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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 101, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 101, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 101, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 101, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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Assessment of Forest Biomass using k-Neighbor Techniques - A Case Study in the Research Forest at Kangwon National University -
Seo, Hwanseok ; Park, Donghwan ; Yim, Jongsu ; Lee, Jungsoo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 547~557
This study purposed to estimate the forest biomass using k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm. Multiple data sources were used for the analysis such as forest type map, field survey data and Landsat TM data. The accuracy of forest biomass was evaluated with the forest stratification, horizontal reference area (HRA) and spatial filtering. Forests were divided into 3 types such as conifers, broadleaved, and Korean pine (Pinus koriansis) forests. The applied radii of HRA were 4 km, 5 km and 10 km, respectively. The estimated biomass and mean bias for conifers forest was 222 t/ha and 1.8 t/ha when the value of k=8, the radius of HRA was 4 km, and
modal was filtered. The estimated forest biomass of Korean pine was 245 t/ha when the value of k=8, the radius of HRA was 4km. The estimated mean biomass and mean bias for broadleaved forests were 251 t/ha and -1.6 t/ha, respectively, when the value of k=6, the radius of HRA was 10 km. The estimated total forest biomass by k-NN method was 799,000t and 237 t/ha. The estimated mean biomass by
method was about 1t/ha more than that of filed survey data.
Analysis of the Restoration Actual Conditions on the Quarries II
Park, Jae Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 558~566
This study was conducted to offer preliminary data for a natural restoration by the actual condition survey of quarries after extracting rock materials. The mountain restoration area according to a farming and fishing village organize project was restored by green landscape after quarry. However, planting tree species were died due to poor maintenance and administration after restoration works and surface soil loss and erosion occurred during a summer rainfall season because of poor slope greening. It will be needed to review restoration constructions to establish a natural friendly and flawless construction through the selection of optimum restoration works and the examination of soil and geological characteristics. In addition, it is necessary to apply cost-reducing program of restoration constructions. Quarry areas could be restored by the selection of simple and optimum construction works because the most areas were dominant in earth-sand rocks, soft-rocks, and weather-rocks. In addition, the restoration construction project should be examined thoroughly by restoration specialists during green restoration planning and review processes.
Flowering and Nut Fruit Characteristics after Soil Amendment Treatments in Chestnut (Castanea crenata S. et Z.) Orchards
Kim, Choonsig ; Cho, Hyun-Seo ; Lim, Jong-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 567~573
This study was carried out to examine the effect of soil amendment treatments [(organic fertilizer: 20 kg
; compound fertilizer+wood-char fertilizer: compound fertilizer 4 kg
+wood-char 2 kg
; lime fertilizer: 3 kg
; mixed fertilizer: compound fertilizer 1 kg
+organic fertilizer 10 kg
+wood-char 1 kg
; control (no fertilizer)] on flowering and fruit characteristics in chestnut (Castanea crenata S. et Z.) orchards in Jinju and Sancheong, Gyeongsangnam-do. Diameter of fruiting shoot increased generally after soil amendment treatments compared with the control, while number of leaf, female and male flowers were not affected by the treatments. Nut weight increased after soil amendment treatments in Jinju, but was not affected by the treatments in Sancheong. There was a positive correlation between soil pH (r=0.91) or exchangeable
(r=0.99) and nut weight in Jinju and a positive correlation (r=0.97) between organic carbon content and soluble solid concentration, while a negative correlation (r=-0.92) between exchangeable
and soluble solid concentration of nuts in Jinju. However, the nut weight and soluble solid concentration in Sancheong were not correlated with soil properties. The results indicate that the characteristics of flowering and nuts in chestnut orchards depend on soil properties after soil amendment treatments between regions which show better responses on poor sites than on good sites.
