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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Marine Environmental Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Nov 2008
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Aug 2008
Volume 11, Issue 2 - May 2008
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Marine Environments in the Neighborhood of the Narodo as the First Outbreak Region of Cochlodinium polykrikoides Blooms
Lee, Moon-Ock ; Moon, Jin-Han ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 113~123
We have analyzed a long term data of marine environments, red tide information and meteorology acquired by NFRDI and KMA, in order to understand the characteristics of marine environments in the Narodo coastal waters which is known to be the first outbreak region of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms. During the period of from 1992 to 2007, Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms have first occurred more often in August. However, the outbreak time of the blooms tended to be earlier annually, and in addition, the surface salinity also had a tendency to increase. Consequently, it suggested that there might be a relationship between the transition of the outbreak time of the blooms and salinity. On the other hand, insolation was relatively rich but precipitation was relatively scarce in Gohung Province, compared to Yeosu or Tongyeong, when Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms first occur in Narodo coastal waters. Average water temperature and salinity in August in Narodo coastal waters were all higher than those in Gamak and Jinhae bays, suggesting that Narodo coastal waters are a region of relatively high water temperature and high salinity. Also, concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll- a were significantly low than those in Jinhae Bay, which is known to be a eutrophicated region, while the overall water quality seemed to be similar to Gamak Bay. The results of PCA(Principal Component Analysis) proved that insolation and water temperature are the most important factors for the outbreak of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in Narodo coastal waters while concentrations of COD and dissolved oxygen are secondly important. Furthermore, typhoons also appeared to be one of most important factors for the outbreak of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms.
Distribution of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon in the East China Sea in Summer
Kim, Soo-Kang ; Choi, Young-Chan ; Kim, Jin-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 124~131
This study was conducted around the southwest sea areas of Jeju and coastal sea areas of China in August 2003 and September 2004 to research distribution patterns of dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon. Distribution patterns of nutrients in the East China Sea in summer were shown to be influenced by water masses and phytoplankton. Water masses in the East China Sea in summer, except for coastal sea areas of china, showed less vertical mixing process, causing decline in the inflow of nutrients to surface water. Bottom water, however, showed high concentration, since nutrients made by dissolved organic matters from surface water were accumulated at the bottom. Sea areas with high concentration of chlorophyll a showed low concentration of nutrients and vice versa, indicating biological activities control dissolved inorganic nutrients. The distribution of dissolved organic carbon didn't show any correlation with salinity, temperatures, and water masses. Areas around the river mouth of the Changjiang showed high concentration of dissolved organic carbon more than
, but relatively low concentration in the southwest sea areas of Jeju, indicating that the river mouth of the Changjiang coastal water has a great influence on dissolved organic carbon in the East China Sea. Distribution patterns of particulate organic carbon in the research areas showed the highest concentration of average
in coastal areas of China influenced by the river mouth of the Changjiang coastal water. By comparison, the concentration was relatively low at
in the southeast sea areas of Jeju on which the Taiwan warm current has influence, and was
in the central sea areas of Jeju. Thus, there is much indication that the river mouth of the Changjiang coastal water serves as a supplier of particulate organic carbon along with autogenous source. In general, if particulate organic carbon has a high correlation with the concentration of Chlorophyll a, it is thought that it is originated from autogenous source. However, the southeast sea areas of Jeju shows low salinity below 30, therefore it is proper to think that its origin is terrestrial source rather than that of autogenesis.
A Legal Improvement to Reduce a Disposal of Livestock Sludge at Sea
Chung, Chang-Soo ; Kim, Young-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 132~137
The average concentrations of COD and copper in the livestock sludge are
mg/kg, respectively. Due to the high concentrations, dumping to the sea of the sludge could pose potential adverse effects to the marine environment. On the contrary, it could have economic advantages on land as the energy of biogas generated by decomposition of organisms and the compost in case of the sludge of good quality with the abundant nitrogen and phosphorus. Nevertheless, the amount of livestock sludge dumped to the sea in Korea increased sharply from 51,000
in 1997 to 2,745,000
in 2005. And also it had the high proportion of 27% in total amount of waste dumped into the sea (7,451,000
) in 2007. It might cost between 20,000 won and 33,000 won to dump to the sea of the sludge. In comparison, it might cost 20,000 won to com- post the sludge. And its purification treatment even might cost just 10,000 won. It means that the disposal of the sludge at sea is the most expensive method to deal with the sludge, but ranchers, who engage in the livestock industry, still prefer the disposal at sea to the other methods on land such as the compost and purification treatment. In this article, therefore, we would analyze various factors in the ranchers' preference for the disposal of the sludge at sea, and then we could suggest some legal improvements to prevent and reduce pollution of the sea.
