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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 103, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 103, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 103, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 103, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Changes of Understory Vegetation Structure for 10 Years in Long-Term Ecological Research Site at Mt. Gyebang
Cheon, Kwang Il ; Chun, Jung Hwa ; Yang, Hee Mun ; Lim, Jong Hwan ; Shin, Joon Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.1
This study was conducted to investigate the changes understory vegetation composition (shrub and herb layers) in Mt. Gyebang as a northern-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest. Tracheophytes were 146 taxa, consisting 56 families, 93 genera, 124 species, 17 varieties, 3 forma, 2 sub-species and 1 unknown taxa in research subject area. As species area curve analysis, herbaceous layer and shrub species have been decreased over time. As a result of Mantel-test, basal area of upper layer affects to understory vegetation change (p<0.0001). Mean importance value was dominated Lindera obtusiloba (21.585%), Rhododendron schlippenbachii (19.774%) in the shrub layer, identified Sasa borealis (14.082%) and Lindera obtusiloba (7.921%) in the herb layer. According to NMS analysis of shrub layer, Species characterized by strong correlation have been reduced as time goes by. And it reports different species as an increasing in basal area of the upper layer. Herb layer plots of the NMS analysis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii and Rhododendron mucronulatum consistently were affected in shrub layer. In consequence of MRPP-test for changes in vegetation composition, It was analyzed that there are no significant differences for vegetation composition changes on shrub layer in 5-10 years. As a changes of vegetation composition on herb layer were analyzed significantly, composition change of herb layer species was larger than shrub layer species in understory vegetation.
The Classification of Forest by Cluster Analysis in the Natural Forest of the Southern Region of Baekdudaegan Mountains
Lee, Jeong-Min ; Hwang, Kwang-Mo ; Kim, Ji-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 12~22
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.12
This study was carried out to classify forest communities and to aggregate forest cover types for the complex and diversified natural forest areas of Hwangaksan, Bakseoksan, Deogyusan, and Jirisan in southern region of Baekdudaegan Mountains. The vegetation data were collected by point-centered quarter sampling method. Eight hundred fifty one sample points were subjected to cluster analysis to classify 18 forest communities, which were aggregated into 7 representative forest cover types on the basis of community similarity from composition of canopy species. They were mixed mesophytic forest cover type, the others deciduous forest cover type, Quercus variabilis-Quercus serrata cover type, Quercus mongolica cover type, Pinus densiflora cover type, Carpinus laxiflora cover type, and Abies koreana cover type. The Quercus mongolica cover type was most widely distributed in the study areas, and this cover type tended to occur in the place of higher altitude as latitude was getting lower. Mixed mesophytic forest and the others deciduous forest cover type were commonly distributed in the areas of valley, on the other hand, Quercus mongolica cover type and Pinus densiflora cover type tended to be distributed in the areas of ridge.
Initial Development of Forest Structure and Understory Vegetation after Clear-cut in Pinus densiflora Forest in Southern Gangwon-do Province
Bae, Kwan Ho ; Kim, Jun Soo ; Lee, Change Seok ; Cho, Hyun Je ; Lee, Ho Young ; Cho, Yong Chan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.23
Open- to closed canopy stage and it's ecological characteristics in vegetation succession are commonly described, but poorly understood in Korea. Vegetation development on structure, environment and understory abundance were studied for 16 yr in post-clearcut Pinus densiflora forests in the southern Gangwon-do province by applying space-for-time approach. We sampled 210 plots (10 for structure and 200 for understory) for four seral stages (1yr, 3yr, 10yr and 16yr). After clear-cut, mean stem density increased gradually to
stems/ha after 16 years and mean basal area was also from
after 10 years and doubled at
in 16 years. Woody debris and bared soil on the forest floor peaked at 11--- after 10 years and at 10.3--- after 3 years, respectively. In understory mean cover declined with all growth form groups following succession, but in richness, forb specie increased with structural development during 16 years. Our study suggested that overstory development did not suppressed whole understory properties especially in richness, thus appeared to act as a filter selectively constraining the understory characteristics. However only long-term studies are essential for elucidating patterns and processes that cannot be inferred form short-term or space-for-time researches. Strong negative relationship between overstory and understory characteristics in conventional models surely reexamined.
