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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 101, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 101, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 101, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 101, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Development of Forest Fire Occurrence Probability Model Using Logistic Regression
Lee, Byungdoo ; Ryu, Gyesun ; Kim, Seonyoung ; Kim, Kyongha ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~6
To achieve the forest fire management goals such as early detection and quick suppression, fire resources should be allocated at high probability area where forest fires occur. The objective of this study was to develop and validate models to estimate spatially distributed probabilities of occurrence of forest fire. The models were builded by exploring relationships between fire ignition location and forest, terrain and anthropogenic factors using logistic regression. Distance to forest, cemetery, fire history, forest type, elevation, slope were chosen as the significant factors to the model. The model constructed had a good fit and classification accuracy of the model was 63%. This model and map can support the allocation optimization of forest fire resources and increase effectiveness in fire prevention and planning.
Critiques of 'The Endangered and Protected Wild Species List in Korea' Proposed by Korea Ministry of Environment and Listing Process - Is This the Best Process for the Current National Management of Endangered Wildlife and Plants in Korea? -
Kim, Hui ; Lee, Byong Cheon ; Kim, Yong Shik ; Chang, Chin-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 7~19
After having announced legislation for threatened or endangered species on the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants in 2005, the Korea Ministry of Environment proposed (in June 2011) amending the list, thereby delisting or reclassifying endangered species using new quantitative criteria for two levels (I and II), as well as status reviews. The new legislation included 40 species remained in their original endangered status, but 19 species were delisted, 5 species were proposed as candidates for delisting, 29 species were given a new endangered listing, and 3 species were proposed for an endangered listing in Korea. We assessed the threatened status of 98 plants using the IUCN Red List Criteria (version 3.1) at the global level, and compared the Ministry's revised criteria with the IUCN Red List Criteria and ESA criteria used in the USA. Most species proposed by the Ministry do not qualify as threatened and one of the major difficulties found in applying IUCN Red List Criteria at the global scale was a lack of knowledge on the status of species at broader geographic scales and the perceived difficulty this causes. Under the current classification process, many endangered species, such as Abeliophyllum distichum, Leontice microrhyncha, Echinosophora koreensis, Leontopodium coreanum, Iris odaesanensis, and Corylopsis coreana at global level were excluded here. Knowledge gaps and uncertainties mean that the number of taxa at high risk of extinction may be substantially greater than is currently understood. Due to a lack of information on its taxonomic status, currently there is controversy over the Red List status of Physocarpus insularis. Also, Caragana koreana, which was an invalidly published name, should be excluded here. Although the Korea Ministry of Environment insisted this procedure was conducted by applying the modified IUCN threat categories and definitions, this evaluation has been carried out based only on subjective views and misapplication of the IUCN Red List Criteria. The current listings by the Korea Ministry of Environment should be challenged. We suggest that broad species concepts on endemic species are applied and also criteria that adequately address the proper quantitative knowledge should be used. It is suggested that the highest priorities for the Red List should be given to endemic species at least in the Korean peninsula first at global scale.
Estimation of Spatial Soil Distribution Changed by Debris Flow using Airborne Lidar Data and the Topography Restoration Method
Woo, Choongshik ; Youn, Hojoong ; Lee, Changwoo ; Lee, Kyusung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 20~27
The flowed soil volume is able to be estimated simply from topographic data of before and after the debris flow. However, it is often difficult to obtain high resolution topographic data before debris flow because debris flow was occurred in mountainous area and airborne Lidar data was mainly surveyed in urban area. For this reason, Woo(2011) developed the topographic restoration method that can reconstruct the topography before the debris flow using airborne Lidar data. In this study, we applied the topographic restoration method on Inje county, Bongwha county and Jecheon city, produced topography data before debris flow that RMSE is from 0.16 to 0.34 m. Also, a soil variation was analyzed by topography data before and after debris flow, and it was used to estimate a real soil volume flowed to downstream and a spatial distribution showing collapses, flows, sedimentations appeared to debris flow.
