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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Forest Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
Editor in Chief :
Man Yong Shin
Volume & Issues
Volume 101, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 101, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 101, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 101, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Spatio-temporal Variations in the Dynamics and Export of Large Wood in Korean Mountain Streams
Seo, Jung Il ; Chun, Kun Woo ; Kim, Suk Woo ; Im, Sangjun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 333~343
In-stream large wood (LW) has a critical impact on the geomorphic characteristics relevant to ecosystem management and disaster prevention, yet relatively little is known about variations in its dynamics and subsequent export on the watershed-scale perspective in Korea. Here we review variations in the dynamics and subsequent export of LW as a function of stream size, which is appropriate for Korean mountain streams. In upstream channels with narrow bankfull widths and low stream discharges, a massive amount of LW, resulting from forest dynamics and hillslope processes, may persist for several decades on valley floor. These pieces, however, are eventually transported during infrequent debris flows from small tributaries, as well as peak hydrology in main-stem channels. During the transport, these pieces suffer fragmentation caused by frictions with boulders, and stream bank and bed. Although infrequent, these events can be dominant processes in the export of significant amounts of LW from upstream channel networks. In downstream channels with wide bankfull widths and high stream discharges, LW is dominantly recruited by forest dynamics and bank erosion only at locations where the channel is adjacent to mature riparian forests. With the LW pieces that are supplied from the upstream, these pieces are continuously transported downstream during rainfall events. This leads to further fragmentation of the LW pieces, which increases their transportability. With decreasing stream-bed slope, these floated LW pieces, however, can be stored and form logjams at various depositional sites, which were developed by interaction between channel forms and floodplains. These pieces may decay for decades and be subsequently transported as particulate or dissolved organic materials, resulting in the limitation of LW fluvial export from the systems. However, in Korea, such depositional sites were developed in the extremely limited streams with a large dimension and no flood history for decades, and thus it does not be expected that the reduction of LW export amount, which can be caused by the long-term storage. Our review presents a generalized view of LW processing and is relevant to ecosystem management and disaster prevention for Korean mountain streams.
An Analysis of the Operational Time and Productivity in Whole-tree and Cut-to-Length Logging Operation System
Kim, Min-Kyu ; Park, Sang-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 344~355
This study was conducted to analyze on the operational time and productivities of logging operations in whole-tree logging operation system by tower-yarder and swing-yarder, and in cut-to-length logging operation system by excavator with grapple in order to establish the efficient logging operation system and to spread logging operation technique. In the analysis of operational time, in case of whole-tree logging operation system, the felling time was 46.6 sec/cycle by chain saw, the yarding time was 480.6 sec/cycle by tower-yarder, the yarding time was 287.4 sec/cycle by swing-yarder and the bucking time was 155.14 sec/cycle by chain saw. In case of the cut-to-length logging operation system, the felling and bucking time was 225.65 sec/cycle by chain saw, the cut-to-length extraction time was 4,972 sec/cycle by excavator with grapple, the branches and leaves extraction time was 3,143 sec/cycle by excavator with grapple. The forwarding time was 4,688 sec/cycle by wheel type mini-forwarder, the forwarding time was 2,118 sec/cycle by excavator with grapple and small forwarding vehicle. In the analysis of operational productivities, in case of whole-tree logging operation system, the average felling performance was
by chain saw, the average yarding performance was
by swing-yarder respectively, the average bucking performance was
by chain saw. In case of the cut-to-length logging operation system, the average felling and bucking performance was
by chain saw, the average cut-to-length extraction performance was
by excavator with grapple, the average branches and leaves extraction performance was
by excavator with grapple, the average length of operation road construction was 73.8 m/day by excavator with grapple. The average forwarding performance by wheel type mini-forwarder and the average forwarding performance by excavator with grapple and small forwarding vehicle was
Vegetation Classification and Biomass Estimation using IKONOS Imagery in Mt. ChangBai Mountain Area
Cui, Gui-Shan ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Zhu, Wei-Hong ; Lee, Jongyeol ; Kwak, Hanbin ; Choi, Sungho ; Kwak, Doo-Ahn ; Park, Taejin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 356~364
This study was to estimate the biomass of Mt. Changbai mountain area using the IKONOS imagery and field survey data. Then, we prepared the regression function using the vegetation index derived from the IKONOS and biomass estimated from field measured data of previous studies, respectively. The five vegetation index which used in the regression model was SAVI, NDVI, SR, ARVI, and EVI. As a result, the rank of the R-square from coefficient of correlation was as follow, SAVI(0.84), NDVI(0.73), SR(0.59), ARVI(0.0036), EVI(0.0026). Finally, we estimated the biomass of non-measured area using the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). This study can be used as reference methodology for the estimation of carbon sinks of primary forest.
