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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 102, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 102, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 102, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 102, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Comparision of Monoterpene in Ambient Air at Forest and Essential Oil
Oh, Gil-Young ; Seo, Yun-Gyu ; Park, Gui-Hwan ; Kim, Ik-San ; Bae, Ju-Soon ; Park, Song-In ; Ha, Hun ; Yang, Soo-In ; Lee, Ji-Hun ; Lee, Wan-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 309~314
The concentration of terpene (18 species) was measured from spring to fall in ambient air and essential oil at three different forests located in Jeollanamdo province. Sampling was conducted at 4-hour-interval a day of each season. In the ambient air,
-pinene and 2-carene were the most abundant compounds throughout the sampling periods and areas. The highest three-season average concentration of total terpene was 2,597 pptv at Jeamsan(Mt.) in Boseong which was predominantly populated by Pinaceae. The seasonal averages were observed to peak during spring with their max at Palyeongsan(Mt.) in Goheung and Jeamsan(Mt.) in Boseong, and during fall at Woodland in Jangheung. Most of terpenes had diurnal variations with higher concentrations during the daytime, and lower during the nighttime. However in essential oil, the highest annual average concentration of total terpene was
at Goheung which was predominantly populated by Chamaecyparis obtusa. Also, the component proportion ratio showed different distribution between ambient air and essential oil. From the results of this study, we suggest that Chamaecyparis obtusa species is more useful, and younger tree is more economical than older one, and spring is the best season for lumbering in order to use essential oil.
Analyzing the Improvement and Using Realities for the Songrim Woodlands Management in Hadong, Gyeongsangnamdo
Hwa, Sam Young ; Park, Jae-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 315~322
This study was carried out to establish a management program and soil restoration plan through analysis of soil properties and visitor questionnaires in Songrim in Hadong, Korea. Soil bulk density in Songrim was slightly higher in the closed-woodlands (
) than in the open-woodlands (
). Soil bulk density in the closed-woodlands was higher in walking trails (
) than in forest areas (
), while the rates of pore space were lower in walking trails (42.6%) than in forest areas (50.5%). The soil porosity were lower in the closed-woodlands (34.6%) than in the open-woodlands (42.6%). Soil strength in surface soil was slightly lower in the open-woodlands (
) than in the closed-woodlands (
). The content of organic matter, total nitrogen and exchangeable cations of the woodlands was low compared with the optimum nutrient content for tree growth in Korea forest soil. According to the survey, the objective of visiting in Songrim was to enjoy recreation and landscape views. To conserve pine forest ecosystems in Songrim, the respondents said that it needs to the implement of closed-woodland periods, the establishment of smoking free zone, and the prohibition of garbage throwing and alcohol including disciplinary rules and education. Also the respondents said that pine forest ecosystem in Songrim is relatively sound, but the woodlands require the intensive management to the ecosystem and the introduction of native understory vegetation, such as grasses under pine forest ecosystem. It is recommended to designate the rest-year forest for a proper period in all woodlands to restore the Songrim soil rather than the alternation application between the rest-year for three years or non-rest-year trails, and to open partially the walking trails across the woodlands after the period. In addition, the forest within the woodland is need to designate a long-term rest-year.
Soil Physical-chemical Characteristics on Indigenous Plant and Naturalized Plant of Coastal Sand Dune on Central-western Coastal Area, Korea
Kim, Chan-Beom ; Son, Yowhan ; Bae, Yeong-Tae ; Park, Ki-Hyung ; Youn, Ho-Joong ; Kim, Kyongha ; Lee, Chang-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 323~330
This study was conducted to know the effect of major physical-chemical characteristics of soil to be in the area of indigenous and naturalized plant in the sand dune of the western coastal area of Korea. The study was performed on the sand dunes distributed across Taean-gun and Buan-gun and the study period was from April to October in 2010. Sixty nine of
study plots were installed and the distribution of plants were investigated. We measured the soil characteristics including soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available
, soil cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cation, EC and NaCl. As a result, soil texture was classified as sand, in case of average pH, NaCl, and EC of soil to be in the area of indigenous herbaceous plant were 7.77, 0.03% and
, indigenous woody plant of the mean pH, NaCl and EC were 7.31, 0.01%,
. In case of naturalized herbaceous plant of the mean soil pH, NaCl and EC were 7.12, 0.01%,
, naturalized woody plant of the mean soil pH, NaCl and EC were 7.34, 0.01%,
respectively. On average, naturalize plants showed in low salinity concentration than indigenous plants.
