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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Marine Environmental Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Nov 2012
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Aug 2012
Volume 15, Issue 2 - May 2012
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
A Study on Experiment for Countermeasures to Overtopping at Tapdong Revetment in Jeju
Koh, Hyeok-Jun ; Kim, Jeong-Rok ; Cho, Il-Hyoung ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 163~169
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.163
In this paper, model test on the Tapdong's revetment at Jeju-si has been conducted to figure out the causes of frequent occurrence of wave overtopping and to suggest the action plan. In the model test, the reflection coefficients were measured according to the change of wave periods for with and without armor stones. Also, the wave overtopping rate and the wave pressures inside revetment structure for 4 types of upper block were estimated for various wave heights and wave periods, which are chosen based on the NE design wave with 50 year return period. It is found that the increase of the upper structure's height and the modification of the curved protruding shape are effective in reducing the overtopping rate.
Comparison of Weather and Wave Data from Ocean Observation Buoys on the Southwestern Coast of Korea during Typhoon Muifa
Yoon, Han-Sam ; Kwon, Jun-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 170~176
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.170
This paper analyzes the sea state and characteristics during the August 2011 passage of Typhoon Muifa based on data measured at four ocean weather/wave observation stations (buoys) located on the southwestern coast of Korea. When the typhoon arrived in the area approximately 230 km west of Mokpo at 9 PM on August 7, the decrease in air pressure led to increases in sea level of 25.64 cm at the Chilbal-do buoy, 16.43 cm at the Geomun-do buoy, and 9.60 cm at the Geoje-do buoy. The maximum wave height increased at the Geomun-do buoy about seven times faster than at the Chilbal-do buoy. The low water temperature at Chilbaldo during the typhoon passage probably reduced the wave energy. In the face of the oncoming typhoon, the southwest direction of the wind and waves may have been the result of external forces transporting seawater (energy) from the open sea toward the coast. The weather and ocean data from the Mara-do buoy were negatively correlated with those of Chilbal-do, whereas the data from Geomun-do had a positive correlation with those of Geoje-do.
Characteristics of Incident Waves on Seaweed Farm Field Around Gumil-up Sea, Wando
Jeon, Yong-Ho ; Yoon, Han-Sam ; Kim, Dong-Hwan ; Kim, Heon-Tae ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 177~185
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.177
Wave field measurements were made over a period of 18 days to study the spatial distribution of incident wave on seaweed tarm field around Gumil-up Sea, Wando, Korea. These measured data were compared with data from the Geomun-do ocean weather/wave observation buoy. A numerical simulation model that combined the offshore design wave with the seasonal normal incoming wave was used to study the incident wave distribution surrounding a seaweed farm. The results are summarized as follows. (1) On-site wave measurements showed that the major relationship between maximum and significant wave height was
. (2) Offshore incident wave energy reaching the coast was greatly influenced by the wind direction. A north wind reduced the incident wave energy and a south wind increased it. (3) The calculated maximum wave height under the design wave boundany conditions was in the range of 4~5 m and the reduction in the incident wave height ratio ranged from approximately 38.1% to 47.6% at Gumil-up Sea. Under normal wave conditions, the maximum wave heights were 3.6~4.0 m in summer and 2.3~2.7 m in winter while the reduction in the incident wave height ratio was about 41.8% to 49.1%. (4) The sea state in the southern area of Gumil-up was the most affected by ocean waves, whereas the sea state in the northern area was very stable. The significant wave ratio in the south was about six times that in the north.
Impacts on Residence Time and Water Quality of the Saemangeum Reservoir Caused by Inner Development
Yoo, Sang-Cheol ; Suh, Seung-Won ; Lee, Hwa-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 186~197
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.186
In order to understand hydrodynamic and water quality changes on the Saemangeum reservoir in accordance to inner development plan, intensive numerical simulations using EFDC have been done. Due to inner dike construction and proposed dredging plans, stratification might occur and yield flow field change. It should be noticed that very conditional gate operation schedule adjusting target water elevation of -1.5 meter causes severe stratification and hence plays an important role in poor water qualities. By using random walk particle tracking residence simulations, it is found that hydrodynamic characteristics depends greatly on riverine inflow conditions. It is also inferred that the northern part of the Mangyeong reservoir behaves as a dead zone and acts as major reasoning of water quality deterioration owing to benthic flux from long-term residing settled sediment.
