Arboretum Visitors using IPA
Lee, Hyo-Jung ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Lim, Yun-Jung ; Chang, Chu-Youn ; Tae, Yoo-Lee ; Hong, Sung-Kwon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 650~663
The purpose of this study was to investigate the satisfaction of service quality for seasonal visitors of Korea National Arboretum using Importance-performance analysis. Data were obtained from visitors of Korea National Arboretum on spring, summer, autumn. Results of analysis showed that all season visitor's satisfaction was high. The IPA was undertaken with total 24 variables about service quality of arboretum. Results of IPA was founded that summer visitors want to improve some services (information facilities, forest museum, conveniences, etc). Autumn visitors, on the other hand, thought that some services (kindness, active responsiveness, variety of plant, etc) are overinvested. As a results, there is differences between importance and satisfaction about seasonal service quality.
Analysis of Debris Flow Hazard Zone by the Optimal Parameters Extraction of Random Walk Model - Case on Debris Flow Area of Bonghwa County in Gyeongbuk Province
Lee, Chang-Woo ; Woo, Choong-Shik ; Youn, Ho-Joong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 664~671
Random Walk Model can predict the sediment areas of debris flow but it must be extracted three parameters fitted topographical environment. This study developed the method to extract the optimal values of three parameters - Once flowing volume, Stopping slope and Gravity weight - for Random Walk Model. And the extracted parameters were validated by aerial photographs of the debris flowed area. To extract the optimal parameters was randomly performed, limiting the range values of three parameters and developing an accuracy decision method that is called the rate of concordance. The set of the optimal parameters was decided on highest the rate of concordance and a consistency. As a result, the optimal parameters in Bonghwa county were showed that the once flowing volume is
, the stopping slope is
and the gravity weight is 2 when the rate of concordance is -0.2. The validating result of the optimal parameters showed closely that the rate of concordance is average -0.2.
A Study on the Selection of Evaluation Factors on Forest Carbon Cycle Community(F.C.C.C) using DHP Analysis Method
Seo, Jeong-Weon ; Kwak, Kyung-Ho ; Jeong, Se-Myong ; Kang, Sung-Pyo ; An, Ki-Wan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 672~680
The purpose of this study has been carried to develop a criterion for the selection of evaluation factors on Forest Carbon Cycle Community(F.C.C.C) based on the result of survey of 96 participants who were operation managers on mountain eco village(31), relevant experts(33), and officers of local government(32). For analysis of the results of survey, DHP(Delphi Hierarchy Process) method was used which is a combination of Delphi method and AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) method. The key factors on selection of a suitable area to launch F.C.C.C. project of Korea Forest Service was selected under three hierarchical classes. Class 1 comprises 3 indices(Physical resource index, Human resource index, Vision index), and Class 2 which contains 10 indices (Existing resource, Surroundings resource, Forest biomass resource, Humanities Social quality, Local resident participation, Leader's ability, External support, Planning of operation, Capability of operation, and Effect of operation). Class 3 is sub-level class of class which possess 38 indices. From the results of analysis, Consistency Index(C.I) of each index in the 3 classes was used as evaluation factor. In Class 1, index 'human resources' showed highest Consistency Index(0.454). In Class 2, index 'forest biomass resources' was the highest Consistency Index(0.376) in 'physical resources' of Class 1, index 'leader's ability' was the highest Consistency Index(0.326) in 'human resources' of Class 1, and index 'planning of operation' was the highest Consistency Index(0.346) in 'vision' of Class 1. In Class 3, relative importance of 38 index including 'Joint ownership land security(C.I.-0.266)' was evaluated. Based on the result of this study, a criterion for the selection of evaluation factors for F.C.C.C was developed and the evaluation criterion is expected to be use to select of a suitable area to launch F.C.C.C. project since 2011.
Distribution of Microflora and Mesofauna in the Forest Soils of Gwangneung Experimental Forest
Eo, Jin-U ; Park, Byung-Bae ; Park, Kee-Choon ; Chun, Jung-Wha ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 681~686
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of soil biota across forest types and soil depths in Gwangneung Experimental Forest. We selected 5 sites, which are 3 deciduous- and 2 coniferous forests. The abundance of microflora in these areas was analyzed by the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) indicators, and the density of mesofauna was measured by the abundance of nematodes and microarthropods. The abundance of soil microflora was higher in the A layer than in the B layer based on the PLFA indicators, but there were no differences between deciduous and coniferous forests. Average density of nematodes was higher in the A horizon than in the B horizon. The density of fungivorous nematodes was higher in the deciduous forests. Mean densities of Collembola and Oribatida were 44% and 42% of microarthropods in soil samples, respectively. The results of microbial PLFA indicators were significantly correlated with the density of their consumers, which reflected that the food web in fungi- and bacteria-based soil developed in this forests. This study suggested that the distribution of soil organisms largely separated by soil depths and was slightly affected by the forest type in the Gwangneung Experimental Forest.