Isolation and Characterization of a Formate Dehydrogenase cDNA in Poplar (Populus alba
Bae, Eun-Kyung ; Lee, Hyoshin ; Lee, Jae-Soon ; Choi, Young-Im ; Yoon, Seo-Kyung ; Eo, Soo Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 331~337
Formate dehydrogenase (FDH), catalyzing the oxidation of the formate ion to carbon dioxide, is known as the stress protein in response to drought, low temperature and pathogen infection. To study the functions of FDH in poplar (Populus alba
P. glandulosa), we isolated a FDH cDNA (PagFDH1) and examined its expressional characteristics. The PagFDH1 is 1,499 base pairs long and encodes a putative 388 amino acid protein with an expected molecular mass of 42.5 kDa. The PagFDH1 protein has N-terminal mitochondria signal peptide and
binding domain. Southern blot analysis indicated that a single copy of the PagFDH1 is present in the poplar genome. PagFDH1 is expressed highly in the suspension cells (especially in the lag and early exponential phases) and moderately in roots, flowers and leaves. ABA-mediated enhanced expression of PagFDH1 in response to drought and salt stress treatments indicates that the gene product could play an important role in the development of stress resistant trees.
Estimation on Economic Value for Cultivated Wild Ginseng using Choice Experiment
Kim, Eui-Gyeong ; Kim, Dong-Hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 338~344
The study was conducted to set up the criteria of judgement that could be utilized for cultivated wild ginseng, easy and well-defined for consumers to understand. For the purpose, the study examined consumers' perception and valuation on each attribute of cultivated wild ginseng that was related to the product quality through a choice experiment. Attributes used in the experiment were based on exterior characteristics of cultivated wild ginseng including ages, planting methods, external dimension, length of fibrous roots, and hue and color. Residents in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province were interviewed and a total of 173 questionnaires were acquired for the analysis. According to the result, respondents valued the highest score on ginseng grown by direct sowing, while they valued rather lower scores on ginseng's external dimension. In general, the hypothetical model was shown to exist within the stable range.
Classification of West Coastal Dune Vegetation and Comparison of the Inorganic Constituents for the Soil and Present Plants
Shin, Hak Sub ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Han, Sang Hak ; Ko, Seong Yeon ; Kang, Hye Jin ; Lee, Seo Hui ; Lee, Chun Yong ; Kim, Chan Beom ; Bae, Young Tae ; Shin, Jae Kwon ; Yun, Chung Weon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 345~354
To understand the community structures of the vegetation of the beaches and coastal dunes of Seocheon-gun, Boryeong-si, Anmyeon-do, Taean-gun in Chungcheongnam-do and Buan-gun in Jeollabuk-do at the west coast of South Korea, a plant sociological vegetation survey was carried out to make a classification of correlation vegetation communities, a cluster analysis and an inorganic component analysis on the soil and plant body. Regarding the vegetation of the coastal dunes, plant communities were classified into 31 communities by correlation dominant species, and as a result of a cluster analysis on the vegetation communities, they were classified into five vegetation types such as Calystegia soldanella community, Rosa rugosa community, Imperata cylindrica community, Vitex tend community and Elymus mollis community. The soil pH was highest in Seocheon area (
) while lowest in Buan area (
), and regarding inorganic components, the nitrogen content was highest in Robinia while lowest in Imperata cylindrica. The soil PH of vegetation I was highest (8.23) among the five vegetation types, and the organic matter was lowest (71.58). As a result of CCA ordination analysis to examine the correlation among environmental factors, Calystegia soldanella community, Rosa rugosa community and Imperata cylindrica community among the five vegetation types were distributed while they were not affected by soil environmental elements, but Vitex tend community and Elymus mollis community were distributed mainly at the places with high
content in the soil.
Population Structure and Dynamics of the Picea jezoensis Stand in Mt. Gyebangsan
Ko, Seung-Yeon ; Han, Sim-Hee ; Yun, Chung-Weon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 355~364
This study was conducted to investigate the population structure and dynamics of the Picea jezoensis stands which are located in Mt. Gyebangsan and surveyed from March to October 2012. Results showed that the diameter class distribution of P. jezoensis presented a reverse J-shaped distribution pattern with 32 trees less than 10 cm DBH, 20 trees in 10~30 cm DBH, and 11 trees more than 30 cm DBH. It showed seedlings and saplings of P. jezoensis seem to prefer areas with more sun light or with open upper layer. It was also observed that P. jezoensis preferes areas with organic soils and abundant water such as areas around stumps. Also, occurrences of P. jezoensis stands were analyzed through annual mean radial growth of the trees. And the results showed that the growth naturally or artificially occurred approximately on the years 1854, 1915, 1918, 1993 and 2002 years. Most of the gap-makers were classified as standing dead type with 23 individuals (45.1%).