Influences of Forest Environmental Factors on Turbidity of Stream Water
Ma, Ho-Seop ; Kang, Won-Seok ; Kang, Eun-Min ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 574~578
This study was carried out to clarify the influences of forest environmental factors on turbidity of Stream water on three stands (Castanea crenata, Pinus densiflora and Plantation Land) of small watershed in Samgyeri Naedong-myeon Jinju-si Gyeongsangnam-do. The relationship between turbidity and forest environmental factors was a positive correlation at 1% level with chromaticity, suspended solid, sediment runoff erosion, slope, rainfall intensity, preceding dry days, watershed area and stream length and at 5% level with accumulative rainfall. The important factors that affected turbidity in small watershed showed in order of preceding dry days, rainfall intensity, stream length, chromaticity and suspended solid. In the stepwise regression between turbidity and forest environmental factors, the estimation equation is as follow; Y=-28.125+0.047x (suspended solid)+0.058x (chromaticity)+1.518x (rainfall intensity)+0.264x (stream length)+1.837x (preceding dry days). The results indicates that dangerous areas of landslide and soil runoff by land use could be applied to the mitigation measures such as afforestation, erosion check dam and revetment for erosion control and water quality management in small watershed.
Structural Characteristics of Berchemia berchemiaefolia Stands at Mt. Gunja
Lee, Kyung-Su ; Jung, Tae-Young ; Park, Chull-Ha ; Han, Ju-Hwan ; Lee, Gui-Yong ; Koo, Chang-Duck ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 579~591
Berchemia berchemiaefolia is a rare and endangered species and important as a honey resource. The purposes of this study were to investigate physical environmental factors and the population and community structure of Berchemia berchemiaefolia stands at Mt. Gunja in Sogrisan National Park in Chungcheongbuk-do. The B. berchemiaefolia stands belonged to deciduous forests in mid-temperate zone and were
in slope, 30~90% in rock ratio, and 6.37 in soil pH. They had 656 trees within the area of 36 ha and their average density was 18.2 trees per ha. The trees within the stands were 11.8 m in tree height, 22.6 cm in DBH and 56 years old. The number of branched stems was the maximum 8 and 32.9% of the trees were branched. B. berchemiaefolia trees over 12 cm diameter occupied 89.9%, but young B. berchemiaefolia did only 11%. The structure of B. berchemiaefolia stands were classified into three groups as Acer pseudo-sieboldianum & A. mono community group, A. pseudo-sieboldianum & Quercus aliena community group, and B. berchemiaefolia & Quercus serata community group. The mean importance value of B. berchemiaefolia was 10.9%, while species diversity of the community ranged 0.77~1.31 and interspecific competition ranged 0.78~0.94. The dominance of the community ranged of 0.07~0.29 and the evenness ranged 0.71~0.93. Although B. berchemiaefolia was dominant in the habitat, but the species was already in natural successional stage to Cornus controversa or Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.
Estimation of Timber Production by Thinning Scenarios Using a Forest Stand Yield Model
Kim, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Wook ; Won, Hyun-Kyu ; Lee, Kyeong-Hak ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 592~598
Forest stand yield and its changes along with 10 thinning scenarios were estimated using a forest stand yield model for six major tree species in Korea, such as Pinus densiflora in Gangwon province, Pinus densiflora in other regions, Pinus koraiensis, Larix leptolepis, Quercus acutissima Carruth, Quercus mongolica. The 10 thinning scenarios were generated based on a number of constraints and assumptions. For instance, it was assumed that thinning is implemented between 15 years and 40 years with 5 year period and its duration should be at least 10 years. Also, the overall removal rate from the thinning treatments was assumed to be not greater than 60%. Under the 10 scenarios, the overall stand yield volumes from thinning and final harvesting were estimated for each species and site index. The results showed that highest yield volumes were obtained for Pinus densiflora in Gangwon province, Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica when 30% of basal areas were thinned at 20 and 40 years, while highest yield volumes were obtained for Pinus densiflora in other regions and Larix leptolepis when 20% of basal areas were thinned at 20, 30 and 40 years. Those two scenarios gave the same amount of highest yield volume for Quercus acutissima Carruth. Also the results indicated that thinning treatment is effective to increase overall stand yield volume and its effects are larger with a higher site index. The largest thinning effects were found in Pinus densiflora in Gangwon province (28%) and Larix leptolepis (25%), while limited in Pinus koraiensis (12%). The forest stand yield model, used in this research, could be an effective tool for estimating the stand dynamics with various thinning treatments, but it could be improved in a further research that validates its applicability in the field.
