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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Forest Society
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Korean Forest Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 99, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 99, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 99, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 99, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 99, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 99, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Cause-specific Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Forest Fire in Korea
Kwak, Han-Bin ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Lee, Si-Young ; Won, Myung-Soo ; Koo, Kyo-Sang ; Lee, Byung-Doo ; Lee, Myung-Bo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 259~266
Forest fire occurrence in Korea is highly related to human activities and its spatial distribution shows a strong spatial dependency with cluster pattern. In this study, we analyzed spatial distribution pattern of forest fire with point pattern analysis considering spatial dependency. Distributional pattern was derived from Ripley's K-function according to causes and distances. Spatially clustered intensity was found out using Kernel intensity estimation. As a result, forest fires in Korea show clustered pattern, although the degrees of clustering for each cause are different. Furthermore, spatial clustering pattern can be classified into two groups in terms of degrees of clustering and distance. The first group shows the national-wide cluster pattern related to the human activity near forests, such as human-induced accidental fire in mountain and field incineration. Another group shows localized cluster pattern which is clustered within a short distance. It is associated with the smoker fire, arson, accidental by children. The range of localized clustering was 30 km. Beyond of this range, the patterns of forest fire became random distribution gradually. Kernel intensity analysis showed that the latter group, which have localized cluster pattern, was occurred in near Seoul with high densed population.
Vegetation Structure and Site Environment of Natural Habitat of an Endangered Plant, Viola websteri
Song, Jae-Mo ; Lee, Gi-Yeoung ; Kim, Nam-Young ; Yi, Jae-Seon ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 267~276
This study was performed to obtain basic data about vegetation structure and site environment of rare and endangered plant, viola websteri in five natural habitats. The dominant species of Hongcheon habitat were Pyrus pyrifolia (tree layer), Morus bombycis (subtree layer), Pyrus pyrifolia (shrub layer) and Isodon inflexus (herb layer). Mt. Yeonin habitat were dominated by Quercus mongolica (tree layer), Morus bombycis (subtree layer), Philadelphus schrenckii (shrub layer) and Viola websteri (herb layer). Mt. Yumyung habitat were dominated by Cornus controversa (tree layer), Morus bombycis (subtree layer), Fraxinus rhynchophylla (shrub layer) and Adenocaulon himalaicum (herb layer). Mt. Daebu habitat were dominated by Acer mono (tree layer), Staphylea bumalda (subtree layer), Staphylea bumalda(shrub layer) and Dryopteris crassirhizoma (herb layer). And the dominant species of Mt. Worak habitat were Larix leptolepis (tree layer), Fraxinus rhynchophylla (subtree layer), Alangium platanifolium var. macrophylum (shrub layer) and Adenocaulon himalaicum (herb layer). It was found out that the average acidity of soil pH was 5.23; 0.30ds/m for electron conductivity; 12.6% for organic matter content; 0.68% for total nitrogen; 21.66 ppm for available phosphorous; and 23.45 cmol(+)/kg for CEC. Interchangeable cation was decreased in order of
. Viola websteri had positive association with Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum and Geranium thunbergii but negative association with Poa sphondylodes. Species diversity index(H'), maximum Species diversity index (H' max), evenness(J') and dominance (1-J'), of investigated sites ranged 0.6816 (Mt. Worak)~0.9656 (Mt. Daebu), 1.0000 (Mt. Yeonin)~1.3010 (Hongcheon, Gangwon), 0.5330 (Mt. Worak)~0.8947 (Mt. Daebu) and 0.1053 (Mt. Daebu)~0.4670 (Mt. Worak) in woody layer and 1.0414 (Mt. Yumyung)~1.3295 (Mt. Worak), 1.4314 (Mt. Yumyung)~1.6435 (Mt. Daebu), 0.6984 (Hongcheon, Gangwon)~0.8356 (Mt. Worak) and 0.1644 (Mt. Worak)~0.3016 (Hongcheon, Gangwon) in herb layer, respectively.
