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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Forest Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Forest Society
Editor in Chief :
Man Yong Shin
Volume & Issues
Volume 104, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 104, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 104, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 104, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Characteristics of Flowering and Fruiting and the Factors Affecting Fruiting Degree of Acer pictum subsp. mono
Kim, Hoi Jin ; Kim, Gab Tae ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 179~186
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.179
This study was conducted to understand the characteristics of flowering and the factors affecting fruiting grades of Acer pictum subsp. mono(APSM), We examined the characteristics of flowering and fruiting in various natural APSM forest, and investigated annual fruiting grade, DBH, tree height, number of APSM trees within 30 m on 29 selected trees in the natural broadleaved forest in Mt. Jungwang in Gangwon-do, from 2009 to 2014. APSM has heterodichogamous sexual system consist of protoandry and protogyny. Eight trees have changed their sex morphs; 3 trees change the sex morph PA to PG, and 5 trees does the sex morph PG to PA. Early fall of young ovary is concentrated until early July. Initially, the small samaras are common, and was gradually increased the samaras suffered insect damage. Most flowers of APSM are pollinated by Andrenidae sp., Syrphidae sp. and Tachinidae sp.. Number of early fall samaras and the status of fallen samaras showed a significant difference by the year and region. Corymbose panicle and young leaves developed on the top of APSM twigs. Newly grown opposite twigs of APSM did not grow sufficiently and had no floral buds. The highest fruiting grade of tree was 9.0, and the mean values was only 3.8. The highest fruiting grade of year was 4.55 in 2013, and the lowest did 0.07 in 2014. Highly significantly correlated and regressed between mean of annual fruiting rates and rates of crown under sun light. This results would imply that thinning for tree growth through improved light absorption might be a method to enhance seed production of APSM in the seed production forest.
Genetic Monomorphism of the Natural Ilex cornuta Community at the Northern Range Limit in Buan, Jeollanam-do in Korea Revealed by AFLP Markers
Hong, Kyung Nak ; Park, Yu Jin ; Lee, Jei Wan ; Kim, Young Mi ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 187~192
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.187
Individuals in the population under a particular environmental condition influencing recurrently for a long time could locally adapted and local adaptation is of a fundamental importance in a breeding program, conservation activities of genetic resources or evolutionary biology. Plants at northern range limits have higher probability of expressing an adaptative genetic trait. The natural community at the northern range limit of Ilex cornuta (Chinese holly) in Buan, Jeollanam-do in Korea was composed of adults of 744 and seedlings of 211 (hereafter Community) and is designated as the Korean Natural Monument (No. 122) by the law. At two adjacent areas to Community, 85 (hereafter Plantation I) and 27 hollies (hereafter Plantation II) were planted respectively for preparations of the next generation. Eighty-five trees were sampled for genetic analysis in the three groups. Fifty-two (36%) of the total 143 amplicons were polymorphic from four AFLP primer combinations. A total of thirteen genotypes was identified and just one genotype was for 52 trees of Community. Seven and five genotypes were shown for Plantation I and II, respectively. There was no identical genotype between Community and Plantation (I or II) or between two plantation groups. Number of private loci was 2 for Community, 6 for Plantation I and 4 for Plantation II. We presumed their genetic backgrounds were quite different with one another and the plantation groups were made independently because they were different not only the genetic compositions but also their ages. Considering the genetic monomorphism by AFLP markers, observations of only male trees and asexual propagation as layerage or cuttage, the hollies in Community might be a genet by root suckering from a single male tree, not the results of selective removal of female trees for ornamental use in the past.
Variation of Morphological Characteristics and Anthocyanin Contents from Fruit of Vaccinium oldhamii in Korea
Song, Jeong Ho ; Cheong, Eun Ju ; Kim, Hyeusoo ; Kim, Moon Sup ; Kim, Sea Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 193~197
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.193
To develop superior cultivars for edible or medicinal purposes, we investigated morphological characteristics and total anthocynin contents for the fruit of 24 individuals from 4 populations in Korea. ANOVA analysis showed significant differences among populations and among individuals within population in all characteristics. The mean characteristics of the species were 8.2 mm, 7.8 mm, 0.4 g, 11.7 Brix., 7.7 ea and 474.4 mg/100 g in the fruit width, fruit length, fruit weight, soluble solids contents, number of fruit per punch and total anthocyanin contents, respectively. Especially, total anthocyanin contents (474.4 mg/100 g) of V. oldhamii showed 1.9 times higher than that of American blueberry (237.3 mg/100 g) using as control. Consequently, the investigation suggests that V. oldhamii fruits can be used to develop the functional cultivars with enhanced health benefits by the selection breeding. Selection effect with outstanding candidate trees including superior 3 individual trees was estimated at 129.6%, 109.5% and 140.5% in fruit weight, number of fruit per punch and total anthocyanin content, respectively.