Characteristics of Heavy Rainfall for Landslide-triggering in 2011
Kim, Suk-Woo ; Chun, Kun-Woo ; Kim, Jin-Hak ; Kim, Min-Sik ; Kim, Min-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 28~35
Rainfall is widely recognized as a major landslide-triggering factor. Most of the latest landslides that occurred in South Korea were caused by short-duration heavy rainfall. However, the relationship between rainfall characteristics and landslide occurrence is poorly understood. To examine the effect of rainfall on landslide occurrence, cumulative rainfall(mm) and rainfall intensity(mm/hr) of serial rain and antecedent rainfall(mm) were analyzed for 18 landslide events that occurred in the southern and central regions of South Korea in June and July 2011. It was found that all of these landslides occurred by heavy rainfall for one or three days, with the rainfall intensity exceeding 30 mm/hr or with a cumulative rainfall of 200 mm. These plotted data are beyond the landslide warning criteria of Korea Forest Service and the critical line of landslide occurrence for Gyeongnam Province. It was also found that the time to landslide occurrence after rainfall start(T) was shortened with the increasing average rainfall intensity(ARI), showing an exponential-decay curve, and this relation can be expressed as "T =
=0.64, p<0.001)". The findings in this study may provide important evidences for the landslide forecasting guidance service of Korea Forest Service as well as essential data for the establishment of non-structural measures such as a warning and evacuation system in the face of sediment disasters.
A Study on Operation Strategy by Multi-variate Regression of Deagu Arboretum Visitor's Satisfaction
Kang, Kee-Rae ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 36~45
Education on the environment and plants offered by arboretum for today's people not only contribute to foster a better natural environment in urban region but also provide visitors with decent refreshment environment and beyond. In the study, the author undertook the observation on usage behavior and satisfaction model of arboretum visitors expect and investigated the facilities and programs to be offered by arboretum in order to propose the opinion regarding the service. For observation size of variables in a multiple regression analysis of variables is influencing satisfaction rankings walks the line of flow, the educational effect on the environment, cleanliness of the facility, visits pay, natural beauty, diversity of trees, accessibility and friendliness of staff, expansion of facilities in the arboretum and appeared as a complement. In case of visitor attribute, the residents living near the facility showed the highest visit frequency of more than 5 times, especially as part of taking a walk. This proves that the visit to arboretum is considered as part of everyday life, and thus a new program and walk path as well as movement route are needed to be developed for the visitors. In the question relating to the facilities and operation programs in Daegu Arboretum, particularly the requests by visitors, they responded that the establishment of cultural event, beautiful natural scenery, refreshment and convenience facilities is the most critical issue. In addition, the management on withered trees and bare lands is an urgent issue as well. In this sense, the Operation and Management Strategies based upon the visitor behaviors and model of satisfaction are needed to deal with the adoption of diverse events and festivals joined by local residents, ombudsman program, environmental program development for students and teachers within the region, negligent bare lands and withered tree replacement, and cafeteria facility improvement and supplement as well as the bench marking of other facilities than arboretums located in other regions. These items are thought to be sufficiently dealt with by Daegu Arboretum having no more external resources. It is recognized that the visitor satisfaction begins from a minor thing, and a small difference determines a great satisfaction, and thus the software approach rather than hardware one is in need.
ROI(Return on Investment) Analysis of Open-field Cultivation of Lycium Chinese Miller
Park, Yong Bae ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 46~52
The purpose of this study is to give ROI informations about management status and investment returns to someone who will newly cultivate lycium chinese miller or expand area of its cultivation. In this study, IRR, B/C Ratio and NPV is used for ROI analysis. We basically surveyed fifty two among Lycium Chinese Miller cultivation farmhouses in chief producing districts Chungnam Chungyang, Jeonnam Jindo in Korea from May until September in 2009. Hence, this study surveyed these farmers about production cost, management cost, input labors and materials, land price and etc. by working process to calculate production and operation cost. As the result of farm survey, average selling price of Lycium Chinese Miller is 15,000 won per kg at locals for five years. However, when 3% discount rate is applied, the result of the analysis is B/C Ratios 0.89, which shows unprofitable. Therefore, it is a possible baseline that price of Lycium Chinese Miller is at least 16,800 won per kg with 3.00% IRR and B/C Ratio is 1.00. It could be profitable with about 21.75% income ratio when price of Lycium Chinese Miller is 16,800 won per kg.
Analysis of the Effect of Climate Change on the Site Index of Larix leptolepis
Kim, Dong-Hyeon ; Kim, Eui-Gyeong ; Park, Snag-Byeong ; Kim, Hyeon-Geun ; Kim, HyungHo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 53~61
This study developed a growth model for Larix leptolepis based on the WLS model to examine the effects of climate change on them. The site index was chosen as the dependent variable and location, weather, and edaphic factor were chosen as independent variables. Simulations were performed under three A1B climate change scenarios with the temperature ranging from
. The simulation results showed that the site index decreased with peak at
. The decrease level of the site index by region was also analyzed. Each scenario, site index has decreased mostly but some region was increased. When the temperature increased up to
, site index was decreased to everywhere.