Thinning Intensity Effects on Carbon Storage of Soil, Forest Floor and Coarse Woody Debris in Pinus densiflora Stands
Ko, Suin ; Yoon, Tae Kyung ; Kim, Seongjun ; Kim, Choonsig ; Lee, Sang-Tae ; Seo, Kyung Won ; Son, Yowhan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 30~36
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.30
This study examined the change in carbon (C) storage of soil, forest floor and coarse woody debris (CWD) for different thinning intensities in Pinus densiflora stands 4 years after the treatment. Two study stands were located in Jeongseon (Stand 1) and Gwangneung Experiment Forest (Stand 2). Three plots for different thinning intensities based on stand density were established at each stand in 2008; control plot (0%), T20 plot (20%) and T30 plot (30%) in Stand 1 and control plot (0%), T39 plot (39%) and T74 plot (74%) in Stand 2, respectively. The C storage of soil (0-50 cm), forest floor and CWD was measured in 2012. Total C storage of T30 plot (
) was significantly higher than that of control plot (
) in Stand 1. In stand 2, total C storage of T74 plot (
) was significantly higher than that of control plot (
) and T39 plot (
). Total C storage of the heaviest thinned plot was the highest in each study stand. Since this study examined initial effects of thinning on C storage of soil, forest floor and CWD, further studies would be necessary to evaluate the long-term effects.
Fine Root Biomass in Pinus densiflora Stands using Soil Core Sampling and Minirhizotrons
Han, Seung Hyun ; Yoon, Tae Kyung ; Han, Saerom ; Yun, Soon Jin ; Lee, Sun Jeoung ; Kim, Seoungjun ; Chang, Hanna ; Son, Yowhan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.37
Fine root distribution was investigated in Pinus densiflora stands using soil core sampling and minirhizotrons, and conversion factors and regression equations were developed for converting minirhizotron data into fine root biomass. Fine root biomass was measured by soil core sampling from October, 2012 to September, 2013 once a month except for the winter, and surface area of fine roots was estimated by minirhizotrons from May to August, 2013 once a month. Fine root biomass and surface area were significantly higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower soil layers. Fine root biomass showed seasonal patterns; the mean fine root biomass (
) in summer (3,762.4) and spring (3,398.0) was significantly higher than that in autumn (2,551.6). Vertical and seasonal patterns of fine root biomass might be related to the soil bulk density, nutrient content and temperature with soil depth, and seasonal changes of soil and air temperature. Conversion factors (CF) between fine root surface area from minirhizotron data and fine root biomass from soil core sampling were developed for the three soil depths. Then a linear regression equation was developed between the predicted fine root biomass using CF and the measured fine root biomass (y = 79.7 + 0.93x,
). We expect to estimate the long-term dynamics of fine roots using CF and regression equation for P. densiflora forests in Korea.
Analysis of Secreted Nectar Volume, Sugar and Amino Acid Content in Male and Female Flower of Evodia daniellii Hemsl
Kim, Moon Sup ; Kim, Sea Hyun ; Song, Jeong Ho ; Kim, Hyeu Soo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.43
The purpose of study was to analyze secreted nectar volume, nectar sugar content and amino acid in addition to estimating honey quantities that can ultimately reap in male and female flowers of Evodia daniellii Hemsl.. The maximum blooming period of male flowers was on 24 to 26 July in 2012. On average, nectar volume secreted by nectary was
from one male flower and nectar concentration showed 17.4%. The maximum blooming period of female flowers was on 7 to 9 August in 2012. Nectar volume secreted by nectary was
from one female flower and nectar concentration showed 25.7%, averagely. As results of correlation analysis between the meteorological factors and nectar characteristics, we found that nectar quantities and concentration were influenced by temperature and relative humidity. Sugar content was calculated at
per a male flower and
per a female flower, which meant that both values were not significantly different (Mann-Whitney's U-test, p=0.400). The minimum estimates of honey harvest for a male and female inflorescence were 67.8 g and 53.5 g, respectively. Analysis of amino acid showed that Serine, Glycine and Alanine were more abundant in male flowers, however Asparatate, Glutamate, Asparagine and Glutamine were more abundant in female flowers.
Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Phellodendron amurense Populations in South Korea
Lee, Jei-Wan ; Hong, Kyung-Nak ; Kang, Jin-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.51
Genetic diversity and genetic structures were estimated in seven natural populations of Phellodendron amurense Rupr in South Korea using ISSR markers. The average of polymorphic loci per primer and the proportion of polymorphic loci per population were 4.5 and 78.8% respectively with total 27 polymorphic loci from 6 ISSR primers. The Shannon's diversity index(I) was 0.421 and the expected heterozygosity(
) was 0.285, which was similar to the heterozygosity (hs =0.287) inferred by Bayesian method. In AMOVA, 7.6% of total genetic variation in the populations was resulted from the genetic difference among populations and the other 92.4% was resulted from the difference among individuals within populations. Genetic differentiation(
) and inbreeding coefficient(f) for total population were estimated to be 0.066 and 0.479 by Bayesian method respectively. In Bayesian clustering analysis, seven populations were assigned into three groups. This result was similar to the results of genetic relationships by UPGMA and PCA. The first group included Hwachoen, Gapyeong, Bongpyeong and Yongpyeong population, and the second included two populations in Sancheong region. Muju population was discretely assigned into the third group in spite of the geographically short distance from the Sancheong region. There was no significant correlation between genetic relationship and geographic distribution among populations in Mantel's test. For conservation of the phellodendron trees, it would be effective to consider the findings resulted from this study with ecological traits and life histories of this species.
Genetic Diversity and Spatial Genetic Structure of Populus koreana Population in Mt. Odae, Korea
Shin, Sookyung ; Song, Jeong-Ho ; Lim, Hyo-In ; Jang, Kyung-Hwan ; Hong, Kyung-Nak ; Lee, Jei-Wan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 59~64
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.59
This study describes analysis of genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of Korean poplar (Populus koreana Rehder) in Mt. Odae using I-SSR markers. P. koreana is a deciduous broad-leaved tree species that primarily grows in the alpine valleys of China, Russia and North Korea. In South Korea, P. koreana is found limitedly in Gangwon province. Especially, the population in Mt. Odae is located on the southern limit line, its importance is emphasized from the genetic resource conservation perspective. The Shannon's diversity (I=0.230) and the expected heterozygosity (He=0.151) were relatively low as compared with those of other plant species. Spatial autocorrelation analysis using Tanimoto's distance showed that the genetic patch was founded within 400 m. It is suggested that individual trees for ex situ conservation should be sampled with a minimum distance of 400 m between trees.
The Growth and Physiological Responses of Cacalia firma Seedlings by Shading Conditions in Forest Farming
Yoon, Jun Hyuck ; Jeon, Kwon Seok ; Song, Ki Seon ; Park, Yong Bae ; Moon, Yong Sun ; Lee, Do Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 65~71
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.65
Cacalia firma is a perennial plant in Asteraceae, Parasenecio that distributed in Korea, China, and Japan. As dietary style changes for well-being life, consumer's demand of functional food and organic vegetables is getting increased. This study was conducted to investigate the optimum light conditions of P. firmus in forest farming. One year old seedlings were grown under four different light conditions 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% of sunlight by shading (equals 50%, 30%, 20%, and 10% relative brightness respectively) and non-treated control under full sunlight. They were analyzed for early growth and physiological response. Seedlings grown under 75% shading showed similar height, root growth, and leaf water content to control. However, their leaf length, width, and total leaf area were increased, which caused increased leaf dry weight and total dry weight. Especially, seedlings under 95% shading showed 40% increase in height and more leaf growth and leaf water content, although they had shorter main root length and root collar diameter than control. In addition specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area ratio (LAR) were higher than control and indicated that they were statistically significant difference from control. Higher SLA refers thinner leaf thickness, higher LAR means larger leaf area. The results indicate seedlings under 95% shading have higher water content, thinner leaf, and wider lightinterception areas. It is plausible that P. firmus is active in chlorophyll activities and carbon dioxide assimilation at even lower light conditions. These results suggest that the optimum light level of P. firmus for artificial cultivation in forest farming ranges from 75~95% shading (20%-10% of relative brightness). When salability as 'sanchae' (wild edible greens) is considered, P. firmus could be cultivated under 75% shading in forest farming and expected to have better taste and higher yield. We suggest these results as basic data of P. firmus for possible forest farming.