Compressive Deformation Characteristics of Logging Residues by Tree Species
Oh, Jae Heun ; Choi, Yun Sung ; Kim, Dae Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 198~205
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.198
The aim of this study was to provide the basic design parameters for developing logging residue compression machines by investigating compressive deformation characteristics of different types of logging residues. To achieve these objectives, Pinus rigida, Pinus koraensis and Quercus mongolica were selected as specimens, and compression-deformation tests by UTM(universial testing machine) were conducted. The experimental dataset were used to set up the model based on the compression-deformation ratio in the form of exponential function. The results showed that stress coefficient in terms of mechanical properties of logging residues was decreased, whereas strain coefficient tended to be increased as the number of compression increased at target density of
. The model presented that the required stress was decreased as the number of compression increased, and the stress growth rate was swelled compared to the change of the deformation rate. Therefore, it showed that proper initial compression force was a significant variable in order to achieve the target density of logging residue.
Analysis Gabion Works in Cut-slopes Characteristics and Scenic Preference
Park, Jae-Hyeon ; Kim, Choonsig ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 206~212
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.206
This study was carried out to assess the characteristics of gabion on road cut-slopes, and analyze the scenic view preference for the gabion in Korea. 97 gabion sites from road cut-slopes were selected and were classified into 10 application types of gabion. The classification types of gabion were mostly related to the erosion and collapse prevention across road cut-slope. Gabion work sites in this study were classified into 30 sites (31%) for below 10% gradient, followed by 31 sites (32%) for 11~30% gradient, 20 sites (21%) for 31~50% gradient, and 16 sites (16%) for 51~80% gradient. Gabion works were constructed mostly in low gradient than in high gradient. 34 gabion sites (35%) among 97 sites were not covered by vegetation and 52 gabion sites (54%) showed vegetation cover rates of 1~30%. On the scenic preference analysis, public groups understood that the scenic view of gabion in cutting slope can be improved by vegetation cover, whereas expert groups prefer to scenic view of gabion only. However, expert groups encouraged subsequently vegetation covering to improve scenic view during gabion works in cutting slope.
Analysis of Characteristics of some of Forest Environmental Factors on Debris Flow Occurrence - With a Pusan and Ulsan Metropolitan Areas -
Lee, Hae-dong ; Park, Jae-hyeon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 213~220
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.213
This study was carried out to determine the distribution of factors as effected by debris flow in Ulsan and Pusan metropolitan areas because mainly debris flow caused by typhoons and local heavy rainfall events is mainly attributed to damage of human being ad property. The high risk degree of debris flow was to affected by east (20%), northeast (20%) and northwest (20%) slopes with stand age class with elevation (69%) of 100-200 (33%). Also, the risk was high in high erosion collapse degree with slope degree of
with over 300 mm (100%) of maximum daily rainfall events and 50-100 mm (50%) or >100 mm (50%) of maximum hourly rainfall events with <5 km of stream path and <50 ha of catchment area. Landslide debris and wood residue flow was also related to igneous rocks (73%) and bank collapse types of debrs flow (57%).
Harvesting Cost of Tree-length Thinning in a Larix leptolepis Stands
Cho, Koo-Hyun ; Cho, Min-Jae ; Han, Han-Sup ; Han, Sang-Kyun ; Cha, Du-Song ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 221~229
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.221
The purpose of study was to broaden our knowledge on the productivity and cost of thinning operations which has become increasingly practiced in Korea. The thinning operations were conducted in a 40-year old larch (Larix leptolepis) stand, including chainsaw felling and processing at the stump, followed by yarding tree-length logs using a Koller K301-4 tower yarder. The logs were further processed and sorted into 1.8 m and 3.6 m log piles at the landing. We used a standard time study method to evaluate key variables that affect the productivity of thinning operations. The total stump-to-pile operational cost was
. The highest cost activity was the yarding phase which cost
(48.2% of the total cost), followed by the costs of processing treelength materials into marketable log lengths (
; 29.1%), and then by the costs of sorting/piling the processed logs (
; 12.1%). It was interesting to see that felling and processing trees at the stump had low costs at
(7.5%), respectively. We used the detailed time study data to develop regression equations which were to predict yarding productivity. Our analysis showed that harvesting system cost was highly sensitive to the number of logs, yarding distance and lateral distance per turn, respectively.