Extraction and Accuracy Assessment of Deforestation Area using GIS and Remotely Sensed Data
Lee, Gihaeng ; Lee, Jungsoo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 365~373
This study purposed to extract and assess the accuracy of assessment for deforestation area in Wonju city using medium resolution satellite image. The total size of deforestation area during the last nine years (2000-2008) was about 467 ha, and it was occurred annually about 52 ha. The most frequent form of deforestation was settlements (72%). Ninety percent of the size of deforestation was less than 2 ha in size. In addition, 79 percent of deforestation area was found within 500 m from the road network and within 100 m of the Forest/Non-forest boundary. This study compared the deforestation based on the administrative information (GIS deforestationI) with the deforestation (RS deforestation) extracted from the satellite imagery by vegetation indices (NDVI, NBR, NDWI). Extraction accuracy, mean-standard deviation
applied 3 by 3 filtering, showed reliable accuracy 35.47% k-value 0.20. However, error could be occurred because of the difference of land-use change and land-cover change. The actual rate of land-cover change deforestation area was 32% on administrative information. The 7.52% of forest management activities area was misjudged as deforestation by RS deforestation. Finally, the comparison of land-cover change deforestation (GIS deforestationII) with the RS deforestation accuracy, as a result NDVI mean-standard deviation
applied 3 by 3 filtering, showed improved accuracy 61.23%, k-value 0.23.
Comparison of Forest Growing Stock Estimates by Distance-Weighting and Stratification in k-Nearest Neighbor Technique
Yim, Jong Su ; Yoo, Byung Oh ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 374~380
The k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) technique is popularly applied to assess forest resources at the county level and to provide its spatial information by combining large area forest inventory data and remote sensing data. In this study, two approaches such as distance-weighting and stratification of training dataset, were compared to improve kNN-based forest growing stock estimates. When compared with five distance weights (0 to 2 by 0.5), the accuracy of kNN-based estimates was very similar ranged
in mean deviation. The training dataset were stratified by horizontal reference area (HRA) and forest cover type, which were applied by separately and combined. Even though the accuracy of estimates by combining forest cover type and HRA- 100 km was slightly improved, that by forest cover type was more efficient with sufficient number of training data. The mean of forest growing stock based kNN with HRA-100 and stratification by forest cover type when k=7 were somewhat underestimated (
) compared to statistical yearbook of forestry at 2011.
A Change of Turbidity on Forest Stands by Rainfall Characteristics in Small Watershed
Ma, Ho-Seop ; Kang, Won-Seok ; Kang, Eun-Min ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 381~386
This study was carried out to clarify the turbidity change on three stands (Castanea crenata, Pinus densiflora and Plantation Land) by rainfall characteristics in small watershed. The change of turbidity showed in order of plantation land, Castanea stand and Pinus stand. The linear equations models between turbidity and rainfall intensity were able to account for 91% in Castanea stand, 80% in Pinus stand and 71% in plantation land. The linear equations models between turbidity and duration of rainfall were able to account for about 0-1% in three stands. The linear equations models between turbidity and preceding dry days were able to account for about 30% in three stands. The linear equations models between turbidity and accumulative rainfall were able to account for about 6-22% in three stands. The results indicates that soil runoff by land use and development of forest area could be applied to the mitigation measures such as afforestation and erosion check dam for erosion control and water quality management in small watershed.