Morphological Characteristic of the Rust Fungi, Uromyces truncicola, and Histological Changes in the Infected Host Tree, Sophora japonica
Gil, Hee-Young ; Koo, Chang-Duck ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 277~284
rust fungus, Uromyces truncicola, infected stems, branches and leaves of Sophora japonica trees, and 78% of planted host depending on investigated sites. Teliospores of this fungus were reddish brown, global to oval and
. The urediniospores were yellowish brown, elliptical to oval with spiny surface and
. In the infected branches cork layers were thickened, ray parenchymatous cells were distorted, branched or combined and increased in numbers. While ray parenchymatous cells in healthy branches were one or two layers, the cells in the infected branches were three or more layers to shape fusiform. In the infected branches xylem tissues also distorted and yellowish pigments formed in the intercellular space. In the less infected trees the hairs on the branches were dense and long, and the thickness of upper epidermal cell walls were ca 23.3
, while in the highly infected trees the hairs were less dense and short, and the thickness of upper epidermal cell walls was ca 17.4
. We think individual host trees resistant to this fungus are present.
Application of Synthetic Estimator for Estimating Forest Growing Stock Volumes at the Small-Area Level
Yim, Jong-Su ; Han, Won-Sung ; Jung, Il-Bin ; Kim, Sung-Ho ; Shin, Man-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 285~291
Since 2006, the
National Forest Inventory (NFI) has been implemented to provide forest resources statistics at the national level and at the county level as well. However, it needs a small-area estimator for estimating forest statistics at the county-level due to a small number of samples collected within a county. This study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of a geographical-based synthetic estimator for estimating forest growing stock volumes at the county level. The NFI-field plots surveyed were post-stratified into three forest cover types. In the synthetic estimator, field plots within a geographical-based super-county for each county were used to estimate stratum weights and stratum mean volumes. It was resulted that estimated stratum weights using the synthetic estimation were significantly differ from forest cover maps. The standard errors of estimated mean by the synthetic estimation that ranged from
/ha were more smaller than those (
) by the direct estimation. This means that the synthetic estimation is possible to provide more precise estimates of mean volumes.
Study on Accumulation of Ni in Seedlings and Growth rate of Salix reichardtii by Hydroponic Culture in Ni Solution
Lee, Chang-Heon ; Lim, Yu-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 292~297
This study was carried out to provide preliminary data to purify contaminated sites by nickel (Ni). After rooted cuttings of Salix reichardtii had been grown in Ni solution (hydroponic culture), pH changes in the solution and the accumulated Ni amount in plant parts were measured and analyzed. When the Ni concentration was low enough for S. reichardtii cuttings to grow well, the pH value of the solution decreased considerably. As the Ni concentration got higher, the plant growth got poorer and the pH value decreased slowly. Roots accumulated the highest Ni amount. Leaves and stems followed after. When stems were older, the accumulated Ni amount was lower. more Ni was accumulated in the plant parts which had more flexible tissue and live cells. As the Ni concentration in solution got higher up to 50.0
/L, so did the Ni accumulation in the plant parts. However, the plant individuals nearly died and the Ni accumulation tended to drop when the Ni concentration in solution was 100.0
/L. The rooted cuttings of S. reichardtii grew poorer as the Ni concentration in solution got higher. The plants in solution with 100.0
/L of Ni were practically dead in four weeks.
Exploring on the Defense Strategies Against Hervivory of Juglans regia and J. mandshurica
Kim, Gab-Tae ; Lyu, Dong-Pyo ; Kim, Hoi-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 298~303
To explore on the defense strategies against hervivory of Juglans regia and J. mandshurica, morphological characteristics of the leaf, leaf domatia structure and the number, herbivores insects and mites on the leaves, collected from the trees growing in Mt. Chiak, Mt. Cheongtae, Mt. Jungwang, Namyangju-si and Wonju-si, were investigated from May to October, 2009. Domatia of J. mandshurica revealed tuft type, these of J. regia revealed pocket+tuft type. Domatia number per leaflet proved the higher figures, 28.3/leaflet for J. mandshurica, and the lower, 19.6/leaflet for J. regia. Leaf surface trichomes of J. regia revealed stellates only on the domatia structures, and that of J. mandshurica does dense stellates and glandular hairs on the leaf-blade and vein. Predatory mites' number per leaflet proved highly significant differences among tree species, and mean of predatory mites was higher values (4.8/leaflet) in J. mandshurica and lower values (3.5/leaflet) in J. regia. Small amount of nectar are found distal veinparts on the leaf margin of J. mandshurica. Dense glandular hairs on the lower leaf surfaces of J. mandshurica estimates useful strategy against herbivory. It may be possible to breed J. regia for better expression of leaf traits such as dense glandular hairs that increase predator populations and efficacy.
