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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Forest Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
Editor in Chief :
Man Yong Shin
Volume & Issues
Volume 101, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 101, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 101, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 101, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Effect of New Mattress System with Vegetation Base Materials on the Vegetation Coverage of Stream bank
Choi, Hyung Tae ; Jeong, Yong-Ho ; Park, Jae-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 175~184
This study was conducted to develop new mattress systems with vegetation base materials for protecting stream bank and rapid rehabilitation. Vegetation base materials are primarily compounded with fine soil, organic composts and peat moss as plant fibers, a water retainer and a soil improver. Peat moss can usually provide necessary natural fibers and organic materials in soil. Especially, peat moss can absorb up to 25 times its own weight in water and is therefore valued as a water retainer to prevent drying effect of vegetation base materials which can harm the growth of vegetation in mattresses. Normally mattress systems resist the lateral earth pressures or stream power by their own weight. Therefore, filled materials must have suitable weight, compressive strength and durability to resist the loading, as well as the effects of water and weathering. In this project, 100 to 200-mm clean, hard stones were basically specified, and about 50-mm rubbles were also used. Test application of new mattress system carried out in the stream bank of a small stream in the Gwangreung experimental forest, belonging to Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI) in December 16th, 2006. As a result of the monitoring of vegetation coverage of test application plots (each plot size is 4 by 2 m), the coverage of all plots reached 100% in the end of May, 2007 (approximately 50 days passed after the first gemination of vegetation). The coverage of the plots using big hard stones and organic composts and the plots containing peat moss increased more rapidly. The results show that peat moss is effective to retain soil moisture and establish more sound environment for vegetation gemination.
Georeferencing of Primary Species Occurrence Data and Necessity of Data Quality Control - A Case Study of Two Varieties of Ox-Knee, Achyranthes bidentata Blume -
Chang, Chin-Sung ; Chang, Kae Sun ; Ahn, Yong-Sup ; Kim, Hui ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 185~194
The purpose of this contribution is to develop the framework of a methodology for identifying potential errors in georeferencing and in an application of it using specimens of Ox-Knee, Achyranthes bidentata Blume in Korea. At infraspecific level, uncertainty of identification showed that 41% of A. bidentata var. japonica and 28% of var. bidentata were misidentified, suggesting that the uncertainty level was independent of the reliability of experts' identification. For georeference specimen records, 71 specimens out of total 303 were selected and utilized as occurrence data: Uncertainty was 32.4 km at maximum and was 0.1297 km at minimum (mean = 4,055 m, s.d. = 5,772 m). Var. japonica is common throughout most of the southeastern Korea and west coastal areas, while var. bidentata has been found as far north as Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces. We modelled the potential distribution of two varieties using Bioclim approach in Korea based on several environmental factors. Our results indicated the most important region for var. japonica lies the west coast ranges and southern area, while for Chungcheongnam-do of potential high diversity occurs for var. bidentata. This study shows that the major factors to determine the distribution patterns of two varieties were thermal factors, rather than precipitation. The Bioclim model using geocode and georeferencing data makes the information increasingly useful and reliable. To improve data quality, it requires full management from data collection to final databases including data cleaning.
The Characteristics of Monoterpene and Air Quality in Ambient Air at Forested Road in Jeollanam-do
Oh, Gil-Young ; Seo, Yun-Gyu ; Park, Gui-Hwan ; Kim, Ik-San ; Bae, Ju-Soon ; Park, Hye-Young ; Yang, Soo-In ; Jeon, Jun-Min ; Jeong, Man-Ho ; Seo, Yun-Seob ; Lee, Wan-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 195~202
Three-season field study was conducted to investigate the distribution of monoterpene(10) and air anion in ambient air at five forests.
-Pinene, camphene, sabinene,
-pinene, myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, 1,8-cineol, linalool, and camphor were quantified in the samples collected. The highest 4-hour mean concentration of total monoterpene were
-pinene+myrcene as 958 pptv at Juknokwon dominated by bamboo and
-pinene (524 pptv), limonene (445 pptv) at Wood Land and Suncheon Bay, respectively. The seasonal means were observed to peak during spring with their maximum at Wood Land and Seonam Temple and during summer at Juknokwon and Suncheon Bay. The 24 hour concentration mean of atmosphere standards were found with much lower values than those by law. The highest concentrations of air anion were measured
through the sites. There is no significant correlation between the concentration of monoterpene and air anion.