Analysis of Consciousness and Model on Land for the Another use After Quarrying
Park, Jae Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 387~394
The study was conducted to develop an effective forest resources use models for an alternate use of abandoned quarry by an attitude survey. According to the result of survey, a pessimistic view due to dust, noise pollution, and forest damage was 5% higher than an affirmative view by economic benefits from the development of quarry. The 42% of the respondents preferred the alternate use of abandoned quarry and the 25% of the respondents wanted an art and cultural space. The optimum size of alternate use was 5-10 ha (43%) with the requirement of nearby residents (32%). According to the SWOT analysis for abandoned quarry, the strength factors were an effective use of land, the content development of modern industrial inheritance + cultural and art fusion, attraction for nearby city and visitors, a harmony of beauty landscape and clean environment, and a sustainable increase of domestic and foreign visitors with the 5-day-work week. The opportunity factors were the improvement of traffic networks through KTX and local highway, the creation of the new growth engines with the establishment of artistic creation belts, the providing of unique cultural and art space through grafting of tour and education, the creation of local income through stone processed goods, and the vitalization of local development through eco-city. The weakness factors were a psychological remoteness and backwardness, and the weakness of staying tour infra. The threat factors were a poor financial support for sustainable development in nearby quarry and a modify of legal and institutional system for the alternated use of abandoned quarry. The developed restoration models for the alternate use in abandoned quarry are classified to a sculpture park, a waterfall and lake park, a rock-climbing, a sports park + forest park, a native botanical garden, a culture and art park, a complex park, a water storage site, a water storage site to extinguish forest fire, a geriatric hospital, an agricultural facility, and a school site types etc. The results suggest that the alternate use in the abandoned soil and stone quarry is needed to establish facility use models with consideration of user's preference.
Development of Site Index Equations and Assessment of Productive Areas Based on Environmental Factors for Major Coniferous Tree Species
Lee, Yong Seok ; Sung, Joo Han ; Chun, Jung Hwa ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 395~404
This study was conducted to develop site index equations and to estimate productive areas for major coniferous species in Korea such as Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc, Pinus densiflora for. erect, Larix leptolepis and Pinus koraiensis using environmental factors. Using the large data set from both a digital forest site map and a climatic map, a total of 43 environmental factors including 15 climatic variables were regressed on site index by tree species to develop site index equations. Six environmental factors by species were selected as independent variables in the final site index equations. The result showed that the coefficients of determination for site index equations by species were ranged from 0.36 to 0.56, which seem to be relatively low but good enough for the estimation of forest stand productivity. The site index equations developed in this study were also verified by three evaluation statistics such as the estimation bias of model, precision of model, and mean square error of measurement. According to the evaluation statistics, it was found that the site index equations by species fitted well to the test data sets with relatively low bias and variation. As a result, it was concluded that the site index equations by species were well capable of estimating site quality. Based on the site index equations, the productive areas by species for all forest areas were estimated by applying GIS technique to the digital forest site map and climate map. In addition, the distribution of productive areas by species was illustrated by using GIS technique.
Short-term Effects on Soil Property and Leaf Characteristics after Soil Amendment Treatments in Chestnut (Castanea crenata S. et Z.) Orchards
Kim, Choonsig ; Kim, Weon-Seok ; An, Hyun-Chul ; Cho, Hyun-Seo ; Choo, Gab-Chul ; Lim, Jong-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 405~411
This study was conducted to evaluate short-term effects on soil properties and leaf characteristics after various treatments of soil amendments (organic fertilizer: 20 kg tree-1; compound fertilizer+wood-char: compound fertilizer 4 kg tree-1+wood-char 2 kg tree-1; lime fertilizer: 3 kg tree-1; mixed fertilizer: compound fertilizer 1 kg tree-1+organic fertilizer 10 kg tree-1+wood-char 1 kg tree-1; control) in chestnut (Castanea crenata S. et Z.) orchards of Jinju and Sancheong, Gyeongsangnam-do. Soil bulk density, soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ in chestnut orchards were not significantly affected by soil amendment treatments. However, leaf weight was significantly higher in the lime fertilizer (
) in Jinju and the organic fertilizer (
) in Sancheong than in the control treatments (Jinju:
). Leaf area was also significantly higher in the lime fertilizer (
) in Jinju and the soil amendments (
) in Sancheong than in the control treatments (Jinju:
). Nitrogen concentration of leaf increased significantly in the mixed fertilizer (2.51%) and the compound fertilizer+wood-char (2.50%) compared with the control (1.98%) treatments. The results suggest that soil properties were not affected by soil amendment treatments during short-term period, but leaf characteristics and nitrogen concentration can be an indicator of soil nutrient improvements in chestnut orchards.