Needle Life Span, Photosynthetic Pigment and Nitrogen Allocation of Picea jezoensis in Korea
Han, Sim-Hee ; Kim, Du-Hyun ; Kim, Gil Nam ; Yun, Chung-Weon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 62~68
We have investigated needle life span, photosynthetic pigment and nitrogen allocation pattern in the needle of Picea jezoensis in the three populations (Gyebangsan, Deogyusan and Jirisan) to find out growth environmental condition which needs the strategy development of conservation and restoration against population decline. Needle survival rate was the highest in Gyebangsan (87.0%) and the lowest in Jirisan (71.6%), and it decreased with the increase of needle age. Needle chlorophyll a and b in Deogyusan and Jirisan showed higher content in older needle, but chlorophyll content in Gyebangsan was the highest in 2-year-old needle. Carotenoid content was the highest in the needle in Gyebangsan, and it increased along with needle age. Chlorophyll a/b ratio showed the highest value in Jirisan and the lowest value in Gyebangsan. Chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio decreased with needle age, Needle nitrogen content was the highest in Deogyusan (1.51%) and the lowest in Gyebangsan (1.40%), and the older needle had the lower content. In contrast, the highest chlorophyll/nitrogen ratio represented the oldest needle.
Effects of Mountain Ginseng-added High Fat diet on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Protein Expression of Skeletal Muscle in Rats
Kwon, Dae-Keun ; Kang, Jun-Yong ; Song, Youngju ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Seo, Hyobin ; Ryu, Sungpil ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 69~76
We investigated the effect of mountain ginseng-added high fat diet supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protein expressions in rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; HS (high-fat diet sedentary group, n=8), MG1 (0.5% mountain ginseng-added diet group, n=8), MG2 (1% mountain ginsengadded diet group, n=8) and MG3 (2% mountain ginseng-added diet group, n=8). They have fed the diet for 4 weeks. The blood triglyceride were significantly lower in the MG1 and MG2 groups than that of the HS group. The blood HDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in the MG3 group than that of the HS and MG2 groups. The muscle glycogen contents of the MG2 and MG3 groups were significantly higher than that of HS and MG1 groups. The MDA contents in the MG1, MG2 and MG3 groups tended to lower than the HS group. The GPx protein expression in the gastrocnemius muscle of the MG2 group was significantly increased compared to that of the HS group. The Cu,Zn-SOD protein expression in the gastrocnemius muscle of the MG1 and MG2 groups was significantly increased compared to that of the MG3 group. The Mn-SOD protein expression in the MG1, MG2 and MG3 groups tended to higher than the HS group. From these results, it was suggested that mountain ginseng-added diet may have an crucial role on decreased MDA levels and increased antioxidant function in the skeletal muscle of rat fed a high fat diet.
Effects of Sterilization and Cultivation Temperatures of Oak Sawdust Medium on Lentinula edodes Hyphal Growth
Koo, Chang-Duck ; Lee, Hwa-Yong ; Lee, Gwi-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 77~82
Sterilization of oak sawdust at
for Lentinula edodes bed cultivation can be efficient in sterilization facility cost, but its effect on the mushroom production is uncertain due to high contamination probability. The effective conditions for L. edodes hyphal growth in the low temperature sterilized oak sawdust were investigated with combinations of three sterilization temperatures (
) and four cultivation temperatures (
). L. edodes inoculation density effect was also tested with 1 cm, 2 cm, and 4 cm distance in the sawdust (4%, 11% and 25% inoculation rate by surface area). L. edodes hyphal growth in the sawdust sterilized at
was as much as at those
when the fungus cultured below
, but it was greatly reduced when cultured at
. And the sawdust medium with 1cm distance inoculation density was fully occupied with L. edodes hyphae, but those with 2~4cm distance inoculation were contaminated by 4~33%. Therefore, we conclude that low temperature sterilized oak sawdust needs to be cultured under
after sufficient inoculation by 25% for successful bed cultivation of L. edodes.
