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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 103, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 103, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 103, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 103, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Breeding System and Allozyme Genetic Diversity of Deutzia paniculata Nakai, an Endemic Shrub in Korea
Chang, Chin-Sung ; Kim, Hui ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 519~527
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.519
Deutzia paniculata is an endemic species, which is geographically restricted within southern part of Korea. Four populations of D. paniculata were sampled across its natural range, from the smallest population, Mt. Dalum, which held less than 100 individuals, to the largest, Mt. Unmum, over 3,500 individuals. Artificial pollination study showed that D. paniculata had an obligate outcross breeding system. Major pollinators were two bee species, Lasioglossum exiliceps and Allograpta balteata (de Geer). The breeding system and patterns of allozyme variation of D. paniculata were investigated to understand the population biology and to explain on reserve designs and management proposals relevant to this species. D. paniculata held relatively low genetic variation at the eight allozyme loci surveyed. Measures of genetic variation in this species alleles per locus (
), proportion of polymorphic loci (P=23.85%), and expected heterozygosity (
) were similar to values reported for endemic species. Mt. Dalum population (DAL) was composed with one clone based on allozyme data. Individuals of D. paniculata were frequently included in root connected clusters. Population genetic structure between and within four populations was probably the result of shrinking effective population size and the extinctions of intervening populations. For the conservation of genetic diversity, maximum number of different genotype need to be protected based on genetic structure and mating system.
Freezing Injury Characteristics of Evergreen Broad-Leaved Trees in Southern Urban Area, Korea
Jung, Su Young ; Lee, Kwang Soo ; Yoo, Byung Oh ; Park, Yong Bae ; Ju, Nam Gyu ; Kim, Hyungho ; Park, Joon Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 528~536
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.528
The aim of this study was to investigate the damage characteristics induced by winter freezing of evergreen broad-leaved trees distributed in urban area of warm temperate forest zone, which are gaining increased interest recently as climate change. The results of the study indicated that, as for 'stem injury', Camellia japonica Linne (59.6%) had the weakest damage, while Ternstroemia gymnanthera Sprague (83.3%) had the most severe damage. By the visual evaluation of freezing injury according to the characteristics of plantations environment, the observations of single planting (p<0.01) in planting method had weaker damage than those of group planting, the observations of under tree (p<0.001), plain (p<0.001), and organic matter plenty (p<0.05) in plantations characteristics had significant differences with relatively weaker damage than the observations of open space, slop, and scarcity, respectively. Tree height (-0.432) and crown width (-0.470) among growth factors were negatively correlated with the severity of damage, respectively. Therefore, the selection of tree species is vital for the successful creation of these urban forested area by making considerations of planting environment, and further research on evergreen broad-leaved trees is needed in this aspect.
Ecological Interpretation and Estimation of Successional Trend by Characteristics of Species Diversity and Topography for Forest Cover Types in the Natural Forest of Western Jirisan
Chung, Sang Hoon ; Hwang, Kwang Mo ; Kim, Ji Hong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 537~546
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.537
The purpose of this study was to interpret ecological characteristics and to estimate successional trend for seven classified forest cover types (Quercus mongolica pure forest, Q. mongolica-Q. serrata forest, Mixed mesophytic forest, Abies koreana-Q. mongolica forest, Fraxinus mandshurica forest, Q. serrata forest, and Carpinus laxiflora forest) in the natural forest of Western Jirisan. Q. mongolica pure forest and A. koreana-Q. mongolica forest which were distributed in a high-altitude ridge had the lowest species diversity index. On the other hand, mixed mesophytic forest and F. mandshurica forest which were mainly distributed in the valley had higher index. Based on characteristics of species diversity and topographic conditions, successional trends for forest cover types were estimated as follows; 1) Q. mongolica pure forest and A. koreana-Q. mongolica forest would be changed toward Q. mongolica-A. koreana forest. 2) Q. mongolica-Q. serrata forest, distributed between ridge and mid-slope, would be changed toward Q. mongolica-C. laxiflora-C. cordata forest. 3) Q. serrata forest, distributed in mid-slope, would be changed toward Q. serrata-Q. mongolica-C. laxiflora forest. 4) Mixed mesophytic forest, F. mandshurica forest and C. laxiflora forest, distributed in valley, would maintain the current condition in terms of species composition.