Analysis of Difference in Growing Stock Volume Estimates by the Changes of Cluster Plot Design and Volume Equation
Han, Won-Sung ; Kim, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Chong-Chan ; Shin, Man-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 304~311
Korea National Forest Inventory System has been adopting different cluster plot design and new equations to estimate growing stock volumes since 2006. These changes have resulted in volume estimations which show some difference from previous ones. This study is to find out the source of such difference. For this, relevant data was collected from 80 plots of 20 cluster samples according to the cluster plot design applied to 4th and 5th National Forest Inventory. Then growing stock volumes were estimated by using current and previous individual tree volume equations respectively. An investigation was made to detect whether such difference in volume estimates was originated from the changes in cluster plot design or from using different volume equations. T-test results showed that the difference from changes in cluster plot design was negligible. Instead, changes in volume equations had statistically significant effects in volume estimation. Since the volume estimation by the 5th National Forest Inventory would bring overestimation by applying different volume equations, all the volume estimations made prior to 2006 would require necessary modifications for international reporting.
Vegetation Structure of the Torreya Nucifera Stand in Korea
Shin, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Nam-Chang ; Jung, Su-Young ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 312~322
In Korea, Torreya nucifera (L.) Siebold & Zuccarini is widely distributed in the warm temperate zone of South coastal area and Jeju island, mainly as preserved forest in the vicinity of the Buddhist temple and Confucian temple. The objective of this study is in order to develop the conservation method and comprehension of vegetation community by current vegetation structure analysis of Torreya nucifera stand. As the results, the number of surveyed species in Torreya nucifera stand were total 148 species with 28 species of tree layer, 38 species of subtree layer, and 82 species of shrub layer. The appearance of the common species were Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc., Hedera rhombea Bean, and Trachelospermum asiaticum Nakai var. asiaticum. All the story of the surveyed region, Torreya nucifera maintained the current dominant species, but the subtree layer and shrub layer was decreased dominant rate because of the development of the crown of tree layer and biased growth of the subtree layer. Most of the tree layer and subtree layer in Torreya nucifera stands are composed of the sprout forest. Therefore, these results suggest that in order to maintain the healthy stand it is demanded for the application of selection thinning method for reducing crown competition in Torreya nucifera forests.
Comparison of Above-ground Growth Characteristics Between Naturally Regenerated and Planted Stands of Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki in Gangwon Province
Na, Sung-Joon ; Woo, Kwan-Soo ; Kim, Chang-Soo ; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck ; Lee, Heon-Ho ; Lee, Do-Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 323~330
This study was undertaken to compare early growth characteristics, such as height, diameter at root collar (DRC), and the dry weights of stem, branches, needles and roots between naturally regenerated and planted stands of Pinus densiflora for. erecta in Dae-gi and Bo-gwang site, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea. Average DRC growth was similar between the naturally regenerated and the planted stands in Dae-gi area, however, difference was statistically significant (P<0.01) between the naturally regenerated and the planted stands in Bo-gwang area, 4.66 cm and 2.61 cm, respectively. Average height of the naturally regenerated stands was significantly greater (P<0.01) than that of planted stands in both Dae-gi and Bo-gwang areas. The composition ratio of the dry weights for each part of measured trees was the highest in the stem in the naturally regenerated stands, but in the planted stands, the needle was the highest in both sites. The root/shoot ratio in the Dae-gi and Bo-gwang areas in the planted stands were much greater than those in the naturally regenerated stands, 0.25-0.30 and 0.17-0.18, respectively. The ratio of needle to stem biomass (N/S), branch to stem biomass (B/S), and needle to branch biomass (N/B) was significantly greater in the planted stands than those in the naturally regenerated stands in both sites. The results of this study represent that the regeneration methods, natural and artificial regenerations, can have an influence on the early growth of P densiflora for. erecta. This results not only provide the need for a correct planting method, but also will be useful in studies on the environmental adaptability of trees.
Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on the Root Growth and the Eleutheroside Accumulation in the Adventitious Root Culture of Eleutherococcus senticosus
Ahn, Jin-Kwon ; Lee, Wi-Young ; Park, Eung-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 331~336
This study was carried out to investigate the dose-dependent effect of methyl jasmonate on both the adventitious root growth and the accumulation of various eleutherosides in the bioreactor culture of Eleutherococcus senticosus adventitious roots. The highest biomass production (5.4 g DW/L) was observed in the absence of methyl jasmonate and the root growth was significantly decreased by increasing the methyl jasmonate concentration. However, methyl jasmonate stimulated the production of both eleutheroside B, E and
. The highest level of eleutheroside B (359.9
/g DW) was obtained at 40
of methyl jasmonate, while eleutheroside E and
was accumulated at the highest level by the addition of 10
of methyl jasmonate. Total eleutheroside was increased up to 3818.1
per liter when 10
of methyl jasmonate was applied. In addition, when the adventitious roots were cultured with 20
of methyl jasmonate, the highest levels of eleutheroside B, E and
were observed at the 12th, 3th and 9th days of culture, respectively.
Changes in Water Potential of Pine Seedlings Inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Lee, Hwa-Yong ; Koo, Chang-Duck ; Sung, Joo-Han ; Shin, Joon-Hwan ; Yoo, Jong-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 337~343
The purpose of this study was to understand water stress development in pine seedlings inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Leaf water potentials of four years old Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with the nematode were measured with a plant moisture system at predawn and midday. The midday leaf water potentials on the 35th day after the inoculation were -1.04 MPa in the infected seedlings, while -0.94 MPa in the non-infected seedlings. The predawn water potentials on the 56th day were -0.71 MPa in the infected, while -0.26 MPa in the non-infected. At this time the leaves of the infected seedlings became yellow and resin did not exude on the cut basal stem. Density of the nematode was maximum on the 28th day, but dropped sharply on the 68th day. The phloem and pith tissues became brown and the resin exudation reduced in the infected seedlings. In conclusion, pinewood nematode inoculation developed water stress in pine seedlings in a month.
Mating System in Seed Orchard of Japanese Red Pines Revealed by DNA Markers
Hong, Yong-Pyo ; Kim, Young-Mi ; Ahn, Ji-Young ; Park, Jae-In ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 344~352
To investigate the mating system of clones in the seed orchard of Japanese red pine, parameters of mating system, such as outcrossing rates, number of potential pollen contributors, and degree of pollen contamination, were estimated in the seed orchard of Japanese red pines on the basis of DNA data including 4 nSSR and 6 cpSSR markers. Estimates of outcrossing rates were ranged from 94.9 to 100% with an average of 98.9% on the basis of the analysis of cpSSR haplotypes. They were ranged from 90.3% to 100% with an average of 95.9% on the basis of the analysis of nSSR genotypes. However, cross checking of both DNA markers revealed that the seeds presumed to be products of self pollination were turned out to be generated by pollination between mother tree and other tree (i.e., 100% of cumulative outcrossing rate). Estimates of pollen contamination ranged from 43.6% (Gangwon-10) to 56.4% (Gangwon-12) with the average of 48.9%. On the basis of pooled cpSSR haplotype of each seed, maximum number of 21 pollen contributors were verified from the seeds reproduced by Kyungbuk-38. Minimum number of 13 pollen contributors were verified in Gangwon-10. Mean of 16.2 pollen contributors were verified from a total of 5 mother trees. In conclusion, considering pretty high outcrossing rates between clones within a seed orchard, it may be expected that a fairly good genetic potential of the seeds, produced in '77 plot of the seed orchard of Japanese red pines at Anmyeon island, may be guaranteed. Observed results from the analysis of mating system of Japanese red pines in a '77 plot of the seed orchard may also provide useful information for the establishment and management of the seed orchard of the progressive generation.
Correlation of Growth Performance with Total Nitrogen, Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Compositions in the Xylem of Pinus koraiensis
Lee, Wi-Young ; Park, Eung-Jun ; Han, Sang-Urk ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 353~358
In this study, we investigated the relationship of tree-ring growth with total nitrogen content, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from the core samples of Pinus koraiensis (35-year-old). Annual ring width showed significant positive correlations with the
(P=0.003). The total nitrogen content (P=0.024), and the
content was also correlated with total nitrogen content (P=0.038), indicating that the growth of P. koraiensis was stimulated as the contents of both
and total nitrogen were increased. On the other hand, the less the
content and the C/N ratio were, the larger the annual ring width was. Moreover the families with relatively better growth performance contained the higher levels of
in the xylem compared to other families. These results suggest that the
and total nitrogen contents are the important determinants in the growth performance of P. koraiensis.