Prediction of Stand Volume and Carbon Stock for Quercus variabilis Using Weibull Distribution Model
Son, Yeong Mo ; Pyo, Jung Kee ; Kim, So Won ; Lee, Kyeong Hak ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 599~605
The purpose of this study is to estimate diameter distribution, volume per hectare, and carbon stock for Quercus variabilis stand. 354 Quercus variabilis stands were selected on the basis of age and structure, the data and samples for these stands are collected. For the prediction of diameter distribution, Weibull model was applied and for the estimation of the parameters, a simplified method-of-moments was applied. To verify the accuracy of estimates, models were developed using 80% of the total data and validation was done on the remaining 20%. For the verification of the model, the fitness index, the root mean square error, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics were used. The fitness index of the site index, height, and volume equation estimated from verification procedure were 0.967, 0.727, and 0.988 respectively and the root mean square error were 2.763, 1.817, and 0.007 respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied to Weibull function resulted in 75%. From the models developed in this research, the estimated volume and above-ground carbon stock were derived as
, 90.30 tC/ha when site index and stem number of 50-years-old Quercus variabilis stand show 14 and 697 respectively. The results obtained from this study may provide useful information about the growth of broad-leaf species and prediction of carbon stock for Quercus variabilis stand.
Development of Criteria for Evaluating Indonesia's REDD+ Strategy
Bae, Jae Soo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 606~612
We developed four qualitative criteria for evaluating Indonesia's REDD+ strategy by analysing REDD+ related decisions from the Cancun agreements adopted by the 16th Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and the important elements developed by Norway's International Climate and Forest Initiative to evaluate Indonesia's REDD+ strategy: (1) Criterion 1 is assessing how accurately the developed strategy identifies substantial underlying and direct causes of deforestation and forest degradation; (2) Criterion 2 is whether the strategy establishes a scientifically reliable national-level MRV (Measurement, Reporting and Verification) system; (3) Criterion 3 is whether the strategy achieves real greenhouse gas emissions reductions; and (4) Criterion 4 is whether the strategy includes safeguards to ensure equity and co-benefits from REDD+ related projects for relevant stakeholders, in particular local communities and indigenous peoples. Criteria 1 and 2 can be the fundamental bases of real GHG emissions reduction (Criteria 3). Criteria 3 is recognised as the ultimate objective of REDD+. Criterion 4 is for both bases of the effective GHG emission reduction and complementary objective of REDD+. These criteria and indicators developed can provide basic framework to understand their REDD+ national strategies of the other developing countries as well as Indonesia.
Comparison of Growth Characteristics Between 5-year-old emblings Derived form Somatic Embryos and Seedlings in Liriodendron tulipifera
Kim, Yong Wook ; Moon, Heung Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 613~618
The 5-year-old seedlings and emblings which regenerated from somatic embryos were compared to the height, DBH, foliar characteristics, content of chlorophyll (chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll), carotenoid and leaf microstructure in Liriodendron tulipifera. In comparison of height and DBH (diameter at breast height), no significant differences were found in height (seedling, 3.8 m; embling, 3.87 m) and DBH (seedling, 12.09 cm; embling, 12.53 cm). The emblings and seedlings were similar in values of length (seedling, 108.11 mm, embling, 113.59 mm), width (seedling, 149.1 mm; embling, 167.71 mm), surface area (seedling,
), fresh weight (seedling, 2.1 g; embling, 2.62 g) of leaf, and length (seedling, 81.49 mm; embling, 98.41 mm) and thickness (seedling, 1.66 mm; embling, 1.98 mm) of petiole. In case of chlorophyll content in the leaves, the chlorophyll a (seedlings,
), b (seedlings,
) and total content were higher in emblings (
) than seedlings (
), however, content of carotenoid (seedlings,
) showed similar in both plants. Leaves of emblings had a similar pattern of histological structure (palisade or sponge parenchyma) to that of seedlings leaves. Therefore, the results showed that there were no remarkable growth differences when compared with 5-year-emblings and seedlings of yellow poplar.