Characteristics of Germination and Early Growth of Parasenecio firmus in Container by Shading Treatment
Song, Ki Seon ; Jeon, Kwon Seok ; Kim, Chang Hwan ; Yoon, Jun Hyuck ; Park, Yong Bae ; Kim, Jong Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 547~555
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.547
This study was carried out in order to investigate the germination and the early growth characteristics of Parasenecio firmus. Seed pre-treatment before the each experiment was carried out by shading treatment (with drying at room temperature (DRT), drying at low temperature (DLT) and water soaking (WS) for 48 hours). Experiment was performed by shading treatment (full sunlight, 35%, 50%, 75%, and 95% shading). Seeds of Parasenecio firmus were surveyed the highest germination rate (61.1%) in full sunlight with WS (overall 25.7~61.1%). Height was surveyed the highest under 95% shading. And root collar diameter was surveyed the highest in full sunlight. Fresh weights (leaf, shoot, root and total) were the highest under 50% shading. Dry weights (leaf, shoot and total) were the highest under 75% shading. It was indicated the lowest leaf, shoot, root and total under 95% shading. Leaf growth (leaf area, leaf length, leaf width and leaf thickness) and root growth (total root length, root project area, root surface area, root diameter and root volume) were good under 35%~75% shading, but the lowest under 95% shading. As a result of surveying the whole experiment, seed of Parasenecio firmus grows well under 50%~75% shading after germination by high sunlight with water soaking (WS).
Container Types Influence Chamaecyparis obtusa Seedling Growth During Nursery Culture
Cho, Min Seok ; Yang, A-Ram ; Hwang, Jaehong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 556~563
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.556
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of container types on seedling growth of Chamaecyparis obtusa (2-year-old) in the container nursery culture. We used three container types [20 cavities (400 mL/cavity,
), 24 cavities (320 mL/cavity,
), and 35 cavities (240 mL/cavity,
)] and measured root collar diameter (RCD), height, biomass, root density and seedling quality index (SQI). The RCD, height, biomass, root density and SQI were the highest at 20 cavities/tray because this container has the largest volume and lowest seedling density. However, H/D and T/R ratio at all container types were not significantly different. The total biomass per unit area (
) were the lowest at 35 cavities/tray and those at both 20 and 24 cavities/tray were not significantly different. Container volume was positively correlated with RCD, height, biomass, root density and SQI except for H/D and T/R ratio, while seedling density negatively affected on them. Based on these results, 20 cavities/tray are optimal for container seedling production of C. obtusa. Usage of optimal container will make us get better quality seedlings and reduction of production costs in the container nursery as well as good field performances with higher survival rate in plantation.
A Comparison on the Forest Type of Coastal Disaster Prevention Forest Between the Coastal Areas in Korea
Kim, Chan-Beom ; Park, Ki-Hyung ; Lee, Chang-Woo ; Youn, Ho-Joong ; Kim, Kyongha ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 564~573
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.564
The objective of this study was to select a representative coastal disaster prevention forest type for each coastal area. In this study, we used cluster analysis with the results obtained from investigation for density of growing stock, tree height, DBH, and forest width and length of major coastal disaster prevention forests distributed in the west, the south, and the east coasts. The results showed that the coastal disaster prevention forests for each coast were classified into two types: a forest type with small DBH and high growing stock density (W1) or with high tree height (W2) in the west coast, a forest type with small tree height (S1) or with large DBH (S2) in the south coast, and a forest type with small growing stock density (E1) or with small tree height and low DBH (E2) in the east coast. The coastal disaster prevention forests located in Gurye beach (Hwangchon-ri, Wonbuk-myeon, Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do) and in Gohsapo beach (Unsna-ri, Byeonsan-myeon, Buan-gun, Jeollabuk-do) were selected as the representative forests of W1 and W2, respectively. In addition, the coastal disaster prevention forests located in Namyang beach (Namyang-ri, Seolcheon-myeon, Namhae-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do) and in Donggo beach (Donggo-ri, Sinji-myeon, Wando-gun, Jeollanam-do) were selected as the representative forests of S1 and S2, respectively. Last, the coastal disaster prevention forests located in Bonggil beach (Bonggil-ri, Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do) and in Anmeok beach (Gyeonso-dong, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do) were selected as the representative forests of E1 and E2, respectively. Our finding is expected to be used as baseline data in establishing the most appropriate coastal disaster prevention forest for each coast.
