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Journal of Korean Medical classics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Medical Classics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3 - Dec 1989
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A study on the Discussion on Life and Death of Oriental Medicine
Kim, In Rak ; Hong, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 1~150
Oriental medicine thinks life and death as the following. 1. The universe seems to be a kind of organism which is divided into 3 branches, as Heaven, Earth and Man. Man is not created from nihil by the Creator. Heaven and Earth by their interaction operate to produce man. This is similiar that zygote is not created from nihil, and that sperm and ovum are transformed into zygote by their interaction. The symbolic meaning of sperm is Heaven, and that of ovum is Earth. Mind and body, as well as spirit and body, are not the real, but artificial words for the purpose of observing and expressing one man. So there is not spiritual substance as distinct from body. The expected life span of man is subjected to change, and is always becoming through life. Fate, the Creator and the world to come cannot be said to be. 2. After one's death, man is transformend into Heaven and Earth. Dying is this process of transformation. Although man comes into existence and closes one's life, the total life of the universe does not change. The criteria of determination of death is not in cell death, but in somatic death. Somatic death divided into 2 branches, one is heart-lung death, the other is brain death. For the standard of health changes ceaselessly as time goes by, aging and dying is not the process of losing health. Because of mind cannot be seperated from body, we'll feel at ease bodily and mentally in healthy dying. The completion of lifetimes is the value of healthy dying. 3. From the viewpoint of these, we must think to let a person die healthily is the right medical ethics. The way to let a person die healthily is divided into 3 branches, one is treatment, another is prevention and the other is promotion of health. We should treat and prevent death of sickness, but take care of healthy dying.
A study on the Theory of 'Ja-Yeol(刺熱)' in 32nd Chapter of 'So Moon(素問) Yellow Emperior's Nei-Ching(黃帝內經)'
Kwon, Kun-Hyuck ; Hong, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 151~217
In this thesis, I intend to study the translational and clinical interpretation through the theory of Ja-Yeol, and reached the following conclusions. 1. Liver-Heat-Disease due to absess of the function of expelling and lifting off, that Liver-Yang cannot lift up to upper-warmer, and stagnate liver. I think the symptoms of yellowish urine, abdominal pain, somnolence, fever belong to the syndrome of 'Gi-Bun(氣分)', and the symptoms of ravings with surprising, distending pain of hypochondrium, restless involuntary movement of the limbs, unable to lie flat belong to the syndrome of 'Hyeol-Bun(血分)'. 2. Heart-Heat-Disease due that 'Eum-Gi(陰氣)' in heart cannot lay down and reach to stagnate at heart, inner part. I think the symptoms of unjoy, acute cardiac pain, fidgetiness, well-nausea, headeche, reddish face, anhidrosis, etc. reveal with Heart-Heat-Disease. 3. Spleen-Beat-Disease due that 'Eum-Gi' in spleen cannot lay down and Yin of spleen changs heat. I think the symptoms of heaviness of head, cheek pain, fidgetiness, cyanosis, well-nausea, fever, not to let flex and reflex with back pain, diarrhea with abdominal pain, left and right cheek pain reveal with Spleen-Heat-Disease. I think symptoms of fever, diarrhea with abdominal pain belong to the syndrome of Yin-exhausion. 4. Lung-Heat-Disease due to that 'Eum-Gi' in lung cannot lay down. When 'Wi-Gi(衛氣)' stagnates at external part, I think, the symptoms of intolerance to wind and cold, yellowish fur, fever reveal. When Wi-Gi stagnates at lung, inner part, I think, the symptoms of dispnea with cough, pain on chest and back, unable to breath deeply, hydrosis and chilling reveal. 5. Kidney-Heat-Disease, in that the symptoms of back pain, leg aching, extreme thirst and frequently drink, fever, pain and stiffness of nape, cooling and aching leg, heat on plantar pedis, not trying to speak reveal is regarded external heat disease of 'Tai-Yang-Gyeong's(太陽經)' disease that asthenic fever open 'Tai-Yang-Gyeong' and lift by not enough of 'Yang-Gi(陽氣)' lifeing up from Kidney space, the water space of five elements.