Research on the Solution of Non-permanence Problem of Forest Carbon Offset Project Focused on the Introduction of Buffer System
Cha, Junhee ; Lee, Jong-Hak ; Han, Kijoo ; Bae, Jae Soo ; Seol, Mihyun ; Joo, Rin-Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 83~90
Forests as carbon sinks and sources, play an important role in mitigating global climate change. Nonpermanence problem of forest carbon offset projects should be addressed practically and properly for obtaining credible forest carbon credits. This study aims to analyze major non-permanence approaches and their applicability for Korean forest carbon offset projects. Introduction of the buffer system, one of the most generally used non-permanence approaches, should be considered first for domestic forest carbon offset schemes. From the research survey, experts preferred the buffer system to other approaches such as forest certification, conservation easement, and longer conservation period. Standard development including a buffer system with a risk assessment tool is required to assure project participation and permanence of carbon credits.
Sex Morph, Fruiting Habit, and Seed Viability of Acer palmatum
Kim, Gab Tae ; Kim, Hoi Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 91~95
To examine the sex morph, heterodichogamy, fruiting characteristics and seed viabilities of Acer palmatum, sixty three planted trees were monitered in Wonju-si for two years in terms of their sex morph, flowering and fruiting habit. Most flowers of A. palmatum are pollinated by Apis mellifera, Helophilus virgatus, a few (3.57%) are pollinated by wind. Twenty four trees (42.9%) in 2010, and twenty trees (31.7%) in 2011 were proved protandrous (PA: pollen is shed before stigmas are receptive), thirty two (50.8%) in 2010, thirty trees (47.6%) in 2011 were proved protogynous (PG: stigmas are receptive before pollen is shed). This result means that Acer palmatum has heterodichogamous sexual system. Five trees (7.9%) have changed their sex morphs; 4 trees change the sex morp PA to PG, and one does the sex morph PG to PA. Rates of sound seeds and decayed seeds were significantly different between sex morphs. Rates of sound seeds were 51.6% (2010) and 64.0% (2011) in PA, but 30.4% (2010) and 40.4% (2011) in PG. and rates of decayed seeds did 40.0% (2010) and 31.2% (2011) in PA, but 65.6% (2010) and 56.8% (2011) in PG. The differences of decayed seeds' rates between sex morphs might be related with the timing of insect pests' outbreak.
A Case Study of Spatial Allocation of Cut Blocks Using a Timber Harvest Simulator HARVEST
Song, Jungeun ; Jang, Kwangmin ; Han, Hee ; Seol, Ara ; Chung, Woodam ; Chung, Joosang ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 96~103
In this study, we used HARVEST, a timber management strategy assessment tool, to evaluate alternative forest planning strategies on spatial pattern of cutting blocks. We applied the tool to the Gwangreung Experimental Forest (GEF) as a case study. The harvest schedules developed for GEF using a linear programming model was used to assess spatial patterns of cutting blocks under different management constraints. The results show that the allowable maximum harvest size largely affects the number, size, and distribution of cutting blocks. We also found that spatial dispersion methods and adjacency constraints could be used as an effective means to control spatial allocation of cutting blocks in order to meet certain forest ecosystem management goals.
A Study on Improvement of Facilities in Daegu.Kyungpook Public Arboreta
Kang, Shin-Koo ; Moon, Jong-Tae ; Jeong, Eun-Seong ; Han, Sang-Yoel ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 104~112
This study was carried to improve the facilities in Daegu Kyungpook public Arboreta. On the basis of visitor's performance, satisfaction and implicitly derived importance, this study conducted Revised Importance- Performance Analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Regression Analysis between extracted performance factors and overall satisfaction. As a result, 'Plant and Arboretum's Landscape' factor was seemed to affect overall satisfaction quite a bit and need to keep up the good work because the attributes belonged to this factor had high importance-performance in Daegu Arboretum. The attributes located in 2 quadrant and had a relatively large effect on overall satisfaction were 'Management of information board', 'Capacity of restroom' and 'Accessibility to restroom' in Daegu Arboretum. These attributes are needed to be improved as soon as possible. Kyungpook Arboretum also had similar results in 'Plant and Arboretum's Landscape' factor but 'Parking Lot' factor was more influential to overall satisfaction compare to Daegu Arboretum. Especially, 'Capacity of parking lot' attribute, one of 'Parking Lot' factor, was the first one to be improved because it had high importance and low performance.