Study on the System Improvement for Accident Prevention of Forestry Operations in Korea
Kim, Hee-Yul ; Park, Chong-Min ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 574~582
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.574
In order to prevent occupational injury in forestry operations, several laws and regulations related to forestry have been enacted. Forestry education and training is overseen by the Forest Training Institute under the Korea Forest Service and three training centers under the National Forestry Cooperative Federation. The latter are managing both common and specialized courses, with safety education and training as an important focus. Improvements to reduce the accident rate are as follows: (1) strengthening of qualifications (via aptitude test) and selection standards of forestry workers (such as age limits); (2) raise of the number of training days and the rate of certified essential forces that compose Units of Forest Craft Workers; (3) revision of regulations to select forestry management engineers (second grade certified engineer); (4) introduction of a qualification renewal system; (5) improvement of working conditions at forestry scenes and systemization of safety education; (6) revision of regulations of individual protection equipment; (7) enforcement of wearing individual protection equipment; (8) supplementation of disaster response for increasing safety perception.
An Analysis of the Operational Productivity and Cost for the Utilization of Forest-biomass(I) - the Operational time and Productivity -
Mun, Ho-Seong ; Cho, Koo-Hyun ; Park, Sang-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 583~592
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.583
This study was carried out to investigate the operational time and productivity of logging operation by chain saw, yarder attached on tractor, tower-yarder, mini-truck, mini-forwarder, and chipping operations by mini-chipper, large-chipper in order to develop the efficient logging operation system for utilization of forest-biomass. As a result, the average felling and bucking time using chain saw at the site 1 and 2 was observed to be 182.7 sec/cycle and 518.5 sec/cycle respectively. The average yarding time was 202.5 sec/cycle using yarder attached on tractor and 295.1 sec/cycle using tower-yarder. The average forwarding time was 2,073 sec/cycle using mini-truck and 2,248.4 sec/cycle using mini-forwarder. The operational time of felling and bucking using chain-saw can be delayed according to the direction of fallen trees. The selection of felling direction is very important to yarding operation because the direction between width-yarding and felling are interrelated. Productivity can be improved through educating and training operators in the yarding operations. Mini-forwarder is needed to use because of higher productivity and lower cost than mini-truck. The operational productivity of felling and bucking by chain saw was
at site 1 and 2 respectively. The yarding productivity was
by yarder attached on tractor,
by tower-yarder. The forwarding productivity was
by mini-forwarder. The chipping productivity was
A Practical Application and Development of Carbon Emission Factors for 4 Major Species of Warm Temperate Forest in Korea
Son, Yeong Mo ; Kim, Rae Hyun ; Kang, Jin Taek ; Lee, Kwang Su ; Kim, So Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 593~598
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.593
In this study, we developed the carbon emission factors for 4 major species of warm-temperate region in Korea, and tried to provide their carbon emissions and removals estimates using these carbon emission factors. We selected Castanopsis cuspidata, Camellia japonica, Quercus acuta and Quercus glauca as target species and derived their carbon emission factors. The basic wood density that serve as one of the carbon emission factors were 0.583 for Castanopsis cuspidata, 0.657 for Camellia japonica, 0.833 for Quercus acuta and 0.763 for Quercus glauca and their uncertainties ranged from 5.3 to 17.9%. Biomass expansion factors were calculated as well: 1.386 for Castanopsis cuspidata, 2.621 for Camellia japonica, 1.701 for Quercus acuta and 2.123 for Quercus glauca and associated uncertainties varied from 14.7 to 30.5%. Lastly root-shoot ratios for each species were also determined: 0.454 for Castanopsis cuspidata, 0.356 for Camellia japonica, 0.191 for Quercus acuta and 0.299 for Quercus glauca with the uncertainties lying within a range from 19.8 to 35.7%. These three carbon emission factors including basic wood density had the uncertainties of less than 40% recommended by FAO. Therefore the application of country-specific emission factors seemed to provide quite accurate estimates of carbon emissions and removals. The estimation of the carbon stored in the 4 species were also conducted which amounted to
for Castanopsis cuspidata,
for Camellia japonica,
for Quercus acuta and
for Quercus glauca and their annual carbon removals were
, respectively. This systematic assessment of forest resources can be a reliable source of information for managing evergreen broadleaved forest in warm temperate regions and thus serve as useful data for effective decision-making to address vegetation zone shifts due to climate change.