The Variation of Fruit, Seed and Germination Characteristics of Exochorda serratifolia
Song, Jeong-Ho ; Lim, Hyo-In ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 619~625
This study was conducted to investigate the variation of fruit, seed and germination characteristics among populations of Serrateleaf Pearlbush (Exochorda serratifolia S. Moore) distributed in Korea. Fruits collected from 96 trees in five natural populations and their five fruit, seven seed and three germination characteristics were analyzed. In 14 characteristics except for mean germination time, there were significant differences among populations and among individuals within population. Generally, fruit and seed characteristics showed higher values among population in total variance component. Coefficients of variations in weight of fruit (27.0%), length/thickness of seed (28.1%) and germination rate (52.5%) were relatively high compared to other traits. In seed germination behaviors, germination percentage, mean germination time and germination rate showed 62.9%, 64.0 days and 0.40 ea./day, respectively. As a result of simple correlation analysis, mean germination time showed a significant positive correlation with seed thickness, germination rate showed a significant positive correlation with height of parent tree and latitude, respectively. Also, latitude showed a positive correlation with fruit weight. The populations close geographically did not show the tendency of clustering into the same group. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first for principal components (PC's) explained 63.0% of the total variation. Primary 3 principal components appeared to be major variables because of the loading contribution of 97.0%.
Persimmon Vinegar Ingestion before Endurance Exercise on Energy Substrates Utilization
Seo, Hyobin ; Nam, Ju-Ock ; Jeon, Byung-Duk ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Ryu, Sungpil ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 626~634
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of persimmon vinegar as a functional beverage by analyzing the effects of persimmon vinegar ingestion on the energy substrate during endurance exercise. The healthy male adolescents (n=8) drunk persimmon vinegar ingested trial (PSV) or purified water ingested trial as the control trial (CON) 1 h prior to the exercise with the 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (
) for 1 h. The exercise intensity was increased to the 80% of
and remained until exhaustion. And, the physiological variables, blood components, and amounts of energy oxidation were analyzed. There was no significant difference between trials in physiological variables, and the heart rates after exhaustion were higher in PSV compared to CON. There was no significant difference between trials in blood glucose level, while the blood lactic acids decreased significantly in PSV 30 and 60 minutes after onset of exercise. The free fatty acids concentration increased significantly in PSV from 15 minutes to 60 minutes after onset of exercise. The carbohydrate oxidation decreased significantly in PSV from 45 minutes after exercise and, on the contrary, the fatty acids oxidation increased significantly for the same period. And, fatty acids oxidation was higher in PSV compared to CON even after exhaustion. The respiratory exchange ratio was lower significantly in PSV compared to CON from 30 minutes to 60 minutes after exercise, whereas lower in CON after total exhaustion. The exercise time to exhaustion was 41% longer in PSV compared to CON. These results showed that the persimmon vinegar increase the level of lipids metabolism and decrease sense of fatigue by inhibiting carbohydrate oxidation during moderate intensity exercise, suggesting the possibility of using of persimmon vinegar as exercise functional beverage when ingested 1 h prior to the endurance exercise performance.
Transmission of Mulberry Dwarf Phytoplasma by a Balclutha punctata
Han, Sangsub ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 635~639
The present study was initiated to find out the insect vector of mulberry dwarf phytoplasma. Among the collected insects from mulberry cultivation region, the sucking insects (Hishimonas sellatus, Bothrogonia japonica and Balclutha punctata) were selected for transmission of mulberry dwarf phytoplasma. Sucking insects, H. sellatus and B. punctata successfully transmitted phytoplasma to healthy seedling mulberry and periwinkle plants by inoculation-feeding. Typical dwarf symptom was observed in mulberry tree, but very slender twigs on stem and formatted small leaves were found on periwinkle plants, which are typical witches' broom symptoms. The phytoplasmas were detected in all samples exception sucking insects B. japonica using phytoplasma universal primer pair R16F2n/R2.