Environmental and Growth Characteristics of Pimpinella brachycarpa Habitat in Mt. Jeombong, Korea
Park, Yun-Mi ; Kim, Mahn-Jo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 687~692
Pimpinella brachycarpa, a summer-green perennial herb, is narrowly distributed in the moist forest floors. We investigated environmental characteristics and growth patterns of Pimpinella brachycarpa depending on the microenvironment in Mt. Jeombong located in the central part of Korea. P. brachycarpa populations were located at an altitude of 978~1016 m and the average atmospheric humidity hovered at 80 percent. Also, it was found that the soil moisture content was remarkably high, 26.7%, in the populations; organic matter 11.1~11.7%; the nitrate nitrogen 0.60%; available phosphorus 19.5~39.0 ppm; CEC 20.8~21.3
; soil pH 4.7~4.8 respectively. In case of growth pattern, the shoot length of individuals under the improved light condition in the sunny forest was statistically longer than in the dense forest. Therefore, we presumed that high humidity and ample soil moisture are abiotic factors of the growth of P. brachycarpa and that the amount of light affects the relative growth rate of individuals.
Effect of Abscisic Acid, Kinds and Concentrations of Osmoticum on Somatic Embryo Induction, Germination and Plantlet Regeneration in Larix kaempferi
Kim, Yong-Wook ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 693~697
This study was conducted to examine effects of concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) or /kinds of osmotica on induction of somatic embryos (SEs), germination and plantlet regeneration in Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). In comparison of duration of culture, concentrations of ABA and osmoticum, the highest induction number (191/g tissue) of the SE was showed in 60
ABA+0.2 M sucrose for 4 weeks culture. However, the lowest number (3.5~23.5) of SEs was induced from 4
ABA+0.1 M sucrose, regardless of culture duration for SEs induction. In comparison of germination efficiency of SEs, the highest induction frequencies of cotyledon (90.9%), hypocotyl (95.8%) and root (96.5%), respectively, were obtained from the SEs that cultured from the treatment of 60
ABA+0.2 M sucrose with 5 weeks culture. In contrast, the lowest germination response was showed in SEs that induced from the treatment of 4
ABA+0.1 M sucrose. In comparison of effect of different kinds/concentrations of osmotica for germination and plantlet regeneration, the best response was obtained from the treatment of 0.2 M sucrose with induction of cotyledon (98.3%), hypocotyl (78.4%), root (57.5%) and plantlet regeneration (54.8%), respectively.
Feasibility Study on Small-scale A/R CDM Pilot Project in Mongolia
Cha, Jun-Hee ; Park, Dong-Kyun ; Lee, Jong-Hak ; Youn, Yeo-Chang ; Choi, Jun-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 698~707
Over the past 10 years, South Korea has implemented various plantation projects including the Pine Restoration Project in Tujiin Nars and the desertification prevention forestation in Lun soum. This study has evaluated the implementation feasibility on the small-scale A/R CDM projects in Mongolia through which carbon emission credits can be secured. Characteristics, pros and cons, economic feasibility, and project execution feasibility were compared among three possible sites, Khyalganat, Tujiin Nars, and Lun soum. Among the three evaluated sites, Tujiin Nars has the better condition in tree growth, economic feasibility, and the applicability of experience than the other two sites. A/R CDM project in Mongolia, which has a great environmental benefit of combating desertification, is expected to have some effectiveness such as lowering costs from credit benefit, sustainable management by villagers, contribution to communities, investor's contribution to society and achievement of green image, and strengthening forestry cooperation between Korea and Mongolia.
An Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Harvested Wood Products in Korean Houses
Choi, Soo-Im ; Joo, Rin-Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 708~714
Wood store carbon that the forest absorbed until burned or decomposed over a long period. Such materials are most used in houses except in paper and pulp, and the use of wood in houses play an important role in reducing green-house gases. Therefore, we estimated the amount of carbon stocks in Korean houses, and analyzed how much contribution such stocks offers to green-house gas reduction. As the result, the carbon stocks amount of the wood products in Korean houses was 28.4 million
, which is 4.6% of the total annual green-house gas emission in Korea (620 million
e), and 77.4% of forest sinks (LULUCF). Even though few wooden houses which use most wood in housing exist in Korea, the carbon stocks of wood products in houses in 2010 increased to 4.1 times that in 1975 (21.4 million
) because the carbon stocks increased due to apartment construction, which hit its stride from the last 1980's.
Estimation of Nitrogen Storage Potential and Aboveground Biomass of Tree Species Treated with Liquid Pig Manure
Kim, Hyun-Chul ; Yeo, Jin-Kie ; Shin, Han-Na ; Lee, Heon-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 715~721
This study was conducted to estimate aboveground biomass and nitrogen storage potential of tree species-eight clones of a poplar and hybrids, one clone of Salix alba L., dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu and W.C. Cheng), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), Okamoto maple (Acer okamotoanum Nakai), and pin oak (Quercus palustris Munchh.)- after treating with liquid pig manure. Stems showed the highest percentage of aboveground biomass, and followed by branches and leaves. Nitrogen content in aboveground biomass components was the highest in leaves, and followed by branches and stems. Average aboveground biomass production was higher in the clones and species treated with manure than those of not treated, 30 ton/ ha and 16 ton/ha, respectively. In the manure-treated site, clone 'Dorskamp' of Populus deltoides
Populus nigra showed the highest aboveground biomass (48.3 ton/ha). Average nitrogen storage potential was superior in the clones and species treated with manure than those of not treated, 159 kg/ha and 90 kg/ha, respectively. Clone 'Dorskamp' also showed the greatest nitrogen storage potential (286.5 kg/ha) among tested tree species. Therefore, 'Dorskamp' is the most suitable clone for treating liquid pig manure, but additional studies are needed to determine any damages or tolerance from the treatment.
Governance Types of Corporate Philanthropic Forestry Activities
Chung, Jee-Yong ; Youn, Yeo-Chang ; Cho, Dong-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 722~732
Firms initiate philanthropic activities to improve social welfare that is beyond the scope of their responsibility towards society. Forestry activities, among other philanthropic areas, simultaneously improve corporate environment and social performance and provide the opportunity to cooperate for a large number of employees. Firms can effectively contribute to forest conservation with their financial and human resources. To encourage participation of more firms, we need to understand how and why firms engage in such activities. This study aims to explore different types of philanthropic forestry activities that these firms undertake. Corporate philanthropic activities can be categorized as donation, in-house project, or collaboration according to the governance type. We analyzed Yuhan-Kimberly's forestry campaign to investigate how and why the firm engaged in each type. We also propose some practical implications for firms, government, and non-profit organizations to invigorate firm's participation in philanthropic forestry activities.
Effect of Artificial Warming on Chlorophyll Contents and Net Photosynthetic Rate of Quercus variabilis Seedlings in an Open-field Experiment
Jo, Woo-Yong ; Son, Yo-Whan ; Chung, Hae-Geun ; Noh, Nam-Jin ; Yoon, Tae-Kyung ; Han, Sae-Rom ; Lee, Sun-Jeoung ; Lee, Sue-Kyoung ; Sue-Kyoung, ; Jin, Lixia ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 100, issue 4, 2011, Pages 733~737
We investigated the effect of artificial warming on chlorophyll contents and net photosynthetic rates of 2-year-old Quercus variabilis seedlings in a nursery open-field experiment site. 64 seedlings were each planted in
plots (n = 4) and warmed with infrared lamps. The air temperature in warmed plots was
higher than that of control plots. Chlorophyll contents and net photosynthetic rates were measured in May, July, August, September and October, 2011. In May, September and October chlorophyll contents and net photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in warmed plots than in control plots. However, there were no significant differences in chlorophyll contents and net photosynthetic rates between warmed plots and control plots in July and August. It seemed that early developed leaves of warmed plots in May with higher chlorophyll contents could lead to higher net photosynthetic rates whereas there was no difference in net photosynthetic rates due to saturation of chlorophyll contents in July and August. Increased biosynthesis of chlorophyll due to warming might increase net photosynthetic rates in September and October.