Sustainable Production Strategy of Pine Mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) using the Maximum Entropy Technique
Choi, Junyeong ; Koo, Ja-Choon ; Youn, Yeo-Chang ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 365~371
Pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) is one of the most profitable forest products in Korea. We postulated a hypothesis that a high rate of returns to labor input could make the harvest of pine mushroom off the optimum level. In the view of developing a sustainable production strategy for pine mushroom producers, production of pine mushroom collectors and pine mushroom growth function were estimated using maximum entropy method. Annual pine mushroom production and labor input were the data used in the estimation of production function of pine mushroom collectors and pine mushroom growth function. The level of sustainable maximum production derived from the estimated function. The production function estimated shows that production of pine mushroom is affected more by the resource of pine mushroom stocked in the forests than by labor that households put in forestry business. The production function of mushroom collectors and the estimated growth function indicate that pine mushroom harvests for the period of 2005-2011 did not reach the potential level of maximum sustainable production. Therefore, we suggest that pine mushroom harvest should be controlled until the resource stock of pine mushroom in the forests increases to the level of maximum sustainable production.
Optimum Light Intensity and Fertilization Effects on Physiological Activities of Forsythia saxatil
Kim, Gil Nam ; Han, Sim-Hee ; Kim, Du Hyun ; Yun, Chung-Weon ; Shin, Soo Jeong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 372~381
The leaf growth and physiological characteristics of Forsythia saxatilis were investigated under different relative light intensities (RLI) and fertilization levels in order to find out the optimum environmental conditions for in-situ restoration. RLI and fertilization were four levels (30%, 43%, 63% of full sun and full sun) and three levels (non-fertilization, 2 times and 3 times of average forest soil in Korea), respectively. According to the increase of fertilization level under all RLI, leaf area increased and leaf dry weight and the ratio of leaf dry weight to leaf area decreased. As the fertilization level increased, photosynthetic pigment contents such as chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid under all RLI decreased. And pigment contents were the highest under full sun in the same fertilization level. Foliar nitrogen content under fertilization was higher than that under non-fertilization, and chlorophyll/nitrogen ratio decreased with the increase of fertilization level under all RLI. The increase of photosynthetic rate was observed with the increase of fertilization level at 63% of RLI and full sun, and dark respiration rate under fertilization was lower than under non-fertilization. Apparent quantum yield was lower at non-fertilization than that of fertilization, and it was highest at 63% of RLI under the same fertilization level. In conclusion, leaf growth and physiological characteristics of F. saxatilis could be improved under higher light conditions and fertilization.
An Analysis of Operating Characteristics and Management Satisfaction of Forest Museums in Korea
Ha, Sung-Gyone ; Shin, Hyun-Tak ; Jung, Tae-Yeol ; An, Jong-Bin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 382~389
The present study grasped the operation characteristics and operation management of forest museums in Korea and analyzed satisfaction with the foregoing. In the results of a survey of forest museums' operation characteristics, with regard to groups to which exhibits were helpful, over half of respondents answered that the exhibits were helpful to students and many respondents had an opinion that all age groups should be equally considered as targets of exhibition. Among matters that were considered with regards to forest museums, accessibility showed the highest rate of answers followed by museum programs. The curator was needed for the majority of respondents were exhibits prior to the survey had the highest expectations for the medium. With regard to the operation management of forest museums, the expected value of periodic and extraordinary exhibitions was shown to be high and high and satisfaction was shown by the professionalism of staff. As for matters of forest museums that must be improved, attention should be paid to the development of programs in which users can participate, diverse exhibition media should be developed, and exhibition should be planned to fit the composition of exhibits. As for operation management, since exhibits were repeated every year, environments should be changed by exhibiting new exhibits or otherwise and active methods of improvement should be devised such as the utilization of broadcasting media for public relations.