Quality Grading of Concrete Soil Erosion Control Dam in the Aspect of Unconfined Concrete Strength by Surface-Wave Technique
Lee, Chang-Woo ; Joh, Sung-Ho ; Park, Ki-Hyung ; Kim, Min-Sik ; Yoon, Ho-Joong ; Raja Ahmad, Raja Hassanul ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 412~425
Concrete Soil Erosion Control Dam, which blocks flow of debris flow in torrential stream, are reported to lose expected functions due to structural failure and collapses, caused by poor construction, material deterioration and external impacts. In this paper, an integrity assessment technique for debris barriers was proposed, which allows preliminary detection of problems inherent in debris barriers. The proposed integrity assessment technique is a non-destructive method based on SASW method, one of surface-wave tests. In this paper, a practical procedure and analysis guidelines in applying the SASW technique to debris barrier was proposed and its validity was verified using five decrepit debris barriers older than 20-year old. As a result, the SASW method was validated for the reliable grade evaluation method for concrete soil erosion control dam, and the resulting grades turned out to agree with the results determined by Sabang Associations.
Profitability Analysis for Ligularia fischeri Forest Farming
Park, Sang-Byeong ; Kim, Mahn-Jo ; Park, Yunmi ; Hwang, Suk-In ; Kim, Eui-Gyeong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 426~433
This study was carried out for preliminary feasibility review to consult forest farmer, to make policy and to search improvement for Ligularia fischeri forest farm. The survey for eight Ligularia fischeri forest farmer in Inje-gun was conducted. And the case study was conducted with computing labor input, gross margin, net margin in each planting stages, which is contented each cultivating stage from creating to harvesting. B/C ratio, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return were used for profitability analysis. The results applied 3% of discount rate showed IRR 48.6%, B/C ratio 1.5 and NPV 41 million KRW, which means high profitability. Forest farming is early step in Korean forestry so that standard methods of cultivation for that haven't established yet, and differences among farmers in productivity are being. Establishing organized methods of cultivation in each stages and being political supports are essential for income generation to forest households, supply of safe food and rest place for urbanity.
A Study on the Policy of Sustainable Domestic Timber Supply Using Delphi Technique and AHP
Kim, Ki Dong ; Choi, Kwan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 434~442
The purpose of this research is to propose policy of domestic timber supply expansion. To recommend polices and draw the priority orders, this study has used Delphi technique and Analytic Hierarchy Process. It has executed to recommend policies of domestic timber supply expand by dividing produce, distribution and consumption parts. As the result of Delphi technique and AHP, 'Infrastructure for domestic timber produce (.239)', 'regional domestic timber gathering complex construction (.202)' and 'a public institution domestic timber use obligation (.126)' policies are derived.
Optimum Potting Medium and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Levels in the Soil for Root Nodule Formation in Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) Seedlings
Lee, Kyung Joon ; Lee, Hyun Ung ; Kim, Taeyoo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 443~453
The objectives of this study were to find out proper potting medium and nutrient levels in the soil to promote the root nodule formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seedlings. Commercial potting medium, compost, organic fertilizer, molded forest fertilizer, and compound fertilizer were used at different mixing rates to bring in various levels of mineral nutrients in the soil. Seedlings were grown in pots in a greenhouse for three months. Commercial potting medium containing peatmoss, vermiculite, and geolite was not suited for early nodule formation due to lack of nutrients, even though it produced good total dry weight. Compost was the best medium to promote both high total dry weight production and nodule formation with providing the proper levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil. Molded forest fertilizer was acceptable for nodule formation. Compound fertilizer and organic fertilizer was not suited for nodule formation. The potting medium should contain optimum levels of nitrogen (0.05-0.2%) and phosphorus (100-600ppm) to promote early nodule formation in black locust seedlings.