An Analysis of the Operational Productivity and Cost for the Utilization of Forest-biomass(II) - the Analysis of Operational Cost -
Mun, Ho-Seong ; Cho, Koo-Hyun ; Park, Sang-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 230~238
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.230
This study was analyzed the operational cost of logging and chipping operations in order to develop the efficient logging operation system for the utilization of forest-biomass. Analysis of the operational cost of logging operation systems, the operation system D which include chain saw, tower-yarder, mini-forwarder and truck was calculated the lowest cost to be
. In the utilization of forest-biomass, the operation system E which include chipping by mini-chipper at the site, forwarding of chips by mini-forwarder, transportation of chips by truck was estimated to be 90,770 Won/Ton. Thus, These results are determined as an effective operating system for logging operation and the utilization of forest-biomass.
Assessment on Forest Resources Change using Permanent Plot Data in National Forest Inventory
Yim, Jong-Su ; Kim, Eun Sook ; Kim, Chel Min ; Son, Yeong Mo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 239~247
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.239
Since 2006, new national forest inventory in Korea has been restructured to assess current status and and monitor the changes in forest resources based on permanent sample plots. The objective of estimate this study is to assess changes in forest resources such as land use/cover categories and forest stand variables. For this study, permanent plot data were collected between 2006-2008 and 2011-2013 in Chungcheongbuk-do, respectively. In order to produce land use/cover change matrix which plays an important role as an activity data for estimating GreenHouse Gas inventory, permanent plots were classified into six land use/cover categories. Additionally, matrixes for assessing the changes in age class and dominant tree species can provide more detailed information. For forest stand variables(tree density, basal area, growing stock, mean diameter at breath height, and mean height), their growth and change were assessed. The periodic annual growth ratios for tree density and basal area were slightly declined whereas that of growing stock was estimated to be about 3.7%. The uncertainty of changes in forest stand variables is less than 5%, except for tree density (RSE: 58%). The variation of tree density is relatively high compared to the other variables.
Optimal Production Management Strategy for Non-timber Forest Products using Portfolio Approach - A case study on major fruit trees -
Won, Hyun-Kyu ; Jeon, Jun-Heon ; Lee, Seong-Youn ; Joo, Rin-Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 248~253
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.248
This study applied the portfolio approach as a means to provide decision-making information for the establishment of the optimal production plan for non-timber products. The target items of non-timber forest product were Chestnut, Jujube, Walnut and Astringent Persimmon. The data used in this study were the annual report of forestry production cost survey which contains the annual production, annual gross income, and annual product cost from 2008 to 2013. These data were used to calculate the expected return of non-timber forest product. The objective function in the portfolio models was to minimize the expected return volatility, called risk and the constrain was to achieve the minimum expected return rate. Results indicated that the production ratio of the nuts and fruits in 2013 was 7% for Chestnut, 20% for Jujube, 5% for Walnut and 68% for Astringent Persimmon. Furthermore, portfolio presented that the production ratio was 10% for Chestnut, 9% for Jujube, 3% for Walnut and 78% for Astringent Persimmon in the near future. The cause was analyzed due to maintain stable production and income of Astringent Persimmon and Chestnut. Meanwhile, the revenue of Walnuts and Jujube was in great variation with relatively higher revenues.
Estimating Armington Substitution Elasticity between Domestic and Imported Wood Products in Korea
Min, Kyung-Taek ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 254~260
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.254
This paper assesses the tariff reduction on imported wood products that will have impact on the demand for domestic wood products in South Korea, by estimating the Armington substitution elasticities based on the assumption that they are imperfect substitutes. Results indicate that domestic and foreign wood products are far from perfect substitutes to each other. The substitution elasticities in plywood and fiberboard appeared to be high, implying that tariff reduction may have negative effects on those industries. On the contrary, imported and domestic particleboard showed a low substitution elasticity. The decline of fiberboard industry may lead to the decline in forestry since fiberboard is produced mainly by thinned woods supplied from domestic forests. Therefore, effective countermeasures to enhance the competitiveness of wood products industry are needed to cope with the market opening.