Effect of Culture Medium Strength, Plant Growth Regulators and Ethylene Inhibitors for Adventitious Bud Induction from Mature Zygotic Embryo in Larix kaempferi
Kim, Yong Wook ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 72~79
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.72
Adventitious buds were produced from the cultures of mature zygotic embryos of Larix kaempferi with the highest frequency in Quoirin & Lepoivre (LP) medium containing 1.0 mg/L zeatin (76.1%). The effective treatments for inducing adventitious shoots growth above 2 mm were shown in Litvay (LM) medium with 0.5 mg/L zeatin (75.2%) or LP medium with 2.0 mg/L zeatin (70.2%), respectively. In experiment with half strength salts medium for induction of the adventitious buds, the effective treatments were obtained from 1/2LP medium with 1.0 (83.3%) or 2.0 mg/L (81.7%) zeatin, respectively. However, the best adventitious shoot growth more than 2 mm appeared in 1/2LM medium with 1.0 mg/L zeatin (66.7%). In experiment with half strength salts medium for induction of the adventitious buds, the effective treatments were obtained from 1/2LP medium with 1.0 (83.3%) or 2.0 mg/L (81.7%) zeatin, respectively. However, the best adventitious shoot growth more than 2 mm appeared in 1/2LM medium with 1.0 mg/L zeatin (66.7%). In experiment of subsequent treatment with various cytokinins for induction of the adventitious buds, the best one (52.9%) was obtained from 1.0 mg/L zeatin for 2weeks, and then subcultured to the medium with 1.0 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of ethylene synergist or inhibitor on adventitious buds induction was examined. The highest rate (34.6%) of adventitious buds marked from the treatments of 1.0 mg/L zeatin+2.0 mg/L MGBG (methylglyoxal bis-[guanylhydrazone]). And the highest no. of adventitious buds(1.5/explant) was shown in the medium with 1.0 mg/L zeatin+2.0 mg/L
Recent Changes of Sedimentation Rate in Lake Takkobu, Northern Japan, Determined
Ahn, Young Sang ; An, Ki-Wan ; Lee, Kye-Han ; Nakamura, Futoshi ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 80~86
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.80
dating was conducted to examine the influence of land use changes in the forest catchment on lake sedimentation. The Kushiro River, into which Lake Takkobu drains under regular flow conditions, contributed to an increased sedimentation rate in sampling point at the lake outflow because turbid water from the Kushiro River flows back into Lake Takkobu during floods. The elevated sediment flux from the catchment dilutes the
concentration in sampling points at the inflow of the Takkobu River and the lake outflow, which causes fluctuations in the
concentrations in sediment cores. The
dating was estimated using the CRS (Constant rate of Supply) model. The dates by the CRS model in Lake Takkobu profiles were in good agreement with the dates by
. Sedimentation rates reconstructed for the past 100-150 years suggested that sedimentation rates increased drastically following land use changes. While a natural sedimentation rate of
is observed until the 1880s, whereas lake sedimentation accelerated to
following land use changes such as deforestation and channelization, between the 1880s and 1940s. In particular, the sedimentation rates have been associated with deforestation, channelization, agricultural development and road construction, since the 1980s, and these rates were about 9-28 times higher than those under natural conditions, leading to accelerated lake shallowing.
Comparison of Harvesting Productivity and Cost of Cable Yarding Systems
Han, Won Sung ; Han, Han-Sup ; Kim, Nam-Hun ; Cha, Du Song ; Cho, Koo Hyun ; Min, Do Hong ; Kwon, Ki Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 87~97
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.87
This study was conducted to provide field-based harvesting study information which can be used to select an optimal cable system for certain work conditions on steep grounds (>
ground slope) in Korea. To accomplish this study objectives, we evaluated three cable yarding systems (RME-300T tower-yarder, Chuncheon tower-yarder, FARMI tractor winch) working in typical work conditions for their yarding productivity and operational efficiency. Those yarders are commonly used for removing logs or trees on steep grounds in Korea. Under the same work conditions (average DBH of tree to be cut, 20 cm; yarding distance, 60 m; lateral yarding distance, 10 m; and machine utilization rate, 70%), the average productivities were
/day for RME-300T, Chuncheon tower-yarder, and FARMI, respectively. Our standardized cost comparison study also showed that the yarding cost was highest at
with FARMI, followed by RME-300T at
for the same work conditions. We found the lowest yarding cost with the Chuncheon tower-yarder at
which was resulted primarily from high yarding productivity at the yarding distance (60 m). Our analysis suggested that a small machine such as FARMI could be a low-cost yarding machine option for a cable yarding job with a short yarding distance (40 m or less). The Chuncheon tower-yarder is well suited for a mid-range yarding distance job in Korea, ranged between 40 to 140 m. If yarding distance were longer than 140 m, the RME-300T tower yarder appears to be most cost-effective.
