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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 102, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 102, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 102, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 102, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Spatial Estimation of the Site Index for Pinus densiplora using Kriging
Kim, Kyoung-Min ; Park, Key-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 467~476
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.467
Site index information given from forest site map only exist in the sampled locations. In this study, site index for unsampled locations were estimated using kriging interpolation method which can interpolate values between point samples to generate a continuous surface. Site index of Pinus densiplora in Danyang area were calculated using Chapman-Richards model by plot unit. Then site index for unsampled locations were interpolated by theoretical variogram models and ordinary kriging. Also in order to assess parameter selection, cross-validation was performed by calculating mean error (ME), average standard error (ASE) and root mean square error (RMSE). In result, gaussian model was excluded because of the biggest relative nugget (37.40%). Then spherical model (16.80%) and exponential model (8.77%) were selected. Site index estimates of Pinus densiplora throughout the entire area in Danyang showed 4.39~19.53 based on exponential model, and 4.54~19.23 based on spherical model. By cross-validation, RMSE had almost no difference. But ME and ASE from spherical model were slightly lower than exponential model. Therefore site index prediction map from spherical model were finally selected. Average site index from site prediction map was 10.78. It can be expected that regional variance can be considered by site index prediction map in order to estimate forest biomass which has big spatial variance and eventually it is helpful to improve an accuracy of forest carbon estimation.
Uncertainty Assessment of Emission Factors for Pinus densiflora using Monte Carlo Simulation Technique
Pyo, Jung Kee ; Son, Yeong Mo ; Jang, Gwang Min ; Lee, Young Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 477~483
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.477
The purpose of this study was to calculate uncertainty of emission factor collected data and to evaluate the applicability of Monte Carlo simulation technique. To estimate the distribution of emission factors (Such as Basic wood density, Biomass expansion factor, and Root-to-shoot ratio), four probability density functions (Normal, Lognormal, Gamma, and Weibull) were used. The two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and cumulative density figure were used to compare the optimal probability density function. It was observed that the basic wood density showed the gamma distribution, the biomass expansion factor results the log-normal distribution, and root-shoot ratio showd the normal distribution for Pinus densiflora in the Gangwon region; the basic wood density was the normal distribution, the biomass expansion factor was the gamma distribution, and root-shoot ratio was the gamma distribution for Pinus densiflora in the central region, respectively. The uncertainty assessment of emission factor were upper 62.1%, lower -52.6% for Pinus densiflora in the Gangwon region and upper 43.9%, lower -34.5% for Pinus densiflora in the central region, respectively.
Development of a Wood Recovery Estimation Model for the Tree Conversion Processes of Larix kaempferi
Kwon, Kibeom ; Han, Hee ; Seol, Ara ; Chung, Hyejean ; Chung, Joosang ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 484~490
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.484
This study was conducted to develop a simulation model for estimating the amount of such products as round wood, dimension lumber and the residual wood biomass produced by processing the individual trees of Larix kaempferi. In the model, the stem volume is assessed using the taper equations of the species to estimate the stem forms. Then, the model simulates the conversion processes of logs to round wood or lumber and assesses the maximum amount of the wood products by the lumber dimensions or round wood size. Also the model provides information on the amount of residuals for kerf and slabs produced on the conversion processes for sawn timber or round wood. According to the results of an application of the model to a L. kaempferi process, the trees greater than 12 cm of DBH can be converted to logs for lumber or round wood production. For the trees, of which DBH is available for log conversion, the maximum amount of final products by dimensions were analyzed. In this analysis, production of the bigger dimension lumber was assumed to be preferred to that of the smaller or round wood. This model can be used for assesment of forest economic value through estimation of merchantable volume for the trees, and assessment of mill residues which has the potential to provide significant amount of feedstock for bioenergy production as well.