Testing Spatial Autocorrelation of Burn Severity
Lee, Sang-Woo ; Won, Myoung-Soo ; Lee, Hyun-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 203~212
This study aims to test presence of spatial autocorrelation of burn severity in Uljin and Youngduk areas burned in 2011. SPOT satellite images were used to compute the NDVI representing burn severity, and NDVI values were sampled for 5,000 randomly dispersed points for each site. Spatial autocorrelations of sampled NDVI values were analyzed with Moran's I and Variogram models. Moran's I values of burn severity in Uljin and Youngduk areas were 0.7745 and 0.7968, respectively, indicating presence of strong spatial autocorrelations. On the basis of Variogram and changes of Moran's I values by lag class, ideal sampling distance were proposed, which were 566-2,151 m for Uljin and 272-402 m for Youngduk. It was recommended to apply these ranges of sampling distance in flexible corresponding to Anisotropic characteristics of burned areas.
Estimation of Forest Growing Stock by Combining Annual Forest Inventory Data
Yim, Jong Su ; Jung, Il Bin ; Kim, Jong Chan ; Kim, Sung Ho ; Ryu, Joo Hyung ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 213~219
national forest inventory (NFI5) has been reorganized to annual inventory system for providing multi-resources forest statistics at a point in time. The objective of this study is to evaluate statistical estimators for estimating forest growing stock in Chungcheongbuk-Do from annual inventory data. When comparing two estimators; simple random sampling (SRS) and double sampling for post-stratification (DSS), for estimating mean forest growing stock (
) at each surveyed year, the estimate for DSS in which a population of interest is stratified into three sub-population (forest cover types) was more precise than that for SRS. To combine annual inventory field data, three estimators (Temporally Indifferent Method; TIM, Moving Average; MA, and Weighted Moving Average; WMA) were compared. Even though the estimated mean for TIM and WMA is identical, WMA-DSS is preferred to provide more smaller variance of estimated mean and to adjust for catastrophic events at a surveyed year (so-called "lag bias") by annual inventory data.
Effect of Forest Land Use on Soil Runoff in Small Watershed
Ma, Ho-Seop ; Kang, Won-Seok ; Kang, Eun-Min ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 220~225
This study was carried out to clarify the impact of land use (Castanea crenata, Pinus densiflora and Plantation Land) on soil runoff in small watershed. The soil runoff showed in order of plantation land, Castanea stand and Pinus stand. The resulting models in linear equations of three stands were able to account for 70%, 60% and 60% respectively. The relationship between soil runoff and forest environmental factors was a positive correlation at 1% level with slope, forest type, soil hardness, watershed area, stream length and at 5% level with accumulative rainfall, but was negative correlation at 1% level with coverage. The main factors that affected soil runoff in small watershed showed in order of coverage, accumulative rainfall and stand type. In the stepwise regression between soil runoff and forest environmental factors, the estimation equation is as follow; Y = 31.250 - 1.140(Coverage) + 0.413(Accumulative rainfall) + 20.829(Forest type). The results indicates that dangerous areas of landslide and soil runoff by land use could be applied to the mitigation measures such as afforestation, erosion check dam and revetment for erosion control and water quality management in small watershed.