The Influence of Sediment Control Dam Dredging on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities of Mountain Stream
Kim, Bong Sung ; Lee, Chang Woo ; Seo, Eul Won ; Lee, Jong Eun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 454~460
This study was conducted for determining the influence of Sediment Control Dam dredging on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in mountain stream of Gyeongsangbuk-do. The sediment control dams were surveyed before and after dredging from mountain streams of Yecheon, Yeongju and Bonghwa in Northern part of Gyeongsangbuk-do. Sampling was taken at upper and down from 3 experimental sites and 2 control sites during May to August 2011. The identified species before dredging were 56 belonged to 31 families, 11 orders, 6 classes and 4 phyla, but after dredging it has decreased to 51 species belonged to 27 families, 10 orders, 5 classes and 4 phyla. The microhabitat damage of benthic macroinvertebrates occurred at experimental sites after dredging of sediment control dams led to reduction of the number of species and individuals. Especially, upper stream of experimental sites showed the reduction of an average of 38% species. In general, species diversity indices and species richness indices decreased after dredging; however, dominance indices increased at experimental sites. In the upper stream of experimental sites, the microhabitat damaged and became pool due to dredging. Also, velocity of flow decreased and the river bed became simply due to the sedimentary matter being finer than sand and silt. As a result, composition of functional feeding groups and functional feeding groups were relatively simpler at upper stream and the degree of community differences was greater between upper and down stream. Also, Chironomidae spp., Ephemeridae spp., and Gomphidae spp. to prefer where slow velocity of flow and lentic increased in a greater rate, and the EPT/C index to indicate the balance of the community decreased.
Seasonal Changes of Water Relations Parameters of the Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) Leaves
Lee, Kyeong-Cheol ; Kim, Cheol-Woo ; Yi, Jae-Seon ; Han, Sang-Sup ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 461~468
This study was conducted to study the seasonal changes of relative water relations parameters by pressure-volume curves of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) leaves for understanding ecological characteristics. In growing season, the osmotic potentials at full turgor (
) and at incipient plasmolysis (
) decreased, while increased the maximum bulk elastic modulus of the cell wall (
) and relavive water content (
). Korean mistletoe in Quercus variabilis and Korean mistletoe in Quercus mongolica in November showed best maximum perssure potential (
). Pressure potential (
) and water potential (
) in Korean mistletoe in Quercus variabilis were rapidly decreased with decreasing of relative water content. The values of
in November were all above 84% showing that the function of osmoregulation is somewhat better, and symplastic water content (Vo/DW) and maximum water content (Vt/DW) were variable seasonally. Thus, responses to water relations of Korean mistletoe in Quercus variabilis and Korean mistletoe in Quercus mongolica such as
showed increaing drought tolerance with increasing of leaf aging.
A Study on Visitor Characteristics for Trail Program Development
Son, Ji Won ; Ha, Si Yeon ; Kim, Jae Jun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 469~479
Trail is a main infrastructure for various forest recreational activities. In this study, the recreational supply (trail) and demand (trail program according to visitor characteristics, preferred forest activities) were studied. Through the application of a multiple correspondence analysis and cross tabulation analysis, 3 trails (Bukhansan trail, Uljin trail, Jirisan trail) were identified. On this study, visitor demands for trail program participation, preferred forest recreational activities, program contents and program operations. Visitors expressed positive attitude toward trail program participating and showed characteristics with the differences. Young visitors preferred active experience program and middle aged visitors more liked health program such as forest therapy. On site program and self guided interpretation were preferred for program operation. In Bukhansan trail, continuous health program (1~2 hours) would be proper and it needs to adapt various nature activities in the Uljin trail. For the Jirisan trail, self guided program would be developed in many ways.
Effects of Debris Barrier on Community Structure and Functional Feeding Groups of the Benthic Macroinvertebrate
Seo, Jun-Pyo ; Lee, Heon-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 480~487
This study was conducted to search the effects of debris barrier on the benthic macroinvertebrate. Gimcheon was selected as the survey site as it has relatively stable ecosystem with constantly running water. The survey was conducted 6 times before and after the construction of debris barrier from February in 2009 to October in 2010. In the first survey before construction, the identified species were 36 species belonged to 22 families, 9 order, 4 class, and 4 phylum. The figure slightly decreased to 30 species belonged to 18 families, 7 order, 2 class, and 2 phylum in the sixth survey after construction. Before construction, occupation ratio of EPT taxa was showed in the following order: Ephemeroptera (50.0%, 85.0%), Trichoptera (35.3%, 10.0%), and Plecopteran (14.8%, 5.0%). After construction, it was showed in the following order: Trichoptera (50.3%, 68.0%), Ephemeroptera (42.1%, 29.4%), and Plecopteran (7.5%, 2.7%). Ephemeroptera was the highest before construction. Trichoptera increased rapidly after construction. The Diversity, Richness, Evenness, and Dominance indices were all turned low in the second survey right after the construction. However, each index tended to increase with the course of time. In Functional Feeding Groups, GC type was the highest of 60.7% before construction. After construction, SC(53.1%) and FC(35.4%) increased rapidly and they became stabilized since the third survey. The result of this study reveals that debris barrier greatly affects the Aquatic Ecosystem right after its construction, but the system becomes stable and returns to normal with the course of time (about 18 months). Therefore, the study considering various influence factors such as time is required to recover completely through further long-term monitoring.