A Preliminary Review of REDD Mechanism for Rehabilitating Forest Degradation of North Korea
Bae, Jae Soo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 491~498
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.491
Preliminary feasibility of REDD mechanism to combat forest degradation in North Korea is reviewed as a means of cooperation between South Korea and North Korea. North Korea has not established a national REDD+ strategy and a forest monitoring system which are required to implement REDD+ under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Credible statistical data of forest resources is a necessary condition for implementing REDD mechanism in the developing countries. However, other than forest area data using satellite images, statistical data of forest resources of North Korea are mostly estimated based on simple hypothesis rather than transparent and robust results from national forest inventory. The review of statistical data of forest resources of North Korea shows that North Korea is in a pre-stage of REDD readiness. The study suggests that following research and cooperation agendas should be considered to implement REDD mechanism in North Korea: 1) detecting land use change since 2000, measuring carbon stock change, and identifying causes of deforestation and forest degradation; and 2) establishing a national REDD+ strategy' and a national forest inventory system in North Korea.
Investigation Into Reflectance Characteristics of Trees Infected by Pine Wilt Disease
Kim, So-Ra ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Nam, Kijun ; Song, Yongho ; Yu, Hangnan ; Kim, Moon-Il ; Lee, Jong-Yeol ; Lee, Seung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 499~505
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.499
Pine wilt disease has known as a serious forest disease in East Asia such as Japan, Korea and China. Fumigation and burning are considered as best way to treat infected tree at early detection. For investigate spectral reflectance characteristics of infected trees, periodic measurement has been done in both infected and non-infected trees. Infected and non-infected trees' reflectance (400 nm~2,500 nm wavelength) are detected from June to October with GER3700 spectrometer. Noise of reflectance data was corrected using cubic spline interpolation method. Reflectance was changed in most of infected trees with ranges Red (600 nm~700 nm) and Middle Infrared (1,400 nm~1,500 nm) within two months after injected by Pine Wood nematode (PWN), but there was no differences in non-infected trees. Infected and non-infected trees were compared statistically in each period. As a result, we found that a statistically significant difference was occurred at Red and Middle Infrared (MIR) 2 months after injection (p<0.05), however, no significant difference in near infrared (p>0.05). Therefore, the early detection of infested pine trees by PWN may possible through detecting the change of spectral reflectance at red and MIR.
Feasibility Study on the Construction of a Wood Industrialization Services Center for a Wood Industry Cluster Establishment in Jeollanam-do
An, Ki-Wan ; Park, Kyung-Seok ; Ahn, Young Sang ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 506~514
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.506
This study examined the feasibility on the construction of a wood industrialization service center for a wood industry cluster establishment in Jeollanam-do. Construction of the wood industrialization service center is based on a discount rate of 3.5%, an investment period of 4 years, a business operations period of 16 years and an investment cost of 24600 million won; the total amount of the net present value, the cost-benefit ratio and the internal rate of return were assumed to be 2.579 million won, 2.51%, and 10.1%, respectively. In addition, the production inducement coefficient, the induced production effect, the income-induced coefficient, the income inducement effect, the employment inducement coefficient, and the employment inducement effect were estimated 1.4345, 35287 million won, 0.1655, 4000.7 million won, and 0.4665, 1,145 people, in the effects of the wood related industries using the multi-regional input-output model, respectively. Financial independence of operating income to cover its own costs incurred in accordance with the operating project might be practicable.