Flora and Vegetation of Mt. Gwaebyung and Galmi-bong, Gangwon Province, Korea
Kim, Yoo-Shin ; Kim, Nam-Young ; Kim, Young-Seol ; Lee, Hak-Bong ; Kim, Se-Chang ; Kim, Ji-Hong ; Park, Wan-Geun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 226~235
Floristic composition and phytosociological studies in Mt. Gwaebyung and Galmi-Bong were investigated to classify forest vegetation and distribution of vascular plants. We investigated two study sites from April to September, 2011. Total 477 taxa with 93 families, 279 genera, 408 species, 4 subspecies, 56 varieties and 9 forms were distributed in Mt. Gwaebyung and Galmi-Bong. Korean endemic species were composed of 8 families with 11 genera and 11 species. The plant species which is designated as protected species by the Ministry of Environment, Korea was 2 families, 2 genera and 2 species. Also plant species which is designated by the Korea National Arboretum was 16 taxa with 13 families, 14 genera, 15 species and 1 variety. A naturalized plants were 17 taxa. The Naturalization index and Urbanization index were 3.6% and 5.3% respectively. Pteridophyta-calculation (Pte-Q) was 1.00. Life form spectra was
type and the highest percentage of useful plant resources were medicinal plant (77.5%). The forest vegetation in Mt. Gwaebyung and Galmi-bong was classified into 1 order, 1 alliance and 4 communities; Rhododendro - Quercetalia mongoliaceae, Lindero-Quercion mongolicae, Quercus mongolica Typical Community, Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica Community, Larix kaempferi Community and Sasa borealis-Quercus mongolica Community.
Correlation Between Relative Light Intensity and Physiological Characteristics of Forsythia saxatilis in Bukhansan Natural Habitats
Han, Sim-Hee ; Kim, Gil Nam ; Kim, Du-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 236~243
The leaf growth and physiological characteristics of Forsythia saxatilis were investigated at six natural habitats under different light intensities in Bukhansan in order to figure out an appropriate growth environment for conservation and restoration of F. saxatilis that is Korean endemic plant designated as rare and endangered species. Relative light intensities (RLI) at six habitats showed from 10% to 78% of the full sun. Leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and dry leaf weight of population under highest relative light intensity (78%) were the highest. The ratio of dry leaf weight to leaf area increased with the increase of RLI. The content of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were the highest at 78% of RLI, whereas the ratio of total chlorophyll to carotenoid content reduced according to the increase of RLI. Photosynthetic parameters, such as photosynthetic rate, also increased with the increase of RLI. The total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) was 1.5 times higher at 78% of RLI than that at 10% of RLI and the total soluble sugar (TSS) was the highest at 78% of RLI. In conclusion, leaf characteristics and physiological characteristics have high positive correlation with light intensity. Therefore, light condition should be primarily considered to improve growth and physiology characteristics of F. saxatilis under low light intensity.
Above-ground Biomass and Crown Fuel Characteristics of Pinus densiflora in Yangyang, Gangwon Province
Kim, Sungyong ; Lee, Youngjin ; Jang, Mina ; Seo, Yeonok ; Koo, Kyosang ; Jung, Sungcheol ; Kim, Kyungha ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 244~250
The objective of this study was to analyze the above-ground biomass and crown fuel characteristics of Pinus densiflora stands in Yangyang, Gangwon province. A total of thirteen representative trees were destructively sampled in Yangyang region. The results showed that the stem density (
) was 0.347~0.409, whereas the above-ground biomass expansion factors ranged from 1.251~1.419. In terms of crown fuel biomass, the above-ground biomass was
while the stem biomass, branch biomass and needle biomass were
, respectively. Needles and twigs with less than 1 cm diameter accounted 45.2% of the total crown fuel load. The available crown bulk density, which was calculated by dividing the crown fuel load to the crown volume, was
. The results of this study on the biomass and carbon stocks estimation of the Pinus densiflora together with the crown fire hazard assessment based on crown fuel loads are very significant information for the forest managers.
A Study on the Management Guidelines of Erosion Control Facilities in National Forests (I) - The Inspection Results of Erosion Control Facilities from 2009 to 2011 -
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Jung, Cha-Sik ; Kim, Jeong-Sig ; Jung, Ho-Jin ; Kim, Min-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 251~258
This study was conducted to analyze field inspection results of erosion control facilities within national forests and to suggest maintenance and management plan of erosion control facilities. The objects amounted to a total of 1,628 locations, comprising 308 erosion control dams and 1,320 erosion control areas (1,269.05 ha). The field inspections were conducted during March-June each year. The erosion control dams inspected were constructed during 1991-2005, with 96.4% of them, or 297 dams, constructed in or after 2000. The erosion control areas were constructed during 1986-2005, with 68.6% of them, or 903 areas, constructed in or after 2000. As for erosion control dams, there were 205 concrete erosion control dams and 68 concrete with boulder pitching erosion control dams, respectively, with 296 out of a total of 308 erosion control dams in a good condition. As for erosion control areas, there were many erosion control structures using stone masonry works and gabions, with 1,245 out of a total of 1,320 (94.3%) erosion control areas in a good condition. Overall, erosion control facilities within national forests were in a good condition, amply fulfilling their functions. As for erosion control facilities in a bad condition, they must be made to accomplish the goals of erosion control works through supplementation and repairs without fail. In addition, for the systematic maintenance and management of existing erosion control facilities and erosion control facilities constructed in the future as part of erosion control works, the construction of an erosion control facility management system is urgently needed.