Evaluating the Ecological Characteristic and the Relative Significance for Forest Resources Management on the Uninhabitable Islands in Jeju Special Self-Governing Province
Won, Hyun-Kyu ; Jung, Sung-Cheol ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Seo, Yeon-Ok ; Kwon, Jin-O ; Choa, Jong-Heon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 599~604
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.599
This study was conducted to analyze the ecological environment of the 53 uninhabitable islands of Jeju for the management formulation. The result of the Pearson correlation analysis were 0.647(p<0.01) for herbs, 0.585(p<0.01) for trees and 0.762 (p<0.01) for animals which means that there is a high correlation between the size of the forests in the uninhabitable islands and the species diversity of herbs, trees and animals. For the regression modeling to predict the forest area, the R value was 0.899 and the
was 0.803 with 79.7% statistical significance. This study also classified the uninhabited islands based on its forest area into two classes, with a forests area of 0.5ha and with a forest of approximately 12ha. The importance value of the biodiversity in the uninhabited islands was also evaluated using DEA and the islands with higher importance, namely DMU14(0.941), DMU36(0.964), DMU44(1.000) and DMU45(0.903) were recommended to be managed. It was observed that uninhabited islands with forests had a mean importance value of 0.439 which is higher as compared to the uninhabited islands without forests with 0.096. This verified that there is close relationship between forest and biodiversity.
Effect of Climate Changes on the Distribution of Productive Areas for Quercus mongolica in Korea
Lee, Young Geun ; Sung, Joo Han ; Chun, Jung Hwa ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 605~612
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.605
This study was conducted to predict the changes of yearly productive area distribution for Quercus mongolica under climate change scenarios. For this, site index equations by ecoprovinces were first developed using environmental factors. Using the large data set from both a digital forest site map and a climatic map, a total of 48 environmental factors including 19 climatic variables were regressed on site index to develop site index equations. Two climate change scenarios, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, were then applied to the developed site index equations and the distribution of productive areas for Quercus mongolica were predicted from 2020 to 2100 years in 10-year intervals. The results from this study show that the distribution of productive areas for Quercus mongolica generally decreases as time passes. It was also found that the productive area distribution of Quercus mongolica is different over time under two climate change scenarios. The RCP 8.5 which is more extreme climate change scenario showed much more decreased distribution of productive areas than the RCP 4.5. It is expected that the study results on the amount and distribution of productive areas over time for Quercus mongolica under climate change scenarios could provide valuable information necessary for the policies of suitable species on a site.
Assessment of Stand Diversity Change by Different Silvicultural Treatments for Natural Deciduous Forests in Mt. Gariwang
Sung, Joo Han ; Lee, Young Geun ; Park, Ko Eun ; Shin, Man Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 613~621
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.613
This study was conducted to estimate the changes of stand diversity before and after applying three different silvicultural treatments such as selection cutting system, two-storied system, and shelterwood system. Data were collected in the natural deciduous forests in Pyungchang of Gangwon Province, Korea. Nine permanent sampling plots of 0.09 ha were established in the forests and the each of silvicultural treatments was applied to three sampling plots, respectively. Some tree variables were measured in each stand before and after the silvicultural treatments were applied. With these data, stand attributes were estimated in each stand before and after the silvicultural treatments. In this study, two different indices related to each of stand diversity indices such as contagion, DBH-difference, height-difference, and mingling were estimated and compared to analyze the differences of stand diversity among the stands before and after silvicultural treatments. As a result, total eight stand diversity indices were used to analyze the differences among structures of stands managed by three different silvicultural treatments. Duncan's multiple range test and t-test were then employed to statistically analyze the difference of stand diversity among the stands. The results revealed that stand structures seem to be improved after applying the silvicultural treatments. There are significant differences in the stand diversity indices between before and after silvicultural treatments for each stand. According to the evaluation of stand diversity indices, it was confirmed that spatial structure of the stands was improved by applying the silvicultural treatments.