Management Efficiency of Chestnut-Cultivating Households in Chungnam Province
Won, Hyun-Kyu ; Jeon, Jun-Heon ; Yoo, Byoung-Il ; Lee, Seong-Youn ; Lee, Jung-Min ; Ji, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 390~397
The study, utilizing a data envelopment analysis (DEA) which is one of the nonparametric estimation methods, aims to evaluate the management efficiency of chestnut tree cultivators in such provinces in Chungchungnam-do as Cheong-yang, Gong-ju, Bu-yeo and so on. The analysis data of this study is based on inputs and outputs of 20 forestry households surveyed in the 2012 survey titled 'A Study on Current Level and Condition of Chestnut Cultivation and Management', which was conducted from March 2012 to October 2012. The elements of inputs are composed of management cost, harvesting cost, material cost, non-operation expenses and cultivation area, while the element of output is a gross margin only. Then the study analyzes a technical efficiency, a puretechnical efficiency and a scale efficiency using CCR and BCC model among DEA methods. Based on that, it also provides improvement methods for forestry households that turned out to be inefficient. In order to verify the result of DEA analysis, the study additionally compares a result of this efficiency study with that of chestnuts management standard diagnostic table. According to the result, the average value of technical efficiency analyzed was 0.667, proving to be inefficient in general. Given that the average value of pure-technical efficiency was 0.944 and that of scale efficiency was 0.703, it can be inferred that inefficiency exists in the field of scale, not in the field of cultivation techniques. As for forestry households with the efficiency score of 1, it is shown that there were 6 households that recorded 1 in the technical efficiency field and 13 households that recorded 1 in the pure technical efficiency. Meanwhile, there were 6 households that recorded 1 in all of the three aspects. In the comparison with the scores from chestnuts management standard diagnostic table, there were 5 households made a high score of over 80, among which are 3 households with score 1 in the technical efficiency. Also, the results of this study and the chestnuts management standard diagnostic table are proved to have the same result, both of them showing the same households that recorded the highest score and the lowest score. This means the management efficiency evaluation using DEA can be applied to the fieldwork along with the chestnuts management standard diagnostic table.
A Study on Greenhouse Gas Removals Estimation of a Small Scale Afforestation/reforestation CDM Pilot Project in Goseong, Gangwon Province
Kim, Jiyeon ; Lee, Sue Kyoung ; Noh, Nam Jin ; Yoon, Tae Kyung ; Han, Saerom ; Cui, Guishan ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Son, Yowhan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 398~406
Afforestation/reforestation (A/R) clean development mechanism (CDM) is the only forestry-based activities allowed under the Kyoto protocol. This study was conducted to develop a methodology to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) removals of a small scale A/R CDM pilot project in Goseong, Gangwon Province, Korea. AR-AMS0001 was applied as a methodology and selected tree species were Pinus koraiensis, Larix kaempferi, and Betula platyphylla for total area of 75.0 ha. To improve the accuracy on the GHG removals estimation, selection of the baseline scenario and carbon pools and stratification of the project site were conducted. Based on the developed methodology, net anthropogenic GHG removals were estimated as actual net GHG removals, subtracted by baseline net greenhouse gas removals and leakage. As a result, anthropogenic GHG removals of the project were 12,415 ton
and 165.5 ton
. This project is the first A/R CDM in domestic site and could enhance the technical accuracy of the GHG removals estimation by using countryspecific data reflecting the site condition.
The Classification of Forest Cover Types by Consecutive Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in the Natural Forest of Western Mt. Jiri
Chung, Sang Hoon ; Kim, Ji Hong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 407~414
This study was conducted to classify forest cover types using the multivariate statistical analysis in the natural forest of western Mt. Jiri. On the basis of the vegetation data by point quarter sampling, the adopted analytical methods were species-area curve (SAC), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), indicator species analysis (ISA), and multiple discriminant analysis (MDA). SAC selected the outlier tree species which was likely to have no influence on the classification of forest cover types, excluded from all analytical process. Based on forest vegetative information, HCA classified the study area into 2 to 10 clusters and ISA indicated that the optimal number of clusters were seven. MDA was taken to test the clusters that classified with HCA and ISA. The seven clusters were classified appropriately as overall classification success were 91.3%. The classified forest cover types were named by the ratio of the dominant species in the upper layer of each cluster. They were (1) Quercus mongolica Pure forest, (2) Mixed mesophytic forest, (3) Q. mongolica - Q. serrata forest, (4) Abies koreana - Q. mongolica forest, (5) Fraxinus mandshurica forest, (6) Q. serrata forest, and (7) Carpinus laxiflora forest.