Influences of Disturbance Intensity on Community Structure, Species Richness and Abundance of Arthropod Predators (Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Formicidae) in Burned-pine Forest
Lee, Cheol Min ; Kwon, Tae-Sung ; Park, Young Kyu ; Kim, Byung-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 488~500
The present study was carried out to evaluate arthropod predators (Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Formicidae) as bioindicator for forest disturbance. We selected 12 study sites according to disturbance intensities caused by fire intensity and recovery methods at Goseong, Gangneung, and Samcheok in Gangwondo. Intensities of disturbance were characterized as follows: 0 (no fire), 1 (surface fire), 2 (crown fire), and 3 (crown fire followed by reforestation). Arthropod predators were captured using pitfall trap. Species richness and abundance of Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Formicidae were not different along disturbance intensities. However, species richness and abundance of grassland ants significantly increased in higher disturbance intensities. Abundance of grassland ants such as Formica japonica and Camponotus japonicas linearly decreased along litter depth. Furthermore, ant communities were clustered along disturbance intensities. In a one-time survey, ants may be most useful as bioindicator for forest disturbance among the four predator taxa, because ants actively forage for long seasons.
Effect of Soil Environment on Diversity and Population of Aerobic Soil Bacteria from Baekdudaegan Mountain Forests in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea
Park, Chul Yeong ; Lee, Sun Keun ; Kim, Ji Hong ; Lee, Sang Yong ; Lee, Jong Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 501~508
This study was carried out to compare species diversity of soil bacteria from Baekdudaegan mountain forests (Bonghwa-gun, Mungyeong-si and Sangju-si) in Gyeongsangbuk-do and to analyze the effects of soil environments on diversity and population of soil bacteria. Soil bacteria were isolated from soil samples by streak plate method, and identified by DNA extaction and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. The population of soil bacteria from the soil samples of Bonghwa-gun was the highest with
, and followed by those from Mungyeong-si and Sangju-si with
, respectively. The population of soil bacteria from surface layer soil was the highest, and then gradually decreased according to soil depth. The increase in population of soil bacteria from soil samples of different sites was correlated with the increase of the altitude of soil sampling site, depth of A horizon, liquid phase among three phases of soil, water content and bulk density of soil. Two hundreds and sixty eight bacterial colonies from Bonghwa-gun were classified into 10 species, 8 genera. One hundred and thirty four bacterial colonies from Mungyeong-si were classified into 15 species, 9 genera. Forty four bacterial colonies from Sangju-si were classified into 5 species, 2 genera. The dominant species (occupancy rate) from Bonghwa-gun and Mungyeong-si were Bacillus weihenstephanensis (36% and 40%, respectively), and Sangju-si was Bacillus cereus (39%). The relationships between soil environment and community structure of soil bacteria were analyzed statistically by using ecological indices. The diversity, evenness and dominance indices of soil bacteria were 6.30, 2.04 and 0.59 in Bonghwa-gun, 9.09, 2.94 and 0.51 in Mungyeong-si, and 4.55, 2.34 and 0.71 in Sangju-si, respectively. The diversity and evenness indices were increased by the increase of water content, drainage condition and gravel content of soil, while the dominance index was decreased.