Identification of Key Metabolites Involved in Quantitative Growth of Pinus koraiensis
Lee, Wi Young ; Park, Eung-Jun ; Han, Sang Urk ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 640~647
A metabolomic study was conducted to identify key metabolic components, which are correlated with the growth of 4-year-old Pinus koraiensis seedlings harvested at actively height growing season (May 18th). Among 105 individual metabolites identified by GC/MS analysis, alanine, threonine, oleic acid, and butanoic acids were negatively correlated with both height and weight of 4-year-old seedlings, while malic acid, xylose, glucose, d-turanose and inositol had positive correlation with various growth parameters. During the actively growing season, the concentrations of both amino acids and organic acids in the main stem of Superior seedling group were lower but the photosynthates such as mono-saccharide and sucrose were higher than in other seedling groups such as Intermediate and Inferior. Interestingly, d-turanose, an analogue of sucrose that is not metabolized in higher plants but used as carbon source by many organisms including numerous species of bacteria and fungi, showed the highest correlation (r=0.896, p<0.001) with height of 4-year-old seedlings, indicating that possible interaction with mycorrhizal organisms. Therefore we suggest that several metabolites selected in this study may be used as metabolic markers for complex traits in P. koraiensis.
The Forest Landscape Management of Therapeutic Forests by Visual Preference on the Simulation of Tree Density
Lee, Yeon Hee ; Kim, Ki Weon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 648~655
This research is aimed at suggesting the reasonable guideline for managing tree density of a therapeutic forest to enhance the therapeutic efficiency. To obtain visually preferable tree density for 4 coniferous tree species; Pinus koraiensis, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Pinus densiflora, Larix kaempferi, the simulations of tree density according to the 3 diameter classes are used. 250 people participated in questionnaire and 239 people of them were analyzed. The tree density preferences of 4 tree species are as follows; Pinus koraiensis forest; tree density for trees with Diameter (DBH=D)<25 cm about 816/ha, tree density for trees with 25=D<40 about 400/ha and tree density for trees with 40=D about 277/ha. Chamaecyparis obtusa forest; tree density for trees with D<25 about 625/ha, tree density for trees with 25=D<40 about 625/ha and tree density for trees with 40=D about 400/ha. Pinus densiflora forest; tree density for trees with D<25 about 816/ha, tree density for trees with 25=D<40 about 625/ha and tree density for trees with 40=D about 400/ha. Larix kaempferi forest; tree density for trees with D<25 about 625/ha, tree density for trees with 25=D<40 about 625/ha and tree density for trees with 40=D about 277/ha.
Studies on the Characteristics of Growth of Pinus thunbergii planted in a Costal Sand Zone
Kim, Hyun-Phil ; Lee, Heon-Ho ; Lee, Ju-Hyoung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 656~662
This study has been undertaken to research the characteristics of growth of Pinus thunbergii Parl., which were planted in Uljin-gun, Gyeongbuk, Coast Disaster Prevention Forest. The total amount of 3600 trees of 9 sand dune stabilizing hedges were monitored in the past 4 years. The relationship between tree growth with environmental factors such as wind speed, soil conditions and sand-accumulation fences has been compared and investigated. To increase the growth increment of coastal disaster prevention forests, the development of sand-accumulating fences is the most important factor in controlling wind speed effectively. The monitoring for the maximizing wind-break effect of the sand-accumulating fences should be investigated when building coastal disaster prevention forests.
Relationships between the Use Behavior, Motivation, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions of Slow Tourism Tourists -With Focus on Daegu Ole Palgong Mountain Courses-
Na, Hye-Hyun ; Lee, Ju-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 663~676
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in motivation of the tourists, who visited the Daegu Ole Palgong mountain courses, according to the slow tourism tourists' demographic characteristics and use-behavior, and to examine the relationships between motivation and the degree of satisfaction of tourists and behavioral intention. Also, it was to present motivations and characteristics of slow tourism tourists and the accompanying managerial implications. In order to achieve this research purpose, a survey was conducted from May 8, 2010 to May 23, 2010 on the tourists who visited Daegu Ole Palgong mountain courses. The results of testing the hypotheses through empirical analysis were as follows. First, differences in motivations according to demographic characteristics and demographic characteristics and the use behavior of the tourists were partially adopted. Second, there were significantly positive (+) relationships between the motivations of visitors to the Daegu Ole Palgong mountain courses and the overall degree of satisfaction. Finally, the overall degree of satisfaction with the visits to Daegu Ole Palgong mountain courses had significantly positive (+) relationships with revisit intentions. These imply that it is necessary to provide differentiated strategies and programs and inducing strategies in accordance with the results presented. as well, marketing strategies to enhance the degree of satisfaction of the tourists should be considered.