Analysis of Environmental Consciousness and Protection Behavior to Establish Protected Area Management - Focused on Hebei Spirit Oil Spill -
Sim, Kyu-Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 259~265
The purpose of this study intends to suggest a basic information to establish protected area policy by analyzing environmental consciousness and environmental protection behavior of citizen after Hebei Spirit oil spill. During May-June of 2011, a total of 987 respondents completed at 5 major cities (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju) in Korea. The result showed that more previous experience of environment as recognition of oil spill damaged area, volunteer activity experience, participation in the organization for environmental conservation, and participation in education program led to more positive attitude to environment. Therefore, the result of this study will contribute to manage protected area in balancing ecological conservation and utilization.
Developing Dynamic DBH Growth Prediction Model by Thinning Intensity and Cycle - Based on Yield Table Data -
Kim, Moonil ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Park, Taejin ; Kwak, Hanbin ; Byun, Jungyeon ; Nam, Kijun ; Lee, Kyung-Hak ; Son, Yung-Mo ; Won, Hyung-Kyu ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 266~278
The objective of this study was developing dynamic stand growth model to predict diameter at breast height (DBH) growth by thinning intensity and cycle for major tree species of South Korea. The yield table, one of static stand growth models, constructed by Korea Forest Service was employed to prepare dynamic stand growth models for 8 tree species. In the process of model development, the thinning type was designated to thinning from below and equations for predicting the DBH change after thinning by different intensities was generated. In addition, stand density (N/ha), age and site index were adopted as explanatory variables for DBH prediction model. Thereafter, using the model, DBH growth under various silvicuture through integrating such equations considering thinning intensities, and cycles. The dynamic stand growth model of DBH developed in this study can provide understanding of effectiveness in forest growth and growing stock when thinning practice is performed in forest. Furthermore, results of this study is also applicable to quantitatively assess the carbon storage sequestration capability.
Analysis the actual Conditions for the Effect Management on Livelihood Environment Forest Protected Areas
Park, Jae Hyeon ; Lee, Sang Tae ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 279~285
This study was conducted to offer preliminary data for forest management from March and December 2011. Based on the number of standing trees by DBH classes, it is recommended to practice thinning and pruning to change the current young stand to mature stand. In Livelihood Environment Forest Protected Areas, young (0-10 years or 0-10 cm DBH) and detected trees need to be removed and selected healthy trees need to be heavily tended. Also, selected trees in age 20-30 (20-30 cm DBH class) need to receive concentrated tending. Since Livelihood Environment Forest Protected Areas had been vulnerable for erosion, the diversity of understory layer is low. In order to diversify deciduous trees, it is recommended to introduce new species and thin and prune existing trees. It is not proper to adapt clear cutting in a short time and should be partially regenerated using shelter-wood method or proper tending practices to the Pinus rigida dominanted forest. Tending existing under-story species including Quercus alina, Quercus variabilis, and Quercus serrata would be important.
Estimation of Biomass Loss and Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Surface Layer Burned by Forest Fire
Lee, Byungdoo ; Youn, Ho Jung ; Koo, Kyosang ; Kim, Kyongha ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 286~290
Globally, the forest fires are a significant contributor of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this study, fuel load consumed by forest fire and emission of green house gases were analysed in the surface layer. For this, remaining fuel was collected and weighed with the species (Japanese red pine, deciduous) and the forest fire types (surface fire, crown fire) in the 51 forest fires. 8,361 kg/ha fuel load was consumed in deciduous forest damaged by surface fire, and 8,055 kg/ha, 12,333 kg/ha in Japanese red pine burned by surface fire and crown fire. The combustion ratios were 78, 59, and 90%, respectively. 15,856 kg/ha the green house gases such as
in deciduous forest burned by surface fire was emitted and 14,834 kg/ha, 22,709 kg/ha in Japanese red pine burned by surface fire and crown fire.