Influences of the Construction of the Torrent Control Structure Using Customized Tetrapods on the Stream Water Ecology at Valley
Park, Jae-Hyeon ; Ma, Ho-Seop ; Kim, Ki Heung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 113~120
The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of a torrent control structure using customized tetrapods on the forest water quality, fishes, snials and streamwater ecology conservation and management. The study was conducted in the Honggye valley located in Sanchung-gun, Gyungsangnam-do, and stream water quality and streamwater ecology was compared before and during 2 years after construction of torrent control structure. After construction of the torrent control structure using customized tetrapods, pH of stream water didn't get out of the range of River water quality standard class I. After 2 years construction of the torrent control structure using customized tetrapods, Dissolved Oxygen concentration didn't change, and Electrical Conductivity measurements agreed well within the range of normal clean stream water quality. After construction of the torrent control structure using customized tetrapods, fishes and snials up and down stream movement didn't influence of the tetrapods dam. Stream water quality during 2 years after construction of the torrent control structure was similar to before construction. Therefore, it was find out that the torrent control structure didn't affect stream water quality and ecology.
Effects of Edge Area and Burn Severity on Early Vegetation Regeneration in Damaged Area
Lee, Joo-Mee ; Won, Myoung-Soo ; Lim, Joo-Hoon ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 121~129
The edge area with burn severity is known as significant factor that has great effects on the ecosystem recovery. However, there is little study on the edge area and its effects in the South Korea. Thus, this study aimed to analyze immediate responses of vegetation following forest fires due to combined effect of burn severity and edge-interior effect. Burn Severity (BS), or
values were computed using satellite images of pre and post-forest fire in Samcheock areas. The burn forest was classified 231
girds and these grids were further reclassified into 4 groups by BS type (low BS and high BS areas) and forest areas (edge areas and interior areas). These four groups of grids including low BS-interior (group A), low BS-edge (group B), high BS-interior (group C) and high BS-edge (group D). Post-fire vegetation responses measured with (
) among four groups were then compared and tested by T-test. The results indicated that group C (
=0.047) and D (
= 0.059) showed considerably greater vegetation regeneration than those of low BS areas including group A (
= -0.039) and group B (
= -0.036). It was also observed that edges areas showed greater vegetation regeneration than interior areas when BS is the same. Group B (
= -0.036) showed greater (
) values than group A (
= -0.039) in low BS condition. Similar relationship is observed between group C and group D in high BS condition. Thus adequate restoration practices for burned areas might need to pay close attention to interior areas with low BS to minimize the secondary damages and to rehabilitate the burned forests.
Slope Stability Analysis of New Gabion Wall System with Vegetation Base Materials for Stream Bank Stability and Rehabilitation
Choi, Hyung Tae ; Jeong, Yong-Ho ; Park, Jae-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 130~137
This study has conducted to develop new gabion wall systems with vegetation base materials for stream bank stability and rapid rehabilitation. Vegetation base materials are primarily compounded with fine soil, organic composts and peat moss as plant fibers, a water retainer and a soil improver. Normally gabion wall systems resist the lateral earth pressures or stream power by their own weight. Therefore, fill material must have suitable weight, compressive strength and durability to resist the loading, as well as the effects of water and weathering. In this project, 100 to 200-mm clean, hard stones are basically specified, and about 50-mm rubbles are also used. Test application of new gabion wall system carried out in the stream bank of a small stream in the Gwangreung experimental forest, belonging to Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI) in December 16th, 2006. As a result of the analysis of hydraulic stability of new gabion wall system, gabion wall system has highest threshold shear stress when the gabion wall covered by vegetation. New gabion wall system is highly resistant to sliding and overturning because safety coefficients exceed 1.5. As a result of term of slope stability analysis of new gabion wall system by Bishop and Fellenius methods, stability of stream bank was highly increased after the construction of gabion wall. Therefore, new gabion wall system is effective to stabilize unstable stream bank.
Biomass Estimation of Phyllostachys pubescens Stands in KFRI, Southern Forest Research Center
Lee, Kwang Soo ; Jung, Su Young ; Son, Yeong Mo ; Lee, Kyeong Hak ; Bae, Eun Ji ; Yun, Seok Lak ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 138~147
For biomass estimation of Phyllostachys pubescens stands by optimal survey method we established 9 bamboo sample plots in the research forests of KFRI (Korea Forest Research Institute). The dry weight of culm segment determined by relative heights of total bamboo height show us two groups of 1st to 5th culm segment (up to 0~55% culm of tree height from the bottom area) and 6th to 8th culm segment (55~100%) by the results of cluster analysis for dry weight ratio. This results show that upper and lower part of 55~70% reference height from the bottom area against total culm height can be used in obtaining 1 kg of a sample bamboo, respectively, rather than 2.0 m stem segments of other forest tree species. In above-ground biomass estimation by
having the highest coefficient of determination in this study, above ground stand biomass was 57.77 ton/ha (culm 40.47 ton/ha, branch 9.29 ton/ha, and leaf 8.01 ton/ha) of which 70% was contributed by culm component followed by branch (16%) and leaf (14%). Below-ground biomass was 53.35 ton/ha in total.