Development of Large Fire Judgement Model Using Logistic Regression Equation
Lee, Byungdoo ; Kim, Kyongha ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 415~419
To mitigate forest fire damage, it is needed to concentrate suppression resources on the fire having a high probability to become large in the initial stage. The objective of this study is to develop the large fire judgement model which can estimate large fire possibility index between the fire size and the related factors such as weather, terrain, and fuel. The results of logistic regression equation indicated that temperature, wind speed, continuous drought days, slope variance, forest area were related to the large fire possibility positively but elevation has negative relationship. This model may help decision-making about size of suppression resources, local residents evacuation and suppression priority.
Growth Response and Adaptability of Poplar Species Treated with Liquid Pig Manure
Kim, Hyun-Chul ; Shin, Hanna ; Lee, Heon-Ho ; Yeo, Jin-Kie ; Kang, Kyu-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 420~427
This study was conducted to analyze growth characteristics and adaptability of poplar clones under the treatment of liquid pig manure. The average of survival rate was 33% better at control than the treatment under age of 5 years. But, tree height and DBH growth were higher at the treatment than control. Populus euramericana 'Eco28' showed the highest survival rate (97.9%) under the treatment. P. euramericana 'Eco28' and P. deltoides hybrid 'Dorskamp' could be selected as superior clones for height and DBH growth under the liquid pig manure treatment. The above-ground biomass production was also investigated when the poplar clones were 5 years old. The aboveground biomass under the liquid pig manure treatment was, on average. 52.6 ton/ha, which was 80% higher than control (29.1 ton/ha). P. euramericana 'Eco28' (73.6 ton/ha) and P. deltoides hybrid 'Dorskamp' (71.1 ton/ha) showed superior biomass production than other clones at the treatment of liquid pig manure. Based on survival, growth and demage traits, the adaptability of poplar clones to liquid pig manure treatment was estimated. P. deltoides hybrid 'Dorskamp' and P. euramericana 'Eco28' showed better adaptability to the treatment. P. nigra
P. maximowiczii '62-10' and P. koreana
P. nigra var. italic 'Suwon' were identified as poor adaptability clones.
Distribution, Habitat Characteristics and Assessment of the Conservation Status of a Rare Mistletoe Species, Loranthus tanakae(Loranthaceae) in Korea
Lee, Su Gwang ; Chung, Jae Min ; Kim, Sung Sik ; Woo, Su Young ; Kang, Ho Duck ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 428~436
To obtain biological basic data for the conservation strategies establishment of a rare mistletoe species, Loranthus tanakae(Loranthaceae) in Korea, the distribution range, habitat characteristics and an assessment of the conservation status on the natural populations of L. tanakae were investigated. As a result, the natural populations of L. tanakae were distributed in Bakdudaegan from Mt. Chiri to Mt Seorak in Korea penninsula, and 97.8% of surveyed individuals of the mistletoe species were found in Gangwon province. In natural populations, 1,385 individuals of L. tanakae were parasitic on 480 host trees, and distributed in sunshiny ridges of mountains of altitude range of 353 m to 1,250 m. The range of host trees of L. tanakae were composed of 5 families, 6 genera, 9 species, 1 subspecies, and of these, Quercus mongolica was preferred with 81.5% (389 trees among 480 host trees). As a result of assessing the conservation status through IUCN, L. tanakae was evaluated as Vulnerable (VU). It was considered that Mt. Seorak, Mt. Taegi and Mt. Odae population as habitats with the highest density of distribution of natural populations of L. tanakae should be designated as the protected areas. Thus, conservation strategies and related methods of the natural populations of L. tanakae were also discussed for the sustainable conservation.
Assessment of Productive Areas for Quercus acutissima by Ecoprovince in Korea Using Environmental Factors
Kim, Tae U ; Sung, Joo Han ; Kwon, Tae-Sung ; Chun, Jung Hwa ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 437~445
This study was conducted to develop site index equations and to estimate productive areas of Quercus acutissima by ecoprovince in Korea using environmental factors. Using the large data set from both a digital forest site map and a climatic map, a total of 48 environmental factors including 19 climatic variables were regressed on site index to develop site index equations. Four to six environmental factors for Quercus acutissima by ecoprovince were selected as independent variables in the final site index equations. The result showed that the coefficients of determination for site index equations were ranged from 0.30 to 0.41, which seem to be relatively low but good enough for the estimation of forest stand productivity. The site index equations developed in this study were also verified by three evaluation statistics such as the estimation bias of model, precision of model, and mean square error of measurement. According to the evaluation statistics, it was found that the site index equations fitted well to the test data sets with relatively low bias and variation. As a result, it was concluded that the site index equations were well capable of estimating site quality. Based on the site index equations of Quercus acutissima by ecoprovince, the productive areas by ecoprovince were estimated by applying GIS technique to the digital forest site map and climate map. In addition, the distribution of productive areas by ecoprovince was illustrated by using GIS technique.