The Effect of Tree Density of Pinus koraiensis Forest on the Thermal Comfort and the Physiological Response of Human Body in Summer Season
Park, Bum-Jin ; Kyeon, Chiwon ; Choi, Yoonho ; Yeom, Dong-geol ; Kim, Geonwoo ; Joung, Dawou ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 261~266
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.261
This study was conducted to examine the effect of tree density of Pinus koraiensis forest on the thermal comfort and the physiological response of human body in summer season. As the indicators of thermal comfort were used the predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD), while the heart rate variability was used for the physiological indicator of subjects. The subjects were 15 physically healthy men and women in their 20s (
years old). The subjects sat in each site to measure HRV for 5 minutes and the thermal comfort of each site was measured. As a results, it was proven by PMV and PPD that the Pinus koraiensis forest with 120% tree density was thermally more comfortable than the Pinus koraiensis forest with 80% tree density. In case of the subjects` physiological response, the Pinus koraiensis forest with 120% tree density showed significantly higher HF of HRV than the Pinus koraiensis forest with 80% tree density and significantly lower LF/HF. Therefore, the findings of this study scientifically proved that the Pinus koraiensis forest with 120% tree density is thermally more comfortable and physiologically more relaxing than the Pinus koraiensis forest with 80% tree density.
A Study on a Macroscopic Evaluation Method of Forest Recreation Function
Chae, Mie Oak ; Lee, Kilyong ; Jun, Eunsun ; Song, Ha Seung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 267~276
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.267
This study suggests a macroscopic method of evaluating forest recreation function based on physical characteristics of forests. The method was verified by a correlation between forest recreation function in popular top 45 mountains and popularity among them, with using data-mountain area, height, distance between mountain and cities, population around mountain, and size of public service. According to analysis of the forest recreation function, it is shown that top 8 mountains, including Jirisan and Seoraksan, provide over 64% of total recreation function, while they serve the function relatively lower than mountains near mega cities-Bukhansan in Seoul-do, in terms of the function per unit area (
). It is because, in a case of national and provincial mountains, the size of mountain is likely a critical factor for determining recreation function and the distance influences on it relatively lower. These findings implicate that a large size of forests bring the recreation function to visitors on nationwide level, whileas forests in suburban provide intensively it to near population to near population.
The Impact of Forest Therapy on Neuro-cognitive, Psychosocial, and Physiological Aspects of Adolescent Internet Addiction Risk Group
Choi, Sam Wook ; Mok, Jung Yeon ; Kim, Min Soo ; Chung, Ahn Soo ; Han, Jin Woo ; Woo, Jong Min ; Kim, Ki Weon ; Park, Bum-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 277~284
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.277
This study aims to evaluate the impact of forest therapy on neuro-cognitive, psychosocial, and physiological aspect of adolescent internet addiction risk group. We have classified potential and high risk user group as internet addiction risk group according to the criteria of Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale(K Scale). Based on the results of k-scale from the adolescents in metropolitan area from May to July 2013, 25 people were selected as Internet addiction risk group. We have randomized 13 participants joining forest therapy camp and 12 participants not joining one, and analyzed the change of the two groups with Continuous Performance, Kimberly S. Young, Connor-Davidson Resilience, Relationship Change Scale, heart rate variability and cortisol. Statistically significant changes were observedd in neuro-cognitive, psychosocial, and physiological variables, Through this study, we can consider that the therapy healing may relieve the level of internet addiction and can be an alternative to control emotional stability and impulsive behavior.
A Study on the Characteristic analysis for the Facilities of the Korea Forest Welfare for Life Cycle
Park, Bum-Jin ; Yeom, Dong-geol ; Kim, Se-bin ; Kyeon, ChiWon ; Joung, Dawou ; Kim, GeonWoo ; Choi, YoonHo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 285~293
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.285
This study aims to find some characteristics for the facilities of the `Korea Forest Welfare for Life Cycle` through the domestic case analysis, so that we draw implications applicable to the policy on Korea Forest Welfare. For this, we brought and analyzed statistical data together from scattered sources. As the characteristics for the facilities of the Korea Forest Welfare for Life Cycle, first, there is the quantitative imbalance of forest welfare institutions for the each life cycle. Second, there is a lack of facilities in urban areas. Third, the facilities are mostly located in national or public forests. And, based on those characteristics, we suggest several things as follows that is applicable to the related policy. First, it is necessary to meet the needs of facilities that need to be built evenly for each life-cycle. Second, facilities of the Forest Welfare for Life Cycle which is adjacent to the life zone should be built more to increase accessibility. Third, forests in Korea are almost comprised of private forests. Using only national and public forests has an unfavorable condition to confer a benefits of forest welfare on the people evenly than using national, public and private forests all together. Therefore, there is a need to invigorate private capital and utilize private forests so that the favorable condition can be made to confer a benefits of forest welfare on the people evenly and adjust balance of the quantity for the facilities of forest welfare.