Effect of Planting Season and Vegetation Competition on Growth Performances of Containerized Seedlings of Pinus densiflora
Cho, Min-Seok ; Kim, Gil-Nam ; Kwon, Ki-Won ; Lee, Soo-Won ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 359~367
The objective of this study was to find optimal planting season of the effect of vegetation competition around planting tree. This study evaluates the possibility of extending the planting period of containerized seedling of Pinus densiflora (1-0 year). We planted seedling at three different seasons (spring, summer, fall) at 18 plots in 3 locations. Planting sites were composed of vigorous vegetation (Site A) and less vigorous vegetation (Site B). For over 3 years, the study investigated survival rate, growth of root collar diameter and height, and biomass of containerized seedling of P. densiflora. In all sites, containerized seedling of P. densiflora showed high survival rate in summer planting. Height and root collar diameter of containerized seedling of P. densiflora were the highest in summer planting, but in the initial period after planting growth was not good. After time passed, growth rate was increased. Site B showed better growth than Site A. Biomass was the highest in summer planting and also the highest in Site B. These results suggest that planting period can be extended by using containerized seedling and vegetation control in the initial is very important for survival and growth of containerized seedling.
A Study on Application of Ubiquitous Management System in National Park - Focused on the Technology Acceptance Model of Managers' -
Kim, Tong-Il ; Kim, Seong-Il ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 368~379
u-Park means national parks with environmentally sound information networks and integrated ubiquitous services are available. u-Park is totally managed based on u-IT (Ubiquitous IT Technologies) which provides ubiquitous service through sophisticated resources of national park and establishments. It is necessary in changing the existing park management system into u-IT based u-Park management system that park managers should accept new technology, u-Park management system, and be able to utilize it. The purposes of this research is to analyze managers' acceptance behavior on ubiquitous computing technology. Technology acceptance model (TAM) was introduced to specifies the causal relationships among variables related to managers' technology acceptance behavior. The hypothesized model was tested by surveying 157 managers at 5 national parks in Korea. TAM accounted for 55.2% of the variance in intention to use. The most important finding is that perceived compatibleness was the most influential variable in determining intention to use. This means that u-Park management system should be compatible with manager's task and business style.
A Study on the Demander's Consciousness of the National Forest Management System
Park, Kyung-Seok ; Lee, Seong-Youn ; Choi, Soo-Im ; Kim, Hyun-Sik ; Jeong, Se-Myong ; An, Ki-Wan ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 380~390
This research was conducted to investigate the consciousness of demander on National Forest Management System and to seek for solution to activate it by measuring the variables such as the extent of goal achievement on the system, the extent of importance on function of national forest, benefit for participation of the system, and the extent of importance on the system as well as the extent of demander recognition and intention of participation on the system like, Cooperative Forest Program and People's Forest Program. The target of this investigation is to categorize consumers of National Forest Management System (NFMS) into four types such as environmental organization that do not participate in the system, environmental organization that participate in the team, company to publish a white paper on environmental and local government. As a result, the intention of participation was showed in C Type (62.7%), among fields that respondents interested in participation were tree planting and forest tending (56.2%). However, the rest of the participants were reluctant participate in the NFMS due to more benefit (72.2%) of corporate social responsibility from other fields than those from the field utilizing forestry. If only, diverse facilities related to national forest and active supporting policy are provided by Korea Forest Service, social participation using forest resources would be considered. Although 61% among A Type recognized NFMS in advance, the prime reason for not utilizing are the problems with reserving place for participates in and the inconvenience to participate in on-site. Type D shows slightly high interest in People's Forest Program (3.69). Also, it shows high interest in Forest Recreation (4.15) and Forest Reports (3.90). Particularly, it indicates that GyeongGi-Do and GangWon-Do local government prefers Forest Experience, and Cheolla, ChungCheong and GyeongSang local government prefer Forest Reports. Based on the above study, we finally suggest that legal alignment of the system, and the provision of incentive for inducement of voluntary participation by Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and establishment of new exclusive nongovernmental organization be able to operate the system as the solution to activate NFMS in terms of the consumer.