A Zoning Method for Forest Landscape Management by Visual Quality Assessment
Lee, Gwan-Gyu ; Park, Chan-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 148~157
Korea, with 63.7% of the land being forests, has unique characteristics of forest landscapes coming into view for most residential areas and roads. This study was undertaken with a purpose of supporting forest landscape management by partitioning the areas that landscape management is needed. Through analysing the degree of forest landscape management needs and the visual absorption capability for landscape changes, the zoning process and method for landscape management were conducted. In order to select the areas that are managed by priority for landscape, the degree of forest landscape management needs was quantitatively analyzed with the main scenic sites, travel frequencies, major forest landscape resources, and areas with demand for walking and automobile travel as the basis. The visual absorption capability that means the visual acceptance capability against physical landscape changes of the designated areas was analyzed in order to select the areas that are suitable for artificial landscape management. As a result, it became possible to express the degrees of forest landscape management needs in high, middle, and low sub-areas, and the visual absorption capability in high, middle, and low sub-areas, for each of the three zones in terms of spaces in the forest landscape management areas. For example, among the forest landscape transition zones, if the degree of forest landscape management needs is high and the visual absorption capability is high, then aggressive landscape management would be possible; this would also mean that this area could accept certain levels of physical landscape changes. By applying zoning methods like these, it was possible to attain a conclusive result that proper means of landscape design and management of the forest landscape resources and the surrounding areas could be provided.
Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Acclimated Liriodendron tulipifera Tree Produced by Several Types of In Vitro Germination Culture
An, Chan Hoon ; Yi, Jae Seon ; Moon, Heung Kyu ; Kim, Yong Wook ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 158~162
The acclimatization of in vitro propagated plants is an important step to produce vigorous plants for clonal forestry and in vitro micro-environment may affect the growth in ex vitro condition. To monitor in vitro environmental effects on the growth in ex vitro condition, several culture systems such semi-solid medium(SS), temporary immersion bioreactor(TIB) and continuous immersion bioreactor(CIB) culture types were tested to compare for the growth of acclimated plants of Liriodendron tulipifera. Results suggested that morphological characters, stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration and chlorophyll contents of acclimated plants were affected by the different of in vitro culture conditions. CIB type of culture was resulted to the lowest value in the biomass of acclimated plants. Net photosynthsis rate of CIB was the same level as those of SS and TIB. However, stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration and
partial pressure in the intercellular air space were lower than those of SS and TIB. The amounts of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids were also lower than those of the other two culture systems. TIB, showing a little lower or higher value than SS in many growth character, is recommended rather than CIB to produce healthy yellow poplar plants in ex situ condition.
Development and Validation of Korean Composit Burn Index(KCBI)
Lee, Hyunjoo ; Lee, Joo-Mee ; Won, Myoung-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 1, 2012, Pages 163~174
CBI(Composite Burn Index) developed by USDA Forest Service is a index to measure burn severity based on remote sensing. In Korea, the CBI has been used to investigate the burn severity of fire sites for the last few years. However, it has been an argument on that CBI is not adequate to capture unique characteristics of Korean forests, and there has been a demand to develop KCBI(Korean Composite Burn Index). In this regard, this study aimed to develop KCBI by adjusting the CBI and to validate its applicability by using remote sensing technique. Uljin and Youngduk, two large fire sites burned in 2011, were selected as study areas, and forty-four sampling plots were assigned in each study area for field survey. Burn severity(BS) of the study areas were estimated by analyzing NDVI from SPOT images taken one month later of the fires. Applicability of KCBI was validated with correlation analysis between KCBI index values and NDVI values and their confusion matrix. The result showed that KCBI index values and NDVI values were closely correlated in both Uljin (r = -0.54 and p<0.01) and Youngduk (r = -0.61 and p<0.01). Thus this result supported that proposed KCBI is adequate index to measure burn severity of fire sites in Korea. There was a number of limitations, such as the low correlation coefficients between BS and KCBI and skewed distribution of KCBI sampling plots toward High and Extreme classes. Despite of these limitations, the proposed KCBI showed high potentials for estimating burn severity of fire sites in Korea, and could be improved by considering the limitations in further studies.