A bibliographic study on medical science ancient period (上古時代) and the era of the old-Korea (古朝鮮時代)
Kwon, Hak Cheol ; Park, Chan-Guk ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 218~247
As mentioned above, I got the next conclusion since I had considered the medical contents of the ancient period(上古時代) and the era of the old-Korea(古朝鮮時代) through several bibliographic records. 1. There were Pung-baeg(風伯), Uh-sa(雨師), Un-sa(雲師) that were the names of the governmental officials during the ancient period of Whan-ung(桓雄). Among them, Uh-sa specially managed the treatment for diseases. When we think of the significance of Pung(風)-which means the winds, Uh(雨)-which means the rain, Un(雲)-which means of clouds, we will find out that the human life will be affected by all kinds of phenomena of the nature. So I can infer that ancestries could prevent and treat diseases with adjusting them tn the changes in the weather. 2. There were five government officials(五事) in the ancient period of Whan-ung(桓雄上古時代). They are Uh-ga(牛加), Ma-ga(馬加), Ku-ga(狗加), Cheo-ga(猪加) and Yang-ga(羊加), and had charges of five important duties. Among them, Cheo-ga was set to a charge of treatment for diseases. So we can notice that there existed people who treated for diseases professionally. When we think of the meanings of Uh(牛)-which intends cows or bulls. Ma(馬)-which intends horses, Ku(狗)-which intends dogs, Cheo(猪)-which intends wild boars and Yang(羊)-which intends sheep, we can see that livestocks would be raised at that time, and they came to have more chances to digest meat. Since the digestion of meat became to be a burden on the stomach and the intestines, it might cause a lot of indigestive troubles. 3. When I compared Tan-gun Pal-ga(檀君八加) with the Oh-ga(五加) in the ancient period of Whan-ung(桓雄上古時代), I could tell that the community of Tan-gun's period is more advanced and specialized than one of Whan-ung's. When I think of the next sentence ; "The Prince Imperial, Bu-u(夫虞) become to be a Ro-ga(鷺加), who treat for diseases professionally.", I am sure that the treatment for diseases was more importment than any other things, because he was the third son of Tan-gun(檀君). 4. According to Tan-gun(檀君) mythology, Whan-ung(桓雄) came down from the heaven of the pure Yang(純陽) to the earth and then changed into a man who had had more Yang(陽) than Yin(陰). And a bear came up from the underground(or the cave) to the ground and then changed into a women who had had more Yin(陰) than Yang(陽). So both of them became to hold together. This story implicated that ancestors had taken a serious view of each of them, namely the ancestors didn't give the ascendance to the one side of them, and made much account of the mutual harmony. So I am sure that this fact coincided with the basic theories of oriental medical science. To refer to two proverbs of Tan-gun mythology that are "Ki-Sam-Chil-Il(忌三七日)" which means caring for twenty one days, and "Pul-Gyon-Il-Gwang-Baeg-Il(不見日光百日)" which means keeping indoors for one hundred days, I can tell you that "twenty-one-day" involves the principle of the birth of life, and "one-hundred-day" contains a preparatory period or the period of death to bear another life. 5. From the medical stuff, such as wormwood(艾), garlic(蒜), or wonder-working herbage(靈草), that had been written at the bibliographic papers of the ancient period(上古時代) and the era of the old-Korea(古朝鮮時代), I consider that many people might get a lot of women's diseases, indigestive troubles, and other diseases that were caused by the weakness, but with using various spices, such as the leaves of water pepper(蔘), they could prevent the occurrance of all kinds of diseases previously. So I regard this treatment as the medicine from food. 6. One of the sayings at Nae-gyong(內經) is that "The stone accupuncture(砭石) came from the orient." We can see both "wonder-wor-king wormwood(靈草)" and "dried wormwood(乾艾)" in the several bibliographic papers of the ancient history of the old-Korea(朝鮮上古史). From these records, I can be convinced that ancestors would utilize the acupuncture(針) and the moxa cautery(灸) to cure a patient of a disease. 7. Even though someone claimed that the book, "medical science and chemistry(醫學化學)" and "medical treatment(醫學大方)" had had been written during the ancient period of the old-Korea(上古朝鮮時代), such a fact can't have been ascertained historical evidence. But it has been handed down that there existed the original phonetic alphabet, such as the "Ka-Im-To alphabet(加臨土文字)" at that time. The terms about the diseases, which had been occurred at the community of the old-Korea(古朝鮮地域), were recorded fragmentarily at other records after that time. The origin of confucianism came from the race of the eastern barbarians, and Tae-Ho-Pok-Hi(太嗅伏義) and the king. Sun(舜) came from the eastern barbarians, too. The divination of tortoise shells at the country of Un(殷) is another from which was developed at the eastern barbarians' fortune-telling of animal bones. From these facts, I can infer that, by all means, they might record the medical knowledge which had been stored for thousands of years while contacting with china directly.