Selection of a Triploid Poplar by Flow Cytometric Analysis and Growth Characteristics of its in vitro Grown Plants
Bae, Eun-Kyung ; Lee, Hyoshin ; Lee, Jae-Soon ; Noh, Eun-Woon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 291~296
Triploids are a useful tool for biomass production and molecular breeding of trees with a long life span. Triploids of the poplar 'Hyunsasi' (Populus alba
P. glandulosa) have been developed by crossing between female diploids and a male tetraploid. The tetraploid was developed around the 1970s at Korea Forest Research Institute by colchicine-induced chromosome doubling. Seedlings of the
generation were analyzed using flow cytometry to verify their ploidy status. The mean relative fluorescence index of 3 F1 poplars, labeled as Line- 1, Line-17, Line-18, were approximately 1.5 times higher than those of diploid poplars, and the results clearly indicated that they were triploids. The phenotype of the F1 poplars included larger leaves and thicker stem than diploids, and abnormal leaf morphology, especially in the triploid 'Line-18'. Three triploid lines developed roots more slowly and had less roots than diploid. However, 3 poplar cytotypes (2x, Line-1, Line-17) rooted within 10 days on MS medium. In contrast, compared with the 3 cytotypes, the Line-18 showed about 80% and 70% in the rooting rate and the number of roots. The triploid poplars could be directly utilized for biomass production and with their sterility, they could serve as basic material for genetic transformation. In addition, flow cytometric analysis proved to be an effective and reliable method for screening forest trees for their ploidy level.
Changes in Stand Structures Before and After Silvicultural Treatments in Natural Deciduous Forests of Pyungchang Area
Kim, Yong Jin ; Sung, Joo Han ; Yang, Hee Moon ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 297~304
The objective of this study was to estimate the changes of stand structure before and after applying the three different silvicultural treatments such as selection cutting system, two-storied system, and shelterwood system. This study has been conducted in the natural deciduous forests in Pyungchang of Gangwon Province, Korea. Three permanent sampling plots of 0.09 ha were established in the forests and the three silvicultural treatments were applied in 2008. For this study, some tree variables were measured in each stand before and after the silvicultural treatments were applied. With these data, stand attributes were estimated in each stand before and after the silvicultural treatments. In this study, four stand structure indices were used to analyze the differences among structures of stands managed by three different silvicultural treatments. Contagion index, DBH-difference index, height-difference index, and mingling index were estimated and compared to analyze the differences of stand structures among the stands before and after silvicultural treatments. Duncan's multiple range test and t-test were then employed to statistically analyze the difference of stand structure among the stands. The results revealed that all of the stand structure indices seem to be increased after applying the silvicultural treatments. There are significant differences in the stand structure indices between before and after silvicultural treatments for each stand. According to the evaluation of stand structure indices, it was confirmed that spatial structure of the stands was improved by applying the silvicultural treatments. For attaining the specific goal of each stand types acquired by different silvicultural treatments, the frequencies and amounts of additional practices should be decided based on the changes of stand structure as time passed.