Synergistic Effect of Forest Environment and Therapeutic Program for the Treatment of Depression
Woo, Jong-Min ; Park, Sang Mi ; Lim, Seong Kyeon ; Kim, Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 677~685
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of forest environment and therapeutic program to the patients with major depressive disorder in antidepressant medication. The first group participated the four sessions of therapeutic program in the forest environment ("forest therapy"), the second group did in the program in a hospital environment, the third group did merely walking in the forest ("forest bath"), and the last group was controls. All the participants was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and had been taking antidepressant medication longer than 3 months. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression(HRSD), Montgomery-Asberg Depressin Rating Scales(MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), and general health perception was measured by Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire(SF-36). Heart rate variability(HRV) were also examined to observe the physiological parameters before and after the program. In the results, HRSD score of forest program group was significantly lower than controls after the program. MADRS score of forest therapy group and hospital program group was also significantly lower than controls after 4 sessions of the program. The remission rate defined as below 7 points in HRSD was higher in the forest therapy group, hospital program group, forest bath group, and controls in order. These results reveals that the therapeutic program performed in forest environment may improve unremitted depressive symptoms of patients with major depressive disorder. Although not significant, the forest therapy program showed better outcome than hosptial program and forest bath.
Effect of Erosion Control Works on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities
Lee, Ik-Soo ; Jung, Yu-Gyeong ; Lee, Heon-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 686~694
This study was conducted to investigate that affect benthic macroinvertebrates for installed erosion control works at a mountain torrential stream. The survey was carried out six times from April 2007 to October 2008 at two points where erosion control works were installed and at a control point in the upstream with no such works. Variations in the community structure and cluster of benthic macroinvertebrates and ecological water quality were analyzed in the survey. From the six times survey, the identified benthic macroinvertebrates were 6,922 individuals belonged to 27 species, 24 families, 13 orders, 6 classes and 4 phyla. As the average results of three surveyed sites, the dominant species was Gammarus sobaegensis of Amphipoda. The species diversity index(H') showed the highest as 1.47 at Site 2 of the fourth survey and the lowest as 0.24 at Site 2 of the sixth survey. The evenness Index(EI) showed the highest as 0.823 at Site 2 of the fourth survey and the lowest as 0.194 at Site 1 of the fifth survey. The richness index(RI) showed the highest as 2.794 at Site 1 of the first survey and the lowest as 0.291 at Site 2 of the sixth survey. The ecological score of benthic macroinvertebrate community(ESB) and individual of EPT-group were declined during the survey period. The functional feeding group(FFG) showed the highest SH types during the survey period.
Application and Development of 'Chestnut Management Standard Diagnostic Table'
Jeon, Jun-Heon ; Yoo, Byoung-Il ; Lee, Jung-Min ; Ji, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Yeon-Tae ; Kang, Kil-Nam ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 695~702
The chestnut management standard diagnostic table is developed and would be utilized in order that a manager raising chestnuts checks where the own level of management is and grasps current state of own for the purpose of planning aims and advancing toward a higher level. The developed 'Chestnut management standard diagnostic table' consisted of 3 first classified items, 19 second classified items and 2 product indicator items by the chestnut experts consultative meeting. A survey of 212 farmhouses in 4 major producing area was conducted. Except invalid survey of 53 farmers, 159 farmhouses interviewed were used in analysis. Total score was calculated with sum of each item's score. According to the survey results, average score is 68.0 and Buyeo received the highest score of 69.7 and Suncheon received the lowest score of 61.8 by regional groups. The higher the group in score, the better it is in output per hectare. But the property of 'the ratio of the best products in total products' does not show a statistical correlation. Generally the score of 'management-based evaluation indicator part' and 'management and sale capacity indicator part' in Suncheon was low because of many elderly people. In part of 'manufacturing technology indicator' as Environmentally-Friendly production is progressed in over 70% of four regions, when comes to a disease and insect pest control there are rarely farmhouses having a way of crop dusting.