A Comparative Study on the Central Idea of Hwang Je Nae Kyong and Chuyok
Kim, Dong Joo ; Hong, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 248~279
k and Naeky
ng which are the foundations for oriental philosophy and oriental medicine respectively have had a great influence on Oriental ideas for several thou s and years. On this study is focused on the comparative study about the two. And the results are as follows; 1. Chuy
k and Naeky
ng agree with respect to the relationship between Nature and Man, They both insist that everything should come into being through collaboration between Heaven and Earth and that Man is the noblest among them. 2. Though Chuy
k and Naeky
ng agree in regard to the authority of Man's nobility, the one stands on the opinion that Man is noble because of 'Tao'(道), while the other maintains that Man is precious because he is created and changed according to the principle of the Universe. 3. There is a slight difference between Chuy
k and Naeky
ng in the principle of Yin and Yang, and the live elements of the Chinese cosmogony. Chuy
k explains the change and development of everything on the basis of the principle of Yin and Yang, and make no concrete mention of the five elements of the Chinese cosmogony. While Naeky
ng applys the principle of Yin and Yang and the five elements of the Chinese cosmogony to the human body. 4. Though Chuy
k contains little knowledge of the inside of the human body in the anatomical matters, it includes some informations of the outside of the human body. But the basic physiological informations had already existed at the time. 5. Regarding the way of life cultivation. Chuy
k and Naeky
ng concurs. The two books advise to avoid unsuitable meal, overdrinking, inappropriate residence and so forth for the sake of good health. They make much of the mental harmony and maintain the accommodation to the change of Nature to keep a sound mind and body.
A Study on the Views of the Nature and the Theories of the Medicine of the Chinese in the ancient times
Park, Kyung-Nam ; Park, Chan-Guk ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 280~398
The most distintive features on the Thinking Structure of the Views of the Nature and the Theories of the Medicine of the ancient Chinese are a Comprehensions to the System of the Nature which reveals in the Natural Phenomena. Nothing doesn't changed in the Nature and man also. These Changes are inevitable to the man. So it isn't easy to grasp the Essence of the Natural Phenomena which always be changed. I-Ching (易經, Book of Changes), Chung-Yung (中庸) and many other books are that has a theories about the Changes, the ancients could recognized the unchangeable constancy from the ever changeable Natural Phenomena. The unchangeable constancy on the Oriental thinking means as same as an 'Idea' on the Western thinking. These process made them shape up the Views of the Nature and the Medical theories. And Chi (氣), Yin-Yang (陰陽) and Wu-Hsing (五行) are the most important concepts of their views and theories. In the concepts of Chi as an epistemological meaning; the Nature and the Han can be appreciated as a one System, because his being is within the Changes of the Nature and should be in accord with those Changes. He was going to believe that all beings are exist as an existential rules of himself. So Chi can be thougt as an epistemological system to all beings' existence. Thinking of Yin-Yang as a existential meaning; all beings are exist having a contrary and a complementary to each other. Birth and Death, Be ginning and Finishing in a series of the process occurs in all beings are the two sides of their existential and intrinsic tendencies. That can be condensed to the Yin-Yang concepts. In the consideration of Wu-Hsing;all beings are observed and explained more deliberatively by it's own rules. By the way the concepts of Chi, Yin-Yang and Wu-Hsing which derived from the processes of the recognition to the Changes of the Nature are practiced actually by the thoughts of Harmony. And it is represented by the accordance to the Time of the Natural Changes, that is, Shiling (時令). It means a adjustments to the Time and Changes of the Nature. The health of all beings that is an aim of the Medicine can be maintained by their practical thoughts or the concepts of Shiling.