A Preliminary Analysis on the International Management System for the Ocean fertilization with Iron at High Seas
Hong, Gi-Hoon ; Sohn, Hyo-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 138~149
Rapid accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for the past century leads to acidify the surface ocean and contributes to the global warming as it forms acid in the ocean and it is a green house gas. In order to curb the green house gas emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, various multilateral agreements and programs have been established including UN Convention of Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol for the last decades. Also a number of geo-engineering projects to manipulate the radiation balance of the earth have been proposed both from the science and industrial community worldwide. One of them is ocean fertilization to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the sea. Deliberate fertilization of the ocean with iron or nitrogen to large areas of the ocean has been proposed by commercial sector recently. Unfortunately the environmental consequences of the large scale ocean iron fertilization are not known and the current scientific information is still not sufcient to predict. In 2007, the joint meeting of parties of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972 and 1996 Protocol (London Convention/Protocol) has started considering the purposes and circumstances of proposed large-scale ocean iron fertilization operations and examined whether these activities are compatible with the aims of the Convention and Protocol and explore the need, and the potential mechanisms for regulation of such operations. The aim of this paper is to review the current development on the commercial ocean fertilization activities and management regimes in the potential ocean fertilization activities in the territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, and high seas, respectively, and further to have a view on the emerging international management regime to be London Convention/Protocol in conjunction with a support from the United Nations General Assembly through The United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea.
Regional cooperation of NOWPAP MERRAC against marine litter from sea-based activities in the Northwest Pacific region
Noh, Hyon-Jeong ; Oh, Jeong-Hwan ; Kang, Seong-Gil ; Kang, Chang-Gu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 150~159
The marine litter generated as by-products of human activities and economic development enters to the sea through rivers or stream Indirectly, and through sea-based activities directly. It is commonly comprised of materials that degrade very slowly, such as various plastic products, polystyrene, glass, rubber, metal, wood, derelict fishing nets, wire, rope and so on. Such litter is found in the water column and on the seafloor as well as coastal areas In the Northwest Pacific region. It causes injury or death of human and other living organisms and also accident or damage of the vessel. It is not only a problem of country but also regional and/or global problem because it is transported by currents and winds from one country to another. In this regard, Northwest Pacific Action Plan (NOWPAP) Marine Litter Activity (MALITA) project had been carried out during 2006-2007 biennium and NOWPAP Regional Action Plan on Marine Litter (RAP MALI) has been also continuously implemented in the 2008-2009 biennium as next phase step of MALITA. MERRAC, one of four Regional Activity Centres (RACs) of NOWPAP, has developed monitoring guidelines, sectoral guidelines, and brochures related to sea-based marine litter and port reception facilities and services through MALITA project. Based upon these output, MERRAC will continuously implement relevant activities of RAP MALI in order to help to establish and improve a regional mechanism to deal with the sea-based marine litter problem. This paper aims to introduce MERRAC activities under MALITA and RAP MALI, and to suggest several recommendations to reduce marine litter in the NOWPAP region.
Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Surface Tension Change of Liquefied
Droplets on their Ascending Speed
Cho, Yoon-Tae ; Song, Mu-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 160~163
ocean sequestration is being considered as a way to earn a frame of time to change other industrial life pattern to overcome the global warming crisis. The method is to dilute the captured
into ocean by ejecting the liquefied
through nozzles. The main issue of such method is the effectiveness and safety, and in both problems the rising speed of those LCO2 droplet is the key parameter. In this paper, the rising speed of LCO2 droplets is numerically studied including the effect of the surfactant which can be residing along the density interface of the droplets. A front tracking method with a simple surface tension model is developed and the rising speed of the droplets is carefully investigated with varying the various parameters. It is demonstrated that the variable surface tension can change the deformation of the droplet, the flow near the interface, and the rising speed.
Three-Dimensional Mixing Characteristics in Seomjin River Estuary
Kim, Jong-Kyu ; Kwak, Gyeong-Il ; Jeong, Jeong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 164~174
In this study we try to identify the three-dimensional mixing characteristics of Seomjin River discharges in Seomjin River Estuary and Gwangyang Bay using a seasonal field observation (CTD) during spring tide and a three-dimensional numerical model with EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code). The tidal elevation conditions of the four main tidal harmonic constituents on the open boundary and river discharges and thermal effluents at the specific boundary are considered. The calculated harmonic constants of tide and tidal current agreed well with those of observations at two stations for tide and two stations for tidal current. The model successfully reproduced well known the estuarine circulation in Seomjin River Estuary where tide and river discharges are dominant forcings. In the winter mean discharges case, tidal currents move Seomjin River discharges in Seomjin River mouth and in the summer mean discharges case, river flows move Seomjin River discharges near ae Seomjin River Estuary. A three-dimensional mixing characteristics of Seomjin River Estuary show well a three-dimensional estuarine circulation and thermal effluents effect to the seasonal variation of river discharges.