Changes in Potential Distribution of Pinus rigida Caused by Climate Changes in Korea
Kim, Yong-Kyung ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Kim, Young-Hwan ; Oh, Suhyun ; Heo, Jun-Hyeok ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 509~516
In this research, it was intended to examine the vulnerability of Pinus rigida to climate changes, a major planting species in Korea. For this purpose, the distribution of Pinus rigida and its changes caused by climate changes were estimated based on the 'A1B' climate change scenario suggested by IPCC. Current distribution of Pinus rigida was analyzed by using the
Forest Type Map and its potential distribution in the recent year (2000), the near future (2050) and the further future (2100) were estimated by analyzing the optimized ranges of three climate indices - warmth index(WI), minimum temperature index of the coldest month (MTCI) and precipitation effectiveness index(PEI). The results showed that the estimated potential distribution of Pinus rigida declines to 56% in the near future(2050) and 15% in the further future (2100). This significant decline was found in most provinces in Korea. However, in Kangwon province where the average elevation is higher than other provinces, the area of potential distribution of Pinus rigida increases in the near future and the further future. Also the result indicated that the potential distribution of Pinus rigida migrates to higher elevation. The potential distributions estimated in this research have relatively high accuracy with consideration of classification accuracy (44.75%) and prediction probability (62.56%).
Change of Ripened Persimmon Vinegar with Mountain Ginseng Ingestion on Energy Metabolism in Rats
Jeon, Byung-Duk ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Ryu, Sungpil ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 517~525
In this study, a 4-year-old mountain ginseng was mixed and ripened with 4-year-matured persimmon vinegar, and then it was diluted 5 times and orally administerd to rats. Afterwards, by analyzing the protein expression rate which affects both the carbohydrate metabolism and the lipid metabolism, this study examined the anti-obesity effect of the fusion material. The rats were divided into a control group (CON), a persimmon vinegar group (PV) and a mountain ginseng+persimmon vinegar fusion material group (MPV). The weight gain rate was found to be low in PV and MPV, and the concentration of glucose was also low in PV and MPV. However, GLUT-2 was found to be significantly high in these two groups on the contrary. Both the concentration of free fatty acid and CPT-1 protein expression rate were high in PV and MVP, but MVP was higher than PV. Cytochrome C oxidase was found to be higher in MPV than in CON. AMPK,
were all high in PV and MPV, but MPV was higher than PV. All the results above verified the thermogenesis effect of the fusion material, leading to an increase of energy metabolism, and it was thought that the fusion material could be effectively used for anti-obesity. However, it seems necessary to verify the anti-obesity effect through various further studies.
Correlation Analysis between Forest Community Structure and Environment Factor in Mt. Guryong, Gyeongsangbuk-Do Province
Lee, Seo-Hui ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Yun, Chung-Weon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 526~537
The study was carried out to classify forest vegetation structure of Mt. Guryong which is located in Bonghwa-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do province. 72 plots(quadrat) were investigated from July to August in 2010 using phytosociological analysis methodology of Z-M schools. The forest vegetation of the study area was classified as Quercus mongolica community group that was further divided into 5 communities; Pinus densiflora for. erecta community, Acer mono community, Quercus mongolica typical community, Larix leptolepis community and Pinus koraiensis community. Pinus densiflora for. erecta community was subdivided into Quercus variabilis group and Pinus densiflora for. erecta typical group. Acer mono community was also subdivided into Prunus maackii group and Deutzia glabrata group. The vegetation of the study areas could be described as 1 community group, 5 communities and 4 groups and 7 units in total. Classified vegetation units were highly correlated with altitude and topography. It was considered that forest tending operations for maintaining need to be continuously practiced for Quercus spp. with highly relative dominance value in the Pinus densiflora for. erecta community (vegetation units 1, 2).
Soil Physical and Hydrological Properties Affected by Forest Harvesting within Riparian Areas of Forested Headwaters
Choi, Byoungkoo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 3, 2012, Pages 538~545
This study addressed soil disturbances following harvesting as well as soil physical and hydrological properties within three first-order headwater catchments characterized by ephemeral-intermittent streams. Four treatments representing a range of potential Best Management Practices(BMPs) for ephemeral-intermittent streams were used; BMP1, BMP2, clearcut and reference. This study includes 1 year of pre- and post-harvest observations. Results showed that post-harvest disturbances were closely related with harvesting intensity and generally tended to reflect changes in soil physical and hydrological properties following harvest with the except of bulk density and porosity. Forest clearcutting decreased macroporosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and increased soil resistence as a result of severe soil disturbances thereby increasing soil erosion. These impacts were reduced by implementing two BMP treatments during harvesting activities. The finding support the use of either BMP treatments for ephemeral-intermittent streams, however, the additional measure of leaving logging debris in BMP2 did not cover enough soil surface to reduce erosion.