A study on the theory of "Pyong-Yeol-Byong (評熱病論)" in 33th chapter of "SoMon (素問)" Yellow Emperor's Nei-Ching (黃帝內經)
Moon, Hee-Seork ; Hong, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 399~443
In this thesis, I intend to study the translational and clinical interpretation through the syndrom of "Pyong-Yeol-Byong", and reached the following conclusions. 1. Eum-Yang-Kyo (陰陽交)' 1) Meaning: "Eum" means "Essential and vital energy" "Yang" means "Evil factor affecting health" and "Kyo" means "cross-struggle." 2) Location of disease: Heat evil enter Hyeol-Bun (血分) 3) Pathogenesis: Heat evil invade Eum-Bun (陰分) and struggles with Health energy, therefore Eum-Chung (陰精) is exhausted and Heat-evil doesn't disapper, it damage Eum and exhaust fluid. Reach fever, rapid pulse raving and unable to take meal, not controled by sweating and sceach death. 4) Particularity of Syndrome: Heat enter Hyol-Bun, and Evil factor is enough and Health energy is insufficient, so that reveal the symptoms of high fever, delirium with coma, unable to take meals. 5) Therapy: It clears Gi-Bun heat evil (氣分熱邪) by Gypsum, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Flos Lonicerae, Fructus Forsythiae, Fructus Gardeniae, Radix Scutellanae Rhizoma Coptidis, and cools Blood by Cornu Rhinoceri Asiatici, Radix Rehmanniae, Cortex Moutan Radicis, Dae-Chung-Yob (大靑葉) Radix Arnebiae Seu Lithospermi. 2. Poong Gweol (風厥) 1) Meaning: Poong means wind-evil, Gweol means reversing up. 2) Location of disease: Disease complexes with TaeYang (太陽) in outer part, and with So-Eum (少陰) in inner part. 3) Pathogenesis: Tae-Yang-Gyeong (太陽經) accept wind-evil and So-Eum-Gyeong (少陽經) Kidney Energy reverse up so that fidgetiness not resolves by sweating. 4) Particularity of Syndrome: There are outer symptoms of fever, hydrosis with inner symptoms of fidgetinessis. 5) Therapy: Reduce Jok-Tae-Yang (足太陽) and Supply Jok-So-Eum (足少陰) by accupuncture, so cure Poong Gweol and make balance between Yeong (營) and Wi (衛). 3. Scrofula coused by wind-evil (勞風) 1) Meaning: It means accepting wind evil rest less. 2) Location of Disease: It locates lung 3) Pathogenesis: Because of accepting wind-evil restless, he take scrofula with damaging lung. 4) Particularity of disease: It is lung disease of aversion to wind and shiver, nape-stiffiness, dim eyesight, cough, disphea, vomitting sputum, if one camnot vomit sputum, he died by damage of lung. 5) Therapy: The period of therapy is different by age or strength of health energy, so I think must prevent Eum deficiency and clear fever no reduced in lung. 4. Shin-Poong (腎風) 1) Meaning: It means taking edema by accepting wind-evil, because the kidney controls water. 2) Location of Disease: It is that wind-evil envade kidney. 3) Pathogenesis : Water evil of kidney with wind-heat rises up to face, reach edema, puffines s of the lower eyelid, floating pulse, bombus, yellowish urine, hydrosis and hand-heating, drymouth and excessive thirsty, walkless by heaviness, menstrual disfunction, restless and unable to take meals, unable to lie flat, heavy cough if lie flat, and accepting wind-evil by deficiency of kidney function, so the function of dredging the water passage is not smooth, symptom of water and symptom of wind reveal together. 4) Therapy: Remove wind-heat, promote diuresis to eliminate tile wetness-evil, supplement the dificiency of kidney's Eum. Finally, we can know that later Fever Disease Medicime (溫病學) is affected to the theory of "Pyong Yeol Byong" in 33th Chapter of SoMoon (素問).