The Environmental Characteristics and Vegetation Structures of Kirengeshoma Koreana Habitats
Cho, Seon-Hee ; Kim, Dae-Woo ; Kang, Sang-Ho ; Jeong, Yeo-Hong ; Lee, Sung-Jae ; Kim, Joon-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 446~454
The present study investigated the biological agents and environmental conditions of the habitats of the Kirengeshoma koreana, a class 2 endangered species class according to the South Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE), elucidated the structural characteristics of the forest stands in the habitats with the importance value and the diversity index, conducted comparative analysis of the factors, and explored their relationship with environmental factors. According to the results of direction analysis of natural habitats of the Kirengeshoma koreana, the direction was distributed to the north or the northeast, and the slope amounted to
, thus demonstrating that the slope has little effect. In addition, the results showed that the distribution of Kirengeshoma koreana populations dramatically increased starting in areas at least 600 m above the sea level and that the relative light intensity was 3.79% on an average. Most populations were native to gorges and crevices between rocks so that they mainly tended to inhabit areas that could see soil loss in times of precipitation. In addition, a considerable number of the populations were close to hiking trails as well, thus leading to concerns about their artificial destruction. The soil of layer a in the main growth space of the Kirengeshoma koreana was analyzed and turned out to be strongly acidic, measuring pH 4.45-4.89 (average: 4.68). All investigation sections were typical natural broad-leaved tree areas, and, judging from the fact that the Kirengeshoma koreana was most likely to appear in colonies of the Mongolian oak tree (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.), the Mongolian oak tree seems to be the species of tree that has the greatest effect on the inhabitation of the Kirengeshoma koreana.
The comparison of Soil Properties and Early Growth of Pinus densiflora and Larix kaempferi Seedlings in Harvested Larix kaempferi and Pinus rigida stands
Yang, A-Ram ; Hwang, Jaehong ; Song, Sun-Wha ; Cho, Minseok ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 455~462
The objectives of this study were to compare soil physical and chemical properties and early growth of Pinus densiflora and Larix kaempferi seedlings in harvested Larix kaempferi and Pinus rigida stands. Study stands were located in harvested L. kaempferi (Yeongju) and Pinus rigida (Wonju) plantations. Seedlings of L. kaempferi (1-1) and P. densiflora (1-0) were planted in April, 2008, Yeongju. Also, seedlings of L. kaempferi (1- 1) and P. densiflora (1-1) were planted with the density of 3,000 seedlings/ha in April, 2010, Wonju. We analyzed soil physical and chemical properties and the relative growth rate of seedlings using diameter at root collar and seedling height. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus concentrations in harvested P. rigida stand were significantly higher than those in harvested L. kaempferi stand. The relative growth rate of P. densiflora seedlings with former stands were not significantly different. The relative growth rate of diameter at root collar of L. kaempferi seedling in harvested P. rigida stands were significantly higher than that in harvested L. kaempferi stand. Higher concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus in harvested P. rigida stand was probably positively affect to the early growth of seedlings.
Rainfall Intensity-Duration Thresholds for the Initiation of a Shallow Landslide in South Korea
Kim, Suk-Woo ; Chun, Kun-Woo ; Kim, Min-Seok ; Kim, Min-Sik ; Kim, Jin-Hak ; Lee, Dong-Kyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 3, 2013, Pages 463~466
We examined relationship between rainfall and triggering of shallow landslides in South Korea, based on hourly rainfall data for 478 shallow landslides during 1963-2012. Rainfall intensity(I) and duration(D) relationship was analyzed to obtain the I-D threshold for the initiation of a shallow landslide using the quantile regression analysis. The I-D threshold equation from in this study is:
), where I and D are expressed in millimeters per hour and hours, respectively. In addition, rainfall criteria were proposed to predict the potential to cause landslides, based on values of I-D and cumulative rainfall derived from quantile regression analysis. Our findings may provide essential data and important evidences for the improvement of landslide warning and evacuation system.