The Development and Application of Standard Diagnostic Table for Mountain Ginseng Management
Jeon, Jun-Heon ; Lee, Seong-Youn ; Lee, Jung-Min ; Ji, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Yeon-Tae ; Kang, Kil-Nam ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 622~629
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.622
This study aims to develop a standard diagnostic table for mountain ginseng so that the cultivators not only can check their current level of management with the table, but also can understand and address operational challenges better by themselves utilizing the table. The standard diagnostic table consists of 3 categories and 18 subcategories to diagnose the general status of forestry households, the indicators of management performance and the level of management. To develop the table, the study conducted a survey on the actual condition of management, targeting 81 forestry households throughout 15 municipalities including Mu-ju, Jeollabukdo, and Ham-yang, Gyeongsangnamdo, all of which are the chief producing districts of mountain ginseng. Then, the study calculated total scores by regions by aggregating the scores of 18 subcategories, in order to evaluate and compare the management level among regions based on the scores. According to the result, the average score of 81 forestry households was 57.2 point-58% of which surveyed belonged to the range of 40-60 point. Compared by regions, the average score of Jeollabukdo regions was 52.9 point, the lowest, and that of Gyeongsangnamdo regions was 61.4 point, the highest. It is remarkable that among the indicators of management base, the average score of 'mounding (the height of mound)' item was recorded rather low with 1.59 point, reflecting the fact that the cultivators tend to raise mountain ginseng with no additional mounds. As for the indicators of production skills, the average score of the pest control item was remarkably low with 1.28 point. Over 90% of cultivators answered that they do not usually forecast or survey the pest disease in advance. Meanwhile, it is also noticeable that the item of sowing and planting methods, and the item of seed were both rather high, recording 4.00 and 4.47 point respectively. As for the item of management and sales skill, however, the score was rather low with 2.20 point, meaning that the forestry households still have a low interest in the business management.
The Economic Spillover Effects of Forest Therapy Projects in Korea
Cho, Taek-Hee ; Lee, Yeonho ; Kim, Sang-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 630~638
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.630
This paper explores the economic spillover effects of forest therapy projects of Korea Forest Service, using the 2011 Input-Output Tables of Bank of Korea. We consider total expenditures on the construction of 20 forest therapy bases and Baekdudaegan Forest Therapy Base, and operation of 3 forest therapy bases. During the 8 years of 2010-2017, we find that these forest therapy projects generate 698 billion wons of production, 456 billion wons of value-added, and 8,176 new jobs.
Management Efficiency of the Full-time and Part-time Oak Mushroom Farms using DEA models
Lee, Seong-Youn ; Jeon, Jun-Heon ; Won, Hyun-Kyu ; Lee, Jung-Min ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 639~645
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.639
This study was conducted to evaluate the management efficiency of oak mushroom farms in Korea using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the non-parametric estimation methods. The data that was analyzed in this study was from the result of 2013 survey entitled "Standard Diagnostic Table for Oak Mushroom Management", which was conducted from March 2012 to October 2012. This survey was based on the inputs and outputs of 20 oak mushroom farms. Specifically, this study analyzed the technical efficiency, pure-technical efficiency and scale efficiency using CCR and BCC model of the DEA methods. Furthermore, this study compares the management efficiency between the full time oak mushroom production farms and part time oak mushroom production farms. Results showed that mean value for the technical efficiency was 0.655 which is considered as inefficient in general. For the pure-technical efficiency and scale efficiency, the mean values were 0.830 and 0.747, respectively which showed that inefficiency in the management was observed in the mushroom farms. Results also showed that there were seven farms with a total efficiency of 1, namely Decision Making Unit(DMU)2, DMU5, DMU6, DMU8, DMU10, DMU15 and DMU20. The management efficiency of DMU7 specifically the inputs for production was analyzed and compared to DMU5 and DMU6 and results showed that the DMU7 had an excessive inoculation and site development cost. Lastly, it was also observed that the full time mushroom production farms were more efficient as compared to the part time mushroom farms because of the lower scale efficiency value or smaller area for mushroom production allotted in the part time farms.