A study of Medicine in the Period of the Three Kingdoms (三國)
Sheen, Yeong-Il ; Park, Chan-Guk ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 444~500
I have felt seriously a desire to study and analyse the medicine of the period of the Three Kingdoms when I thought and studied the ancient medical history. Therefore in Chapter II I inquired into the background of Politico-social and the currency of thought. In the Chapter III inquired into the system of Medical politics in the period of the Three Kingdoms. In the Chapter IV inquired into the general view of the period of the Three Kingdoms. In the Chapter V inquired into the writings of Medicine and Doctors. From this study, I reached at following-conclusions. 1. The Three Kingdoms are politically opposed to each other, but socialo culturaly cooperated, connected each other to import the technique and thought which developed in China, so generally their system and life pattern are alike. 2. On the system of medical politcics Goguryeo(高句麗) had the system of court phisician, Baek jeo(百濟) had medical doctor and collector in the Ministry of Drug which took charge of teaching and medical treatment and specially had spellchanting doctor who treat epidermic and psychological diease untreated with herb and acupuncture, Shilla(新羅) had the system of Yak chun which was charge of teaching and treatment, and had the Chimbang(針房) which assist doctor in the system of Yagchun(藥典制度). 3. The medical interchange with China made the Three Kingdoms to import the medical books. So the theory of medicine was systematized and the art of treatment developed. In the aspect of Herb the Three Kingdoms and China actively exchange their own district product. 4. The medicine of Three Kingdoms accommodated Yin Yang Ohang theory(陰陽五行說), the theory of body compose with four element(四大 : 地水火風) and the theory of life cultivation and breathing(導引養生說) with Therefore in many aspect of oriental medicine basic theory and treatment would improved. 5. The epidermic diease occurred in period of Three Kingdoms, is represented Yeok(疫), that is after all Ohn Diease(溫病), and epidermic diease, is relfected by earthquake, heavy rain, terrible droughty and eclipse of sun. The treatment of this diease did not developed in that time, we presume that there are many persons killed. 6. As the record of five starr(五星), comet(彗星) and eclipse of sun was showed, the astronomy of oriental medicine in the Three Kingdoms was high level and it became the mothers womb of Korean astronomy. 7. The medicine of the Three Kingdoms, concreted with Chinese medicine and their own ancient one, was reflect on Japanese medicine to improve the medical theory and treatment. 8. The Three Kingdoms peculiarly published Korea Nosabang(高麗老師方) Baekjyeo Shinjipbang(百濟新集方), so this independent medicine reflected on the development of natural hurb(鄕約) of the period of Korea(高麗).
A study on the theory of 'Eum-yang-Li-Hap (陰陽離合)' in 6th chapter of 'SoMoon (素問)' 'Yellow Emperior's Nei-ching (黃帝內經)'
Ok, Do-Hoon ; Hong, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Medical classics, volume 3, 1989, Pages 501~552
In this thesis, I intend to study the translational and clinical interpretation through the theory of Eum-Yang-Li-Hap', and reached the following conclusions. 1. 'Eum-Yang (陰陽)' in title, means Yin and Yang as method of understanding nature or humanbody, and 'Li-Hap (離合)' in title, means classification and getting together. Especially there are a view that Eum Yang in title means only meridinans within the limit of human body, but the limit needn't, because the word 'Li-Hap of 3Yin-3Yang (三陰三陽之離合)' as meaning of human meridians in the text. 2. The content of the text is generally seperated into 3 parts, the 1st part contents properties of Li Hap of Yin and Yang. 2nd and 3rd parts content the explanation of property of 3Yin and 3Yang, as example of human meridians with local conception, and content nicknames of 3Yin-3Yang and present the Ideo of 'Kae-Hap-Choo (開闔樞)'. 3. 3Yin-3Yang in the text, many of annotators tried to explanate by three types of conception, of human meridians, of the 'Viscera-Bowels (臟腑)', or of the 'Element motions and Natural factors (運氣)'. I think that these three conceptions could be mixed when the text was written, and regarde for the present that 3Yin-3Yang is explanated by the conception of human meridians. 4. 'Eum (陰)' the head-letter of the nicknames of 3Yin-3Yang, I think that it means 'Jok-Gyeong (足經)' related with the words 'The earth belongs to Yin (地爲陰)' in the text. And it i s considered that further studies should be followed on the tail-words of 3Yin-3Yang's nicknams. 5. Kae-Hap-Choo, Used in similitude" as 'Li (離)' of 3Yin-3Yang, are seperated functions by location of 3Yin-3Yang. In text 'Tae-Yang (太陽)' and 'Tae-Eum (太陰)' act as 'Kae (開)', 'Yang-Myeong (陽明)', and 'Gweor-Eum (厥陰)' act as 'Hap (闔)', 'So-Yang (少陽)' and 'So-Eum (少陰)' act as 'Choo (樞).' But there is other theory that Gweor-Eum act as Choo, and So-Eum act as Hap. 6. The theory of Kae-Hop-Choo, including only Jok-Gyeong being main materials of 'Yook Gyeong-Byeon-Jeung (六經辨證) had influence on development of clinical studies. If the theory of Kae-Hap-Choo receives and unions the ideos of '3 burning-Spaces (三焦)', metabolism, etc. more development of medicine is expected.