Comparison of Competition Indices by Silvicultural Systems Before and After Treatments for Natural Deciduous Forests in Pyeongchang
Choi, Hyun Kwon ; Park, Byung Bae ; Sung, Joo Han ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 515~521
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.515
The objective of this study was to estimate the changes of stand structure before and after applying the three different silvicultural treatments such as selection cutting system, two-storied system, and shelterwood system. This study has been conducted in the natural deciduous forests in Pyeongchang of Gangwon Province, Korea. Nine permanent sampling plots of 0.09 ha were established in the forests and each of the three silvicultural treatments was applied to three sampling points. Some tree variables were measured in each stand before and after the silvicultural treatments were applied. With these data, stand attributes were estimated in each stand before and after applying the silvicultural treatments. In this study, a competition index was used to analyze the differences among structures of stands managed by three different silvicultural treatments. Hegyi's distance-dependent competition index was estimated and compared to analyze the differences of stand structures among the stands before and after silvicultural treatments. A method using a height angle
from the base of the subject tree was adopted as the selection method of competitor trees. Duncan's multiple range test and t-test were then employed to statistically analyze the difference of stand structure among the stands. The results revealed that competition status among trees in the stand seems to be improved after applying the silvicultural treatments. There are significant differences in the competition index between before and after silvicultural treatments for each stand. According to the evaluation of competition index, it was confirmed that spatial structure of the stands was improved by applying the silvicultural treatments.
Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Pinus densiflora Seedlings in Response to Open-field Experimental Warming using the Infrared Lamp
Lee, Sun Jeoung ; Han, Saerom ; Yoon, Tae Kyung ; Han, Seung Hyun ; Jung, Yejee ; Yun, Soon Jin ; Son, Yowhan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 522~529
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.522
Climate change will affect the physiological traits and growth of forest trees. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of an experimental warming on growth and physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. seedlings. One-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in control and warmed plots in April 2010. The air temperature of warmed plots was increased by
using infrared lamps from November 2010. We measured shoot height, root collar diameter, above and below ground biomass, chlorophyll contents and leaf nitrogen concentration from March 2011 to March 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter showed no significant difference between warmed and control plots except for root collar diameter measured in June 2012. Seedling leaf biomass was lower in the warmed (
) than in the control (
) plots in 2013. Shoot to root ratio (S/R ratio) was lower in the warmed (
) than in the control (
) plots in 2013. Leaf nitrogen concentrations and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between warmed and control plots except for leaf nitrogen concentration in 2011. Leaf C/N ratio was increased in 2012 under the warming treatment. Low growth and S/R ratio in warmed plots might be related to the higher temperature and water stress. In the future, the below-ground carbon allocation of P. densiflora might be increased by global warming due to temperature and water stress.
A Study on the Possibility of Malondialdehyde(MDA) as Indicator of Forest Therapy Effectiveness
Jeong, Mi-Ae ; Park, Sujin ; Park, Chan-Woo ; Lee, Jeong-Hee ; Kwon, Jino ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 530~536
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.530
This study aimed to analyze and compare results from psychological relaxations by using profile of mood state (POMS) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) level as a scale of oxidative damage before and after walking in the forest and on the street. 29 participations (15 men and 14 women) walked in the forest and on the street for 30 minutes of each for two days. The participations filled a questionnaire for POMS and conducted an heart rate variability test, oxidative damage test (MDA as biological marker through a urine test) before and after walking. To compare the psychological states after walking in the two difference places, walking in the forest showed statistically more meaningful results in the section of tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confuse and total mood disturbance (p<0.01) than walking on the street. According to the MDA results, a concentration of MDA showed significant increase after walking on the street (p=0.014). On the contrary to this, a concentration of MDA tended to decrease after walking in the forest (p=0.076). The study showed that the psychological states were more stable and oxidative damages were more decreasing after walking in the forest than walking on the street. In the conclusion, MDA would be biological indicator for assessing the effect of alleviation on the oxidative stress after walking in the forest.
Comparison of Physiological Characteristics, Stomata and DNA Content between Seedling and 5-year-old Somatic Plant (Somatic Embryo Derived-plant) in Liriodendron tulipifera
Kim, Yong Wook ; Moon, Heung Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 537~542
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.537
Field performance of somatic plants (somatic embryo derived-plants) of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) produced from somatic embryogenesis was compared with that of seedlings at age 5. In comparison of photosynthetic rate (seedling,
; somatic plant,
), stomatal conductance rate (seedling, 0.2
; somatic plant, 0.166
) and respiration rate (seedling, 1.71 mmol
; somatic plant, 1.513 mmol
), no significant differences were found between plants. The seedlings were a little higher in comparison of stomatal density (seedling,
; somatic plant,
), length (seedling,
; somatic plant,
) and width (seedling,
; somatic plant,
). In comparison of DNA content of the leaves using flow cytometry, no differences in ploidy level were found between the seedlings and somatic plants.
Allometric Equations and Biomass Expansion Factors in an Age-sequence of Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii) Stands
Kim, Choonsig ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Son, Young-Mo ; Cho, Hyun-Seo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 543~549
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.543
This study was conducted to evaluate age-specific and generalized allometric equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for each tree component across three age-sequence stands (35-year-old, 51-year-old, 62-year-old) of black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) in Jinju, located in the western part of Gyeongnam province, Korea. Biomass in each tree component, i.e. foliage, branch, and stem, was quantified by destructive tree harvesting. Allometric regression equations were significant (P<0.05) with diameter at breast height (DBH) or combination of DBH and height (
) accounting for 55-98% of the variation (as indicated by coefficients of determination,
) in aboveground biomass except for foliage biomass of the 62-year-old stand. Generalized allometric equations can be used to estimate the biomass of black pine stands because the slopes of age-specific equations over 35-year-old stands were not significantly different by the age-sequence. The stem density and biomass expansion factor (BEFs) were not significantly different (P>0.05) from different stand ages and ranged from 0.45 to
, and from 1.32 to 1.38, respectively. The results indicate that allometric equations, stem density and aboveground BEFs in the matured black pine over 35-year-old are little influenced by different stand ages.
Analysis on Safety Accident Characteristics of Forestry Workers in Korea
Kim, Hee-Yul ; Park, Seong-Hak ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Park, Chong-Min ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 550~559
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.550
This study looked over the laws and regulations related to forestry workers to analyze the safety accident rates for the past five years (2006-2010), and to suggest improvement plans to reduce the safety accident rates of forestry workers. Findings from comparing information obtained from data are outlined below. The safety accident rates had gradually increased in the forestry fields until 2010, but nowaday it is on the decline. Furthermore, the safety accident rates in the field of forestry were still serious compared to those in the other industrial fields as from 2.1 to 5.1 times. In the results, the workers were especially vulnerable to safety accidents when they fell under the following categories: when falling; within 29 to 90 days after starting the work; over 60 years old; less than one month of service; October; Wednesday; 11 a.m.; and the nether limbs of the body. In the case of Jeollabuk-do, it was reported that more than half of victims did not have any training in safety.
Population Genetic Variation of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica in South Korea Based on ISSR Markers
Ahn, Ji Young ; Hong, Kyung Nak ; Lee, Jei Wan ; Yang, Byung Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 560~565
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.560
Population genetic structure and diversity of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica in South Korea were studied using ISSR markers. A total of 45 polymorphic ISSR amplicons were cropped from 7 ISSR primers and 171 individuals of 7 populations. The average of effective alleles and the proportion of polymorphic loci were 1.5 and 89% respectively. The Shannon's diversity index (I) was 0.435 and the expected heterozygosity from the frequentist's method (
) and the Bayesian inference (hs) were 0.289 and 0.323 respectively. From AMOVA, 4.2% of total genetic variation in the elm populations was explained with the difference among populations (
) and the other 95.8% was distributed within populations. The
value by Bayesian method which was comparable to the FST was 0.043. So the level of genetic diversity in the elm populations was similar to that in Genus Ulmus and the level of genetic differentiation was lower than that of others. No population showed a significant difference in the population-specific fixation indices (average of
) or the population-specific genetic differentiations (average of
). Seven populations were allocated into 3 groups in the UPGMA and the PCA, but the grouping patterns were different. Also, we could not confirm any geographic trend from Bayesian clustering.
Analysis of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity from Fruits of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.
Kim, Hyeusoo ; Kim, Moon Sup ; Kim, Sea Hyun ; Yun, Kyeong Won ; Song, Jeong Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 566~570
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.566
Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. is a Korean native tree, which is deciduous and shrub tree with broad leaf. To develop superior cultivars for edible or medicinal purposes, we evaluated total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was measured by folin-denis method and antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH method) and reducing power (potassium ferricyanide method). Total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity (at 400 ppm) and reducing power (at 700 ppm) were 15.8~19.9 mg/g, 69.1~91.4% and 0.56~0.96, respectively. A linear correlation was shown between DPPH-radical scavenging activity and reducing power (r=0969).
Analysis of Influence on Stream Water Quality by Soil Erosion Control Structures
Park, Jae-Hyeon ; Kim, Choonsig ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 571~577
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.571
This study was carried out to establish the construction guidelines of soil erosion control structures for a restoration of mountain stream with analysis of water quality around constructed soil erosion control structures in mountain streams. Water pH of the Uidong valleys in Bukhansan (Mt.) was similar between the constructed soil erosion control structures of lower stream areas [pH 6.53(6.25~6.82)] and the non-constructed areas of upper stream areas [pH 6.32(5.73~6.90)]. Mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was also similar between the constructed soil erosion control structures of lower steam areas [10.2 mg/L(9.9~10.4 mg/L)] and the non-constructed areas of upper stream areas [10.3 mg/L (9.6~10.6 mg/L)]. Mean electric conductivity was similar between the lower [
)]a nd the upper stream areas [
)]. Mean concentration of anions was also similar between the lower [15.94 mg/L (3.43~7.98 mg/L)] and the upper stream areas [14.51 mg/L (2.56~4.29 mg/L)]. Water pH of the Honggei valleys in Sancheong-gun was similar between the lower [pH 6.86(6.50~7.10)] and the upper stream areas [pH 6.89(6.61~7.12)]. Mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was also similar between the lower [11.9 mg/L(11.5~12.3 mg/L)] and the upper stream areas [12.2 mg/L (11.6~12.6 mg/L)]. Mean electric conductivity was similar between the lower [
)] and the upper stream areas [
)]. Mean concentration of anion was also similar to both stream areas [1.0 mg/L (0.1~2.2 mg/L)]. Water quality in the Uidong and the Honggei valleys was not significantly different between the constructed soil erosion control structures of lower stream areas and the non-constructed areas of upper stream areas. It will be needed to study the time-series analysis of water quality before and after the construction of soil erosion control structure the restoration of mountain streams because the water quality in mountain streams could be affected during the construction processes of structures.
Soil Physical and Chemical Properties with Plantation Regions and Stand Age in Pinus rigida and Larix kaempferi Plantations
Yang, A-Ram ; Hwang, Jaehong ; Cho, Minseok ; Song, Sun-Wha ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 578~586
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.578
This study was performed in Pinus rigida and Larix kaempferi plantations which occupy approximately 60% of artificial forest area in Korea. The objective of this study was to know the differences in soil physical and chemical properties between both plantations. Soil physical and chemical properties from published literature and analyzed soil data in national forest in 2010 and 2011 were analyzed by plantation regions and stand age of 5 years unit. Jeollanamdo in Pinus rigida plantations and Gyeongsangbuk-do in Larix kaempferi plantations showed higher soil chemical properties than those of other regions. Soil texture in both plantations was almost loam and sandy loam. Mean soil pH in Pinus rigida and Larix kaempferi plantations were 4.86 and 4.87, respectively and there was no relationship between soil pH and stand age. The mean concentrations of total nitrogen (%) and available phosphorus (mg
) were 0.21 and 11.00 for Pinus rigida plantation and 0.28 and 13.32 for Larix kaempferi plantation. In Larix kaempferi plantation, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and organic matter concentrations and C.E.C. were higher than those in Pinus rigida plantation and showed positive relationship with stand age. This positive relationship was also revealed between the exchangeable cations and soil pH. The results of this study provide an informative data in selecting tree species for planting and contribute to the establishing forest management plan for the maintenance of sustainable forests resources.
Community Ecological Characteristics of Juniperus chinensis L. Forest in South Korea
Shin, Jae-Kwon ; Kim, Hye-Jun ; Shin, Hak-Sub ; Chung, Jae-Min ; Yun, Chung-Weon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 587~600
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.587
Juniperus chinensis forest were classified into 1 community group, 2 communities, 4 groups, 6 subgroups, and 7 vegetation units by phytosociological analysis(the method of ZM schools) with 79 vegetation data in south korea. By NMS analysis it appeared at first axis (13.8%) and second axis (69%) and comprehensive explanatory power was 31%. It was shown clearly in Donggang region, the East sea region and the Ulleungdo region. In INSPAN(Indicator species Analysis) of vegetation unit, 89 species were analyzed significantly. According to result of species diversity, evenness, dominance value, interspecific-competition and other related analyses for vegetation unit, the species diversity of vegetation unit 4 showed the lowest value 0.667, while the value of vegetation unit 6 showed the highest value 1.174. The dominance value of vegetation unit 7 showed the lowest value 0.163 and most vegetation units are on about 0.7, while the value of vegetation unit 1 showed highly above 0.8.
The Effects of Ozone on Photosynthesis, Antioxidative Enzyme Activity and Leaf Anatomical Response in the Indoor Plants and Japanese Red Pine
Lee, Ju Young ; Je, Sun Mi ; Lee, Seoung Han ; Woo, Su-Young ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 601~607
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.601
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of ozone pollution on the one woody species and two indoor plants in controlled environment. Pinus densiflora, Spathiphyllum patinii and Epipremnum aureum seedlings were exposed in both control and ozone chambers to investigate photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, antioxidative enzyme activities such as GR(Glutathione reductase) and APX(Ascorbate peroxidase) activity and leaf anatomical response. Ozone was fumigated 8 hours for a day with 30 ppb concentration for 50 days. Pinus densiflora seedlings showed no significant difference on photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, antioxidant enzyme activity during ozone exposure. Ozone concentration (30 ppb in this study) is not high enough to generate ozone damage on Pinus densiflora species. In contrast, ozone generally altered photosynthetic rate, antioxidant enzyme (especially GR) activity and leaf anatomy in two indoor species (Spathiphyllum patinii and Epipremnum aureum) exposed in ozone chamber were significantly differ from those of control in every measurement. These data suggest that two indoor species(Spathiphyllum patinii and Epipremnum aureum) are more sensitive to ozone than Pinus densiflora.
Estimation of Forest Management Ratio under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol: A Case Study on the Chungcheongbuk-do
Kim, Hyungho ; Kang, Hyeondeug ; Kim, Rae Hyun ; Kim, Cheol Min ; Koh, Kwang Chul ; Lee, Kyeong Hak ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 102, issue 4, 2013, Pages 608~616
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2013.102.4.608
The objective of this study was to suggest contingent valuation method, simple random sampling method, systematic sampling method, maximum practice area method, and overlay practice area method as the estimation methods for forest management area to estimate carbon dioxide sink by forest management as stated in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. A case study for Chungcheongbuk-do was performed using maximum practice area method which was thought of as the most rational method within MRV(Measurable, reportable and verifiable). The forest management ratio was defined as forest management area over the total forest area. Based on the definition of forest management activity, forest area was divided into practice forest land and non-practice forest land. The area of forest mangement for practices was based on the 'National Forest Management Information System' and the history of practices from the 'Proposals on Private Management Information Database'. The area of forest management for non-practices was based on the public used forest land from 'Categorial map of forest land'. It was shown that the forest management area of Chuncheongbuk-do was 115,566 ha for practice forest land, and 131,008 ha for non-practice forest land. The forest managent ratio was 49.7% of the total forest area of 495,806 ha. This study made possible to the estimation of the forest management ratio under Kyoto Protocol, and had an advantage in searching for a practical method of forest management plan in which the forest management ratio could be enhanced.