A Strategy for Official Development Assistance in Forest Sector based on Evaluation by Field in Korea
Yoo, Byoung Il ; Yoon, Bo Eun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 646~654
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.646
The purpose of this study was to draw policy implications for the development and expansion of Korea's forest ODA through investigating the perceptions of stakeholder on the fields that contributed the development of forestry in Korea and would have competitiveness in developing countries and priority fields for Korea's forest ODA. For this, the survey was conducted for 248 subjects from the general and expert stakeholder groups. Chi-square test in cross analysis, independent sample t-test, ANOVA and Duncan test were conducted to compare the difference of perceptions by group. The whole general and expert groups consider that 'forest conservation and rehabilitation' contributed to the development of Korea's forestry most and consider its global competitiveness most high. Comparing expert groups, ODA experts evaluated the competitiveness of 'capacity building for policies, institutions and research' higher than the forestry experts. For priority fields of Korea's forest ODA, general groups perceived 'management of CERs' and 'conservation of biodiversity' most important, showing the clear difference in perception compared to that of experts. In Conclusion, for the effective forest ODA of Korea, the effort to fill the gap between the general and expert groups needs to be made, as well as developing forestry capacity building programs to cope with the fields such as climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation, which is newly required in a global society, in addition to using the past experience of forest rehabilitation in Korea. It will be useful for the rehabilitation of North Korea's forest in the future.
A Study on the Influencing Factors of Forest Interpreter's Organizational Commitment: Focused on the Job Motivation
Son, Ji Won ; Ha, Si Yeon ; Choi, Il Sun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 655~663
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.655
Currently forest interpreter has become one of occupations, and the demand for forest interpretation has been increasing. For that reason, it is important to achieve the goal of forest interpretation and to satisfy its customers. Therefore, this research examined the relationship between organizational commitment and job motivation and analyzed the effects of job motivation on organizational commitment. Firstly, the mean value for interpreters' job motivation was classified into three factors, which were social relationship, affection for forest, and self-development. Secondly, organizational commitment was classified into two factors of goal-oriented and relation-oriented commitments. Thirdly, gender and number of participation made significance differences in job motivation. In addition, organizational commitment of interpreters was different in accordance to their age and affiliated organization. Finally, job motivation had positive impacts on organizational commitment, and especially social relationship influenced positively to general organizational commitment and goal-oriented commitment.
Physiological Effects of Walking and Viewing on Human at a Urban Arboretums
Park, Bum-Jin ; Ka, Jae-Nam ; Lee, Min Sun ; Kim, Seon-A ; Park, Min-Woo ; Choi, YoonHo ; Joung, DaWou ; Kwon, Chi-Weon ; Yeom, Dong-Geol ; Park, Soonjoo ; Lee, Joon-Woo ; Kim, Geonwoo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 664~669
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.664
This research was conducted to investigate the impact of viewing scenery and walking in the urban forest on physiological relaxation of humans. The experiment was conducted in Hanbat Arboretum located in Daejeon, and the control experiment was conducted in front of Daejeon City Hall. The subjects that participated in the experiment comprised 24 Korean male university students in their 20s (average age,
), participated in the experiment as the subject, and these subjects were classified into three groups divided into three locations such as the pine forest in Arboretum, the pond in Arboretum, and the city. The subjects sat down and viewed scenery for 10 min, and they then walked for 15 min. Further, physiological changes were measured using indicators such as heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, and pulse rate. As a result, when subjects viewed scenery and walked in the urban forest, a statistically significant increase in the high frequency (HF) power of HRV and decrease in systolic pressure was observed compared with when subjects viewed scenery and walked in the city. Through this research, it was found that activities like viewing scenery or walking in Arboretum of the city are effective in increasing the physiological relaxation of the city residents.
A Study on Population Change and Projection in Korea Mountainous Area
Min, Kyung-Taek ; Kim, Myeong-Eun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 670~678
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.670
This paper analyzes the characteristics of population change and makes the population projection in the mountainous area of Korea. Mountainous areas are defined as local towns (eup or myeon) with forest area more than 70 percent of land area, population density less than 111 people per square kilometer, and plowland area less than 21 percent of land area. The population in mountainous areas has decreased dramatically, while the ageing index has increased over the past two decades. To make the population projection, the cohort-change ratios method is applied. The results revealed that a multitude of young people aged 10 to 39 moved to cities to find education and job chance and some people aged 40 and over moved to mountainous areas as the trends of urban-to-rural migration. This continuing trend will culminate in 680 thousand people in population and 1,035 of ageing index in 2030, which will lead to the unequal land development and inefficient forest management. Thus, policy makers need to develop stimulus plans to revitalize and stabilize the economy of mountainous areas.