Application of RUSLE and MUSLE for Prediction of Soil Loss in Small Mountainous Basin
Jung, Yu-Gyeong ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Lee, Ki-Hwan ; Park, Ki-Young ; Lee, Heon-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 98~104
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.98
This study aims to predict the amount of soil loss from Mt. Palgong's small basin, by using influence factors derived from related models, including RUSLE and MUSLE models, and verify the validity of the model through a comparative analysis of the predicted values and measured values, and the results are as follows: The amount of soil loss were greatly affected by LS factor. In comparison with the measured value of the amount of total soil loss, the predicted values by the two models (RUSLE and MUSLE), appeared to be higher than those of the measured soil loss. Predicted values by RUSLE were closer to values of measured soil loss than those of MUSLE. However, coefficient of variation of MUSLE were lower, but two model's coefficient of variation in similar partial patterns in the prediction of soil loss. RUSLE and MUSLE, prediction soil loss models, proved to be appropriate for use in small mountainous basin. To improve accuracy of prediction of soil loss models, more effort should be directed to collect more data on rainfall-runoff interaction and continuous studies to find more detailed influence factors to be used in soil loss model such as RUSLE and MUSLE.
Estimating Stand Volume Pinus densiflora Forest Based on Climate Change Scenario in Korea
Kim, Moonil ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Guishan, Cui ; Nam, Kijun ; Yu, Hangnan ; Choi, Sol-E ; Kim, Chang-Gil ; Gwon, Tae-Seong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 105~112
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.105
The main purpose of this study is to measure spatio-temporal variation of forest tree volume based on the RCP(Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5 scenario, targeting on Pinus densiflora forests which is the main tree species in South Korea. To estimate nationwide scale,
forest type map and National Forest Inventory data were used. Also, to reflect the impact of change in place and climate on growth of forest trees, growth model reflecting the climate and topography features were applied. The result of the model validation, which compared the result of the model with the forest statistics of different cities and provinces, showed a high suitability. Considering the continuous climate change, volume of Pinus densiflora forest is predicted to increase from
at present to
in the year of 2050. If the climate maintains as the present, volume is predicted to increase to
. With the climate change, it is predicted that most of the region, except for some of the alpine region, will have a decrease in growth rate of Pinus densiflora forest. The growth rate of Pinus densiflora forest will have a greater decline, especially in the coastal area and the southern area. With the result of this study, it will be possible to quantify the effect of climate change on the growth of Pinus densiflora forest according to spatio-temporal is possible. The result of the study can be useful in establishing the forest management practices, considering the adaptation of climate change.
Extractives from Wood of Euonymus japonica
Kim, Woo-Jin ; Lee, Kyoung-Tae ; Lee, Hak-Ju ; Cho, Sung-Taig ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 113~121
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.113
From the bark of Euonymus japonica, ten compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified as follows. The structures were determined as : (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, vanillic acid, 2,4-dimethoxyphenol-1-glucoside, 2, 4, 6-trimethoxyphenol-glucoside, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoyuinic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid.
Comparison of Profitability for Allium victorialis Farming System between On-field and Under-forest
Park, Sang-Byeong ; Kim, Mahn-Jo ; Kim, Eui-Gyeong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 122~128
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.122
This study aims to determine the difference in profitability of Allium victorialis farming system between on-field and under-forest, and to propose several better ways for development of under-forest farming system of Allium victorialis. Survey was conducted 12 farmer in Gangwon, Chungnam, Jeonnam, Gyeongbuk to investigate production cost, management cost, input labors and so on. In this study, IRR, B/C ratio and NPV were used for profitability analysis. The result applied 25,000 won for under-forest farming system and 15,000 won for on-field farming system as unit price of sale showed IRR 36.2% and 54.2% respectively. The profitability of Allium victorialis from under-forest farm was not lower than other non timber forest products. And it will be possible to create high profitability such like that of Allium victorialis from on-field farm, providing the technical development for intensive farming is supported.