Allometric Equations of Crown Fuel Biomass and Analysis of Crown Bulk Density for Pinus densiflora
Lee, Byung-Doo ; Won, Myoung-Soo ; Kim, Seon-Young ; Yoon, Suk-Hee ; Lee, Myung-Bo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 391~396
To analyze the characteristics of canopy fuel in Pinus densiflora stand, which is essential to assess the crown fire hazard, allometric equations for estimation of crown fuel biomass were developed by subjectively categorized crown fuel component and crown bulk density was analyzed by available fuel component categories. Ten trees were destructively sampled at Pinus densiflora stand in Mt. Palgong in Daegu and their crown fuels were weighed separately for each fuel category by size classes and by living and dead. Regression equations that estimate crown fuel load by diameter at breast height(D) or additional total height(H) were derived. The adjusted coefficient of determination values were the highest (
=0.835-0.996) and standard error of estimate were the lowest (SEE=0.074-0.638) in the allometric equation lnWt=
in average. However, in needles and small branches categories, the differences in
and SEE between equations were not significant. Crown bulk density (CBD), which was calculated by crown fuel load divided by crown volume, was 0.067 kg/
in average when only needles were considered as available crown fuel and 0.097 kg/
when needles and branches (0-0.5 cm diameter) were considered. The increments of CBD of needles and small branches were little even when diameter at breast height increased.
Changes in Soil Temperature, Moisture Content, Light Availability and Diameter Growth After Thinning in Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) Plantation
Bae, Sang-Won ; Hwang, Jae-Hong ; Lee, Sang-Tae ; Kim, Hyun-Seop ; Jeong, Jun-Mo ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 397~403
This study was conducted to investigate the changes in soil temperature, soil moisture content, light availability (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) and diameter growth in 46-year-old Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zuccarini) plantation located in Gwangneung experimental forest after 4 years from thinning. Three different thinning intensities [control, 45%(T45), and 60%(T60) basal area reduction] were applied in 2004. Mean soil temperature and soil water content were
and 14.3% for control,
and 16.1% for T45 and
and 16.1% for T60, respectively. Mean soil temperature and moisture content were significantly different among the treatment plots (p<0.05). Mean PAR in control, T45 and T60 was 44, 143 and178
/sec, respectively and the differences were also statistically significant among the treatment plots (p<0.05). Mean annual diameter growth in control, T45 and T60 was 0.4, 1.5 and 1.2 mm, respectively. Diameter growth of Pinus koraiensis was steadily increased after thinning in comparison to control. Consequently, the results suggested that soil temperature, soil moisture content and light availability were likely to last beyond the 4 years after thinning in this Korean pine plantation.
Visitors' Evaluation of Trail in the Hanbat Arboretum: a case Importance-Satisfaction Analysis
Kim, Jong-Sun ; Oh, Do-Kyo ; Kim, Se-Bin ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 404~413
A study surveyed to visitors' expectation and satisfaction about trail in the Hanbat Arboretum by using Importance-Satisfaction Analysis (ISA). As the results of the research, the mean of importance was 3.85 and the mean of satisfaction was 3.67 in West Garden. Also the mean of importance was 3.99 and the mean of satisfaction was 3.78 in East Garden. Also appeared the evaluation factors of questionnaire the mostly importance that were higher than satisfaction. West Garden appeared necessary for items of safety features, drain facilities and board for risk area. Also East Garden appeared necessary for items of easy move for the wheelchair and carriage and safety features of trail. The research result are expected to provide clear path towards more effective adminstration and management tactics. Also expects with the research result that will be the possibility of raising the qualitative satisfaction of the visitor.