Identification of Differences between Importance and Performance of Forest Interpreter Training Programs using the IPA Method
Choi, Il-Sun ; Ha, Si-Yeon ; Son, Ji-Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 679~686
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.679
This study analysed differences between importance and performance of 2014 forest interpreter training program through IPA with the aim to provide suggestions and improvement. First the results of a comparison of the overall average of performance and importance showed importance is higher than performance. Afterwards, the result of IPA showed that confidence of being an interpreter, active involvement, the understanding of the value of forest, expansion of the understanding of forest, the understanding of the mission of interpreter, and the understanding of the qualification of interpreter, those 6 items belong to the I quadrant. In the case of the II quadrant there were interest of the content of education and to learn a lot of things through education. Next, those how to deal with service, planning interpreter programs, clarity of the content of education, accuracy of the content of education, validity of the content of education, appropriate number of participants, and appropriate time of education involved in III quadrant. Finally, concentration in the education and the understanding of the topic of education situated in IV quadrant.
The Types and Characteristics of Natural Scenery in Landscape Painting during Joseon Dynasty
Park, Chan Woo ; Lee, Yeon Hee ; Kim, Jae Jun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 687~695
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.687
The purpose of this study is to identify landscape paintings of our ancestors in types and characteristics of beautiful natural scenery. In this study, 629 landscape paintings targeted natural scenery of the Joseon Dynasty period are used and classified into types of natural scenery by main target of paintings. As the results of this study, landscape paintings are classified into mountain, river, sea, city by place drawing painting. The paintings drawn in mountain are classified into a few mountain peaks, many mountain peaks, one mountain peak, curious rock of mountain, valley and waterfall. The paintings drawn in river are classified into river and mountain, river water, scenery of riverside and curious rock of river. The paintings drawn in sea are classified into scenery of seaside and curious rock of sea. And the paintings drawn in city are classified into panoramic view of the town. The type of natural scenery in landscape paintings can be summarized in 3, scenery of mountain peaks, scenery of curious rock peaks and waterspace when combine place drawing painting.
A Study on the Scheme of the Pulp Price Discrimination from Certified forests and Non-certified forests for Sustainable Forest Management
Choi, Sang Hyun ; Lee, Jae Hwan ; Woo, Jong-Choon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 696~702
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.696
This study was conducted to provide resonable price of timber that come out from certified forests for sustainable forest management. To accomplish this study objectives, we analyzed compound interest method, willingness to pay (WTP) and price sensitivity measurement (PSM) when buying certified pulp. In case of compound interest method, we used prime cost by average price per ha of each area (Hongcheon, Inje, Shinnam) and unit price that add up the pulp price and investment costs. Interest rate reflects 2 to 6% and investment period apply to 5 years. WTP and PSM data were collected from questionnaire survey. As a result, if apply to interest rate of 2% and investment period of 3 years, result values are quite similar to WTP of 5% and optimal pricing point of PSM. That also showed similar pattern in each area.
Effects of Soil Amendments on Survival Rate and Growth of Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila Seedlings in a Semi-arid Region, Mongolia
Jung, Yegi ; Yoon, Tae Kyung ; Han, Saerom ; Kang, Hoduck ; Yi, Myong-Jong ; Son, Yowhan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 103, issue 4, 2014, Pages 703~708
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.703
This study was conducted to investigate effects of soil amendments on survival rate and growth of seedlings in a semi-arid region, Mongolia. 2-year-old Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila seedlings were planted in alkaline sandy soils and treated with 2 levels of nitrogen, elemental sulfur, artificial moisture retention and converted loess. After 4 months, the seedling survival rate of both species decreased as the amount of nitrogen increased. Nitrogen has been generally known to increase seedling survival rate and growth by supplying nutrients, however, reduced survival rate in this study might be affected by consequential increase in soil osmotic pressure, which was caused by excessive nitrogen fertilization. The root collar diameter (RCD) growth of both species increased significantly by the treatment of converted loess, and only RCD growth of P. sibirica increased by the artificial moisture retention treatment. Although P. sibirica is drought-tolerant, it is in the group of Populus spp. which requires a high capacity of available water. Conversely, the elemental sulfur treatment showed no effect on survival rate and RCD growth for both species due to the low oxidation of sulfur in arid soils. The extended monitoring of seedling growth and soil characteristics is required to elucidate the long-term effects of soil amendments in the semi-arid region, and the further studies are also needed to examine the appropriate amount of fertilizers for both species.