A Fundamental Study on the Effect of Ocean Fertilization by Deep Sea Water
Shiokari, Megumi ; Tabeta, Shigeru ; Kato, Takayoshi ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 198~207
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.198
In this study, we investigated the effect of ocean fertilization by deep sea water, using an ecosystem model which contains not only phytoplankton but also zooplankton. The model is based on NEMURO which consists of eleven compartments - two species of phytoplankton, three species of zooplankton,
, particulate organic nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen and particulate silicon. We introduced nitrogen cell quota in the both species of phytoplankton, and silicon cell quota in the large phytoplankton in addition to the eleven compartments of NEMURO. We made the experiment at Izu Oshima Island in order to investigate the effect of ocean fertilization. In this experiment, we could not find clear differences between the cases with and without deep sea water. We investigated the causes of the experiment results by the model simulations. One of the causes was high concentrations of nutrients in surface seawater used in the experiment. Another was that the increase of total concentration of inorganic nitrogen does not necessarily accelerate the photosynthetic rate because inorganic nitrogen uptake rate is related to the ratio of
. Because the model can represent the results of the experiment, we investigated the effect of ocean fertilization by deep sea water using this model. We found that the effect of ocean fertilization hardly appeared when the interval of the addition of deep sea water was too short, or the amount of deep sea water was too much. It is supposed that if the addition of deep sea water is too frequent or too much, the dilution of plankton's concentrations will exceed the effect of promoting phytoplankton's photosynthesis.
Use of Numerical Simulation for Water Area Observation by Microwave Radar
Yoshida, Takero ; Rheem, Chang-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 208~218
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.208
Numerical simulation technique has been developed to calculate microwave backscattering from water surface. The simulation plays a role of a substitute for experiments. Validation of the simulation was shown by comparing with experimental results. Water area observations by microwave radar have been simulated to evaluate algorithms and systems. Furthermore, the simulation can be used to understand microwave scattering mechanism on the water surface. The simulation has applied to the various methods for water area observations, and the utilizations of the simulation are introduced in this paper. In the case of fixed radar, we show following examples, 1. Radar image with a pulse Doppler radar, 2. Effect of microwave irradiation width and 3. River observation (Water level observation). In addition, another application (4.Synthetic aperture radar image) is also described. The details of the applications are as follows. 1. Radar image with a pulse Doppler radar: A new system for the sea surface observation is suggested by the simulation. A pulse Doppler radar is assumed to obtain radar images that display amplitude and frequency modulation of backscattered microwaves. The simulation results show that the radar images of the frequency modulation is useful to measure sea surface waves. 2. Effect of microwave irradiation width: It is reported (Rheem) that microwave irradiation width on the sea surface affects Doppler spectra measured by a CW (Continuous wave) Doppler radar. Therefore the relation between the microwave irradiation width and the Doppler spectra is evaluated numerically. We have shown the suitable condition for wave height estimation by a Doppler radar. 3. River observation (Water level observation): We have also evaluated algorithms to estimate water current and water level of river. The same algorithms to estimate sea surface current and sea surface level are applied to the river observation. The simulation is conducted to confirm the accuracy of the river observation by using a pulse Doppler radar. 4. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image: SAR images are helpful to observe the global sea surface. However, imaging mechanisms are complicated and validation of analytical algorithms by SAR images is quite difficult. In order to deal with the problems, SAR images in oceanic scenes are simulated.
Consideration on the Concentration of the Active Substances Produced by the Ballast Water Treatment System
Kim, Eun-Chan ; Oh, Jeong-Hwan ; Lee, Seung-Guk ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 219~226
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.219
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments in 2004 to prevent the transfer of aquatic organisms via ballast water. Thirty-four ballast water treatment systems were granted IMO active substance basic approval, among which twenty systems were granted final approval. This paper is an in-depth consideration of the mechanism principles of the treatment systems that received active substance basic or final approval from IMO, and on the concentration of Total Residual Oxidant (TRO). The TRO maximum allowable discharge concentration was reduced by neutralization equipment, resulting with a concentration lower than 0.2 ppm. However, between various treatment systems TRO maximum allowable dosage showed large differences, ranging from 1 to 15 ppm. The discrepancies of treatment allowable dosage concentration between different treatment systems are largely due to the properties of species and water conditions such as the temperature and turbidity, rather than the characteristics of treatment systems and the type or presence of filters etc.
Characteristics and Reasonable Management Approaches of Coastal Reclamation in Korean
Eom, Ki-Hyuk ; Lee, Dae-In ; Kim, Young-Tae ; Kim, Gui-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 227~237
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.227
This paper analyzes the current status, characteristics, and problems of coastal reclamation in Korea and suggests effective management approaches. Reclamation is concentrated from the West Sea to the South Sea. In the 1980s and 1990s, most projects were intended for agricultural use, whereas in recent years reclamation for industrial and harbour sites(e.g., ship-building) have been increasing. The continuous onslaught of reclamation and development projects threatens the coastal environment, especially tidal flats and fishing areas, and fishery production has been reduced in some areas. The largest tidal flats have been used for dumping sites of dredged coastal sediments, urban development projects, and industrial complex composition. Thus, it is necessary to assess current policy using top-down approaches after establishing appropriate directions and standards for coastal management. Both short-term development profits and long-term conservation should be considered when attempting to balance development and conservation. In addition, improvements of marine environmental impact assessment and in the legal system are necessary.