Long Term Ecological Reseach of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Samcheok Forest Fired Area
Kwon, Hyeok Young ; Lee, Mi Jin ; Lim, Joo-Hoon ; Lee, Jong Eun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 703~709
We studied the community fluctuations of benthic macroinvertebrates of forest fired area in Samcheok-si from 2001 to 2009. Total collected macroinvertebrates species were 18 belonging to 14 families, 8 orders, 3 classes, and 2 phyla in 2001, and 70 belonging to 40 families, 15 orders, 7 classes and 5 phyla in 2009 (9 years after the forest fire). During the first four years after the forest fire, dipteran insects were dominant, but after then, ephemeropteran insects have increased in abundance and richness. As time elapsed from the fire, dominance indices were decreasing, while species diversity, richness and species evenness indices were increasing.
Improvement of a Tree Cutting Permit System with Respect to Timber Logger's Consciousness
Park, Kyung-Seok ; Lee, Seong-Youn ; Choi, In-Hwa ; Kim, Hyun-Sig ; Ahn, Young-Sang ; An, Ki-Wan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 710~721
This study is to find out the search of the desirable tree cutting permit system by investigating and analyzing timber logger's consciousness in Korea. A sample group, including 64 officers in 5 Regional Forest Services and 27 National Forest Stations, 161 local government of 322 officers and team leaders with cutting permits, and 308 tree loggers was surveyed. The survey results showed that the ongoing harvest year plan for national, public and private-type forests, which was applied differently, could be integrated as 3.73 points, which was not significant among the groups. A total of 95.1% of the national forest officers stated that the environmentally friendly harvesting system could be improved and that it is exempted from bad broadleaf trees and renewal of forest type (4.14 points). An environmentally friendly harvesting system including the type of forest and location status (slide, soil, etc) is needed (3.87 points). Additionally, the round timber purchased from tree loggers managed in 2009 was about 10.6% of the domestic timber supply (
) and round timber sales were about 50.1%. A total of 72% of the loggers suggested that a environmentally friendly harvesting system is needed (4.11 points). These results show that a new system for harvesting timber is needed to replace the current environmentally unfriendly harvesting system, and that tree loggers should be registered for management.
Effects of Experimental Warming on Growth of Quercus variabilis Seedlings
Lee, Sun Jeoung ; Han, Saerom ; Yoon, Tae Kyung ; Chung, Haegeun ; Noh, Nam Jin ; Jo, Wooyong ; Park, Chan-Woo ; Ko, Suin ; Han, Seung Hyun ; Son, Yowhan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 722~728
Climate change affects all biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems including photosynthesis, plant growth and productivity. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of experimental warming on the growth of Quercus variabilis seedlings. One-year-old Q. variabilis seedlings were planted in control and warmed plots in April 2010. The air temperature of warmed plots was increased by
compared to control plots using the infrared lamp from November 2010. Shoot height and root collar diameter were measured in March 2011 and June 2012, respectively, and aboveground and belowground biomass were also measured in March 2011 and 2012, respectively. Shoot height and root collar diameter were significantly higher in warmed plots than in control plots, except for root collar diameter in March 2011. Increment (mm) of shoot height and root collar diameter were also higher in warmed plots (
) than in control plots (
). However, there were no significant differences between warmed and control plots except for root collar diameter. Increment (g/year) of total, aboveground and belowground biomass were higher in warmed plots (
) than in control plots (
), however, the differences were not statistically significant. Higher seedling growth and biomass of warmed plots might be related to the enhanced net photosynthetic rates in spring and the extended growing season.
Management Efficiency of Forest Tending Works by Using Data Envelopment Analysis
Woo, Hee Sung ; Woo, Jong Choon ; Won, Hyun Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 101, issue 4, 2012, Pages 729~736
Korea Forest Service is recently focused on forest tending works for promoting in green jobs. The purpose of forest tending work is not only maintaining ecologically stable forest stand structure but also developing commercial forest. These trends are also emphasized by creation of various benefits and expanding carbon absorption in forest management. For achieving these purposes, Management efficiency of output was analized by the inputs such as labor cost, material cost and expense cost using DEA technique. The results show that, 19 sub-compartments are appeared to be the optimal in the efficiency of the forest tending works among total 52 sub-compartments. Among those there were 5 sub-compartment 8-0-3, 9-3-3, 6-0-3, 7-0-6, 1-0-5 and 3-0-3 to be considered in the high reference. The high reference areas mean those areas which is well accomplished in forest tending works as the desirable model.