Effect of Different Irrigation Period on Photosynthesis and Growth Performances of Containerized Seedling of Eucalyptus pellita and Acacia mangium
Lee, Soo-Won ; Cho, Min-Seok ; Kim, Gil-Nam ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 414~422
The objective of this study was to find optimal water condition of containerized seedling production of two tropical species for high seedling quality. This study was conducted to investigate photosynthesis, water use efficiency(WUE), Stomatal conductance(gs) and growth performances of containerized seedlings of Eucalyptus pellita and Acacia mangium growing under three different irrigation periods (1 time/1 day, 1 time/2 days and 1 time/3 days). E. pellita showed outstanding photosynthetic capacities at 1time/1day irrigation and A. mangium showed good photosynthetic capacity at all treatments. As irrigation period were shortened, gs of two species increased, while WUE of two species decreased. Root collar diameter and height of two species were the highest at 1 time/1 day irrigation, while the lowest at 1 time/3 days irrigation. As irrigation period were shortened, H/D ratio, biomass and seedling quality index (DQI) of two species increased but T/R ratio of two species showed the opposite tendency. These results showed that 1 time/1 day irrigation is optimal water condition of containerized seedling production of two tropical species and irrigation controlling is very important for growth and seedling quality of containerized seedling.
Somatic Embryo Germination and the Related Biochemical Changes of Liriodendron tulipifera by Bioreactor Immersion Time
An, Chan-Hoon ; Yi, Jae-Seon ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Moon, Heung-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 423~431
To determine physical and physiological factors for Liriodendron tulipifera L. somatic embryo germination, temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB) system was investigated. It was designed to immerse liquid media with plantlets so that it was able to adjust the immersion time. Immersion of 120 minutes every 4 hours and 60 minutes every 4 hours was found to be effective in germination (91.64%, 85.67%, respectively). However, hyperhydricity of the plantlets was higher in short immersion time (15 minutes every 6 hours) and long immersion time (120 minutes every 4 hours) (51.61%, 34.28%, respectively). Immersion of 60 minutes every 4 hours showed the lowest hyperhydric plantlets, and also it showed the lowest activities of abscisic acid (ABA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase. The overall results implied that immersion time of media affected germination and growth of somatic embryo, and it was able to make use of germination and growth of L. tulipifera somatic embryos.
Effect on Simulated Acid Rain and Wood Vinegar Treatment on Growth of Lonicera japonica
Seo, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Jong-Kab ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 432~438
This study was carried out to understand the effect on soil chemical property, ion contents, and growth of Lonicera japonica by treatment of simulated acid rain and wood vinegar. It was treated total 30 times by one time per 2 weeks during 150 days from June to October dividing to various pH level of simulated acid rain (each pH 5.6, 4.5, 3.5 and 2.5) and the control site (pH 6.3). The wood vinegar diluted with 500 times was also treated total 10 times by one time per 2 weeks at the experimental sites. The soil pH was reduced as pH level of simulated acid rain was decreased. The organic content, total nitrogen, and Av.
in soil showed a tendency to increment. However, the soil improvement effect was exposed to be insufficient when a wood vinegar was treated. In the component of the plant body,
increased due to the simulated acid rain treatment and the increment ratio was reduced in the wood vinegar treatment plot. In addition, the cation contents showed a tendency to variation due to pH of simulated acid rain. And it showed more increment in the leaves than the root. The early fallen leaves and growth inhibition of L. japonica showed up after the simulated acid rain treatment but the growth of L. japonica increased after the wood vinegar treatment.
Natural Enemies of Wood Borers and Seasonal Occurrence of Major Natural Enemies of Monochamus saltuarius on Pine Trees
Kim, Jong-Kuk ; Won, Dae-Sung ; Park, Yong-Chul ; Koh, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Forest Society, volume 99, issue 3, 2010, Pages 439~445
Wood boring insects collected around bait logs of Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis were 45 species from 4 families, which were composed of 21 species of Cerambycidae, 9 species of Curculionidae, 2 species of Rhynchophoridae, and 13 species of Scolytidae. Parasitic or predatory insects were 35 species from 15 families in 6 orders. Among the natural enemies, 2 parasitoids of Dolochomitus nakamurai and Echthus reluctator, and 2 predators of Trogossita japonica and Thanassimus lewisi, were observed frequently attacking a vector insect, Monochamus saltuarius, which has been known to transmit pine wood nematode. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Adults of D. nakamurai and E. reluctator emerged during early April and early May. Both parasitoids laid eggs on M. saltuarius prepupa and papa, which passed winter inside the pupal chamber. The general predators, T. japonica and T. lewisi, preyed actively during April and October, and attacted almost all of developmental stages of wood borers.