Effects of Evaporation on the Weathering Rate and Chemical Composition of Iranian Heavy Crude Oil
Kim, Beom ; Kim, Gi-Beum ; Sim, Won-Joon ; Yim, Un-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 238~246
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.238
Once oil is spilled into marine environment, it experiences various weathering processes among which evaporation is the most dominant process in the initial stage of weathering. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of evaporation on the physicochemical properties of spilled oil using standardized laboratory experiments. Laboratory evaporation process was successfully reproduced using controlled rotary evaporation method. In case of Iranian Heavy crude (IHC), evaporation rate after 48 hours was
(n=40, p<0.001). Evaporation was simulated using ADIOS2 weathering model and the result was in agreement with laboratory experiment. Chemical composition changes of petroleum hydrocarbons including alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by evaporation rate were also analyzed. As oil evaporated, low molecular weight alkanes and PAHs decreased, while biomakers showed conservative characteristics. Among biomarkers,
-hopane was used for calculation of weathering rates, which matched with evaporative mass losses. Weathering rate calculation using hopane showed that stranded oils of weathering stage I (28.9%) and mesocosm oil weathering experiment till 5 days (26.5%) were mainly affected by evaporation process.
Identification of Major Crude Oils Imported into Korea using Molecular and Stable Carbon Isotopic Compositions
Kim, Eun-Sic ; An, Jun-Geon ; Kim, Gi-Beum ; Shim, Won-Joon ; Joo, Chang-Kyu ; Kim, Moon-Koo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 247~256
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.247
Stable carbon isotope ratio of oil components are known to be unaffected by weathering processes and thus has been widely used to determine the origin of spilled oil. In this study, molecular index and composition of stable carbon isotope in 15 crude oils and petroleum product were analyzed and used as oil fingerprints to determine the discriminating power of each fingerprinting method among target crude oils. Through the fingerprints of alkane distribution only Bintulu and B-C(1%) were distinguishable from other crude oils. The pristane/phytane ratio can classify the crude oils into three groups but differentiation of crude oils within a group was impossible using the ratio. The crude oils of A.L., A.S.L., Foroozan and B-C(1%) were differentiated from the other oils using PAH source recognition indexes of C2D/C2P and C3D/C3P. The usage of 4-mD/1-mD and 2/3-mD/1-mD ratio was able to distinguish A.S.L., Bintulu and Oman from the other crude oils. However the PAH source recognition ratios in the other crude oils were similar and thus they were impractical to be used for source identification among the target crude oils. Stable carbon isotope ratios of alkanes were able to uniquely specify each crude oil in the plot of
except A.L., A.M., Qatar-Marine, B-C(1%). The oil fingerprinting method using stable carbon isotope ratios of individual alkane compounds showed more discriminating power among the target crude oils than the conventional source recognition indexes of PAHs or alkanes.
A Study on the Water Quality Improvement in Semi-closed Sea Area Using Solar Powered Circulators
Kim, Deok-Gil ; Lee, Eun-Kyeong ; Kim, Mu-Chan ; Song, Sung-Kyu ; Cho, Kwang-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 257~262
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.257
This study was conducted to verify the performance of the solar water circulation apparatus that was installed in a semi-closed sea area of Tongyeong to improve the water quality through removing thermocline and oxygen depleted water mass, and to prevent the occurrence of red tides caused by eutrophication. From 8 weeks of experiments, we found that the thermocline in the semi-closed sea area has been removed gradually after installation of the apparatus. The initial temperature of surface and bottom was
, respectively and it was changed to
in both depth. In case of DO concentration, there was a big gap between surface (5.49 mg/L) and bottom (2.61 mg/L) and was an oxygen depleted water mass in the bottom area at initial. However DO concentration in bottom layer has increased gradually after operation (6.19 mg/L) and the oxygen depleted water mass has removed. Due to the effects of seasonal variation and the operation of the solar water circulation apparatus for 8 weeks, COD concentration decreased from 5.61 mg/L to 2.36 mg/L in surface area, and from 6.08 mg/L to 1.73 mg/L in bottom area. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration also decreased from 0.135 mg/L to 0.050 mg/L in surface area, and from 0.076 mg/L to 0.051 mg/L in bottom area. This research was conducted from July to September, and it might be possible that the variation of water quality was affected by both seasonal variation and the operation of the water circulation apparatus. Hence a further research is required to verify the performance of the water circulation apparatus itself and to monitor dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations as well as Chl-a.
Analysis of Modality and Procedures for CCS as CDM Project and Its Countmeasures
Noh, Hyon-Jeong ; Huh, Cheol ; Kang, Seong-Gil ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 15, issue 3, 2012, Pages 263~272
DOI : 10.7846/JKOSMEE.2012.15.3.263
Carbon dioxide, emitted by human activities since the industrial revolution, is regarded as a major contributor of global warming. There are many efforts to mitigate climate change, and carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is recognized as one of key technologies because it can reduce carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources such as a power station or other industrial installation. The inclusion of CCS as clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities has been considered at UNFCCC as financial incentive mechanisms for those developing countries that may wish to deploy the CCS. Although the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol (CMP), at Cancun in December 2010, decided that CCS is eligible as CDM project activities, the issues identified in decision 2/CMP.5 should be addressed and resolved in a satisfactory manner. Major issues regarding modalities and procedure are 1) Site selection, 2) Monitoring, 3) Modeling, 4) Boundaries, 5) Seepage Measuring and