The Influence of a Forest Healing Program on Public Servants in Charge of Social Welfare and Mental Health Care Workers`s Job Stress and the Profile of Mood States (POMS)
Shin, Chang Seob ; Yeoun, Poung Sik ; Kim, Young Gyu ; Eum, Jae Ouk ; Yim, Young Ran ; Yoon, Soo Bok ; Park, Suk Hee ; Kim, In Ok ; Lee, Sang Hee ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 294~299
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.294
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of a forest healing program on the level of job stress and the profile of mood states (POMS). 38 public servants who were in charge of social welfare in A city as well as 24 metal health care workers in C province participated in the forest healing programs. The data were collected by a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis showed that both job stress and POMS levels were significantly improved by the forest healing program. The therapeutic effects of forests are highly expected to be utilized for healing programs for job stress reduction and burnout prevention.
A Study on Establishing Forest Landscape Management Plan
Park, Chan-Woo ; Jeong, Mi-Ae ; Lee, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 300~308
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.300
Landscape planning system established in 2007. It is necessary that forest landscape management will be established based on the long-term and wide scope plan for forest management. This study suggested the considering factor while the establishing forest landscape plan for forest characteristics. Forest landscape type was consisted of 4 medium classification(geographical resources, waterscape, forest resources, cultural resources) and 12 small classification(geographical resources: panorama of ridge, ridge of curious rock peaks, waterscape: waterfall, valley, lake, forest resources: crown layer scenery, royal azaleas of main ridge, autumnal tints of ridge slope, flowers in herbaceous plants, inside of forest, forest trail scenery, cultural resources: facilities). This study suggested that consideration on 6 functions of forest in landscape zone planning and forest landscape management plan each classification (main ridge, sense of season, waterscape, rock resources).
Analysis on the Solved Cases of NIMY Syndrome to Tree Burial Sites
Woo, Jae-Wook ; Park, Won-Kyung ; Byun, Woo-Hyuk ; Kwon, Byung-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 309~318
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.309
This paper aims to suggest the policies to solve the short supply of tree burial sites by NIMBY syndrome. For the purpose of this study, we conducted a site visit investigation and interviewed on the solved cases of NIMBY syndrome to tree burial sites and analyzed the factors to solve effectively the loss of residents induced from the burial facilities image of tree burial sites. As the result, in domestic cases, this study deduced the successful types which are providing an economical compensation, making the tree burial sites in cemeteries and making the sites in temple forests. In foreign cases, the types are deduced that made the tree burial sites as the place of attraction image not of cemeteries, and that induced the voluntary participation of residents by economic incentive. Based on such results, this study suggested the solution plans of NIMBY syndrome such as redevelopment of cemeteries, converting the image of tree burial sites into that of attraction places, and inducing PIMFY of residents by contest.
A Study of Improving the Marketing System of Major Non-Timber Forest Products : Using an Analysis of Distribution Channel
Chong, Ho-gun ; Song, Seong-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Yim, Chul-kyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 319~331
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.319
The marketing system of non-timber forest products has been criticized as it mainly depends upon private local dealers, having too many steps between producers and consumers, we believe, which makes it less efficient. Meanwhile, there were only a few empirical studies of how they are delivered to consumers. In order to devise and implement targeted forest policies efficiently, it is quite necessary to understand the distribution channel of them. We analyzed the distribution channel of chestnut, bitter persimmon, oak mushroom, and wild greens by data analysis, field and phone survey, and then drew an implication for improving the marketing system. First of all, the number of middle step has to be reduced and the direct transaction has to be expended. In addition, we need to have more active involvement of Forest cooperative in production sites, adding values by processing, and the upgrade of current marketing centers of non-timber forest products, which have been launched since 2004 by Korea Forest Service.
Detection of Overwintering Sites Inhabited by Cherry Witches` Broom Pathogen Taphrina wiesneri with Species-specific PCR in Korea
Son, Su-Yeon ; Lee, Sun Keun ; Seo, Sang-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 104, issue 2, 2015, Pages 332~335
DOI : 10.14578/jkfs.2015.104.2.332
Taphrina wiesneri, a pathogen of cherry witches` broom, is highly pathogenic to Prunus yedoensis Matsumura which are widely planted in parks and streets in South Korea. In order to control the disease, it is crucial to know the life cycle of the fungus. We attempted to detect the fungus tentatively overwintering in shoots and branches of cherry trees both having witches` broom and healthy before flowering and leafing in spring using PCR with species-specific primer set (TwITSF and TwITSR). Genomic DNAs were extracted from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic shoots or branches. Results indicated that T. wiesneri is present in leaf buds and inner bark not only in symptomatic branches but also in the asymptomatic branches in diseased trees. However, the fungus was not detected in flower buds of the symptomatic trees and any samples of healthy trees.