Growth of the Box Tree Pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis Reared on an Artificial Diet Through Four Generations
Park, Il-Kwon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 305~308
The box tree pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis, was reared on an artificial diet based on dried powder of box tree leaves, Buxus microphylla var. koreana, and INSECTA F-II (Nihon Nosan Co., Ltd) at a ratio of 3:7 (w:w) and analyzed in their developmental characteristics from
generation. The developmental period of larva reared on artificial diet was longer than that of larva reared on host plant. Significant difference in larval period was also observed between
and other generation groups. Pupation rate was the highest in
generation followed by
and host plant group. Significant difference in pupal period was noted between
and 3rd generation group. Emergence rate was the highest in
generation group followed by
, host plant,
generation group. There is a significant difference in male and female size between
generation group. Our result indicated that stable rearing of box tree pyralid through the year is possible by artificial diet, and the best adaptation to artificial diet was achieved at
A Study on Visitor's Behavior as a Characteristics of Different Forest Trails
Son, Ji Won ; Ha, Si Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 309~316
The purpose of this study is to conduct a visitor survey which provides demographical characteristics, a profile of the characteristic, travel behavior in different forest trails; Bukhansan trail, Uljin trail, Jirisan trail. Bukhansan trail (second course) is about 3 km and many visitors are nearby residents for the walking. Uljin trail is 80 km, especially conducting visitor reservation guide system and most visitors are 30s and 50s. Jirisan trail is total 209.3 km (a total of 17 courses), networking regional trail routes and was most popular between the ages of 20 and 39. The results showed that Bukhansan trail was used for light walking course, and visitors preferred health related activities. In Uljin trail, visitors expected trekking with nature-based activities and visitors of Jirisan trail seemed to prefer trekking and request more trail's walkability than other trail users.
Comparison of Growth Characteristics of 1- and 2-year-old Bare Root and Container Seedling of Chamaecyparis obtusa
Song, Ki Sun ; Cha, Young Geun ; Choi, Jin Young ; Kim, Jong Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 317~323
This study was performed in order to explore the growth characteristics by growing stage in the containerized seedling and the bare root seedling of Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc., which is the major plantation species of Korean southland. The height growth of 1-year-old bare root seedlings was better than containerized seedlings, which grew in the containers with capacity of 31.2 mL and 300 mL. The root collar diameter growth was the best in the containerized seedlings of container with 300 mL. The 2-year-old bare root seedlings were surveyed to be better in the height and root collar diameter growth than the containerized seedlings of container with 300 mL. In the comparison of dry mass production, it was the highest in 32 mL containerized seedlings as for 1-year-old above ground and in 300 mL containerized seedlings as for below-ground and total dry mass production. In case of 2-year-old seedlings, it was indicated to be high in bare root seedling as for the part above ground and in dry mass production of the containerized seedling as for the part below ground. In the comparison on root morphological traits of seedlings such as the total root length, the root project area, the root surface area, the average diameter in root, and the root volume, all of 1 and 2-year -old containerized seedlings showed the higher growth than the bare root seedlings except the average diameter in root. Synthesizing the results of this experiment, the containerized seedlings are relatively excellent in root development compared to bare root seedlings in the process of producing seedlings of C. obtusa, thereby being judged to have grown into excellent seedlings.
Growth Performances of Container Seedlings of Deciduous Hardwood Plantation Species Grown at Different Container Types
Cho, Min-Seok ; Lee, Soo-Won ; Hwang, Jaehong ; Kim, Suk-Kwon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 2, 2012, Pages 324~332
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of container types on seedling growth of Betula costata, Liriodendron tulipifera, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Fraxinus mandshurica, Zelkova serrata, and Ulmus parvifolia in the container nursery system. We used three container types [20 cavities (150 seedlings/
-400 mL), 24 cavities (200 seedlings/
-320 mL), and 35 cavities (260 seedlings/
-240 mL)] and measured root collar diameter (RCD), height, biomass, seedling quality index (SQI), and root density. The root collar diameter, height, biomass, SQI, and root density of seedlings were the highest at 20 cavities/tray in all six species because this container type has the largest volume and lowest seedling density. However, F. rhynchophylla growth at both 20 and 24 cavities/tray, Z. serrata growth at both 24 and 35 cavities/tray and B. costata growth at all sizes were not significantly different. As expected, container volume was positively correlated with RCD, height, and biomass of five species except for Z. serrata, but seedling density negatively did. Based on these results, 20 cavities/tray are optimal for L. tulipifera, F. mandshurica, and U. parvifolia, 20 or 24 cavities/tray for F. rhynchophylla, 24 or 35 cavities/tray for Z. serrata, and 35 cavities/tray for B. costata, respectively. Usage of optimal container will make us get good quality seedlings as well as reduction of production costs in the container nursery.