Effect of Frequency of Using Forest Environment on Workers' Stress: a Comparative Study on Workers in Medical and Counseling Service Institution
Jung, Won Hee ; Woo, Jong-Min ; Ryu, Jee Soo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 129~136
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.129
This study aims to investigate the effect of frequency of using forest environment on workers' stress. Workers in medical and counseling industry, which is recently known to require heavy emotional burden and thus cause a lot of stress and burnout syndrome, participated in the study. We classified 370 subjects, who were working at medical and counseling service institutions in Seoul metropolitan area, into two groups according to frequency of using forest environment by conducting a screening survey. 69 subjects submitted written consent and were recruited for either forest therapy program or control-group test; the "high" group (n=27) at the high frequency of using forest environment and the "low" group (n=42) at the low level. We measured the level of stress by using psychosocial indicators such as Worker's Stress Response Inventory (WSRI), Recovery Experience Questionnaire (REQ), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and biological ones such as heart rate variability (HRV), cortisol, and Natural Killer cell (NK cell). The results suggested that the level of stress differed by frequency. The "high" group showed significantly low scores in the depression and work sub-scale and the total score of WSRI, emotional exhaustion, professional efficacy and total score of MBI-GS, and high scores in the total score of REQ. Similar tendencies were observed in the most of other indicators of psychosocial measures. Regarding the biological indicators, the "high" group showed the highest SDNN, RMSSD and TP measures of HRV and NK Cell activity and the low cortisol, although the statistical power did not reach the significant level. Our results suggest that the subjects who use forest environment frequently show favorable stress level both psychologically and biologically.
Development of the Forest Carbon Sink Index on Afforestation and Reforestation Activities
Song, Minkyung ; Bae, Jae Soo ; Seol, Mi Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 137~146
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.137
We have developed the Forest Carbon Sink Index on afforestation and reforestation activities, a regulation stated in article 26 of the 'Law on the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sink (Carbon Sink Law)', which took effect on March, 2013. According to the legal purpose to evaluate the performance of individual forest carbon offset projects and to compare each other at a certain point, values of the forest carbon sink index were calculated by the scoring method. Three criteria were established based on the Carbon Sink Law: 'Carbon' (real greenhouse gas reduction), 'Human' (socio-economic effect) and 'Nature' (environmental effect). Continuously, 9 indicators from the three criteria were selected by top-down approach; the adequacy of each criteria and indicators were reviewed through on-line Delphi survey; and finally weighted value of each criteria and indicators were assigned. To reflect the characteristics of the domestic forest carbon offset projects, which focus on corporate social responsibility-typed projects, we applied the score weighting method to minimize gaps among criteria and ones among indicators. After applying our newly developed forest carbon sink index to five domestic forest carbon offset projects, we could confirm that the criteria of 'Human' and 'Nature', which criteria are in relatively low weight, can play a role as an actual incentive to reduce negative socio-economic and environmental impacts. Based on performance evaluation of the five forest carbon offset project by the forest carbon sink index, the best or good performance project developers could be rewarded, and further the performance evaluation would work as an incentive to stimulate the involvement of domestic project developers in the field of forest carbon offset project.
Characteristics of Amphibian and Reptile Populations in a Coniferous Plantation and a Deciduous Forest
Park, Chang-Deuk ; Son, Seung-Hun ; Hwang, Hyun-Su ; Lee, Woo-Shin ; Lee, Eun-Jae ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 1, 2014, Pages 147~151
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.1.147
This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of amphibian and reptile (herpetofauna) populations in a coniferous plantation and a deciduous forest from July to September 2013 in national forest, Hongcheon, Gangwon province, Korea. Coverage of understory, mid-story and overstory were more developed in a deciduous forest. We used line transect sampling method on a total of 4 transect lines, 2 lines in each forest type. Fifty two individuals of 4 amphibian species and 11 individuals of 3 reptile species were recorded. Mean observed number of herpetofauna species, individuals and species diversity index (H') were not significantly different between coniferous plantation and deciduous forest. This result related to ecological characteristics of herpetofauna. Habitats of herpetofauna were influenced on not only vertical structure of forests, but also climatic variables, thermoregulation and prey availability. The long-term monitoring and research on habitat preference and seasonal ecological traits of herpetofauna would be needed for conservation and management of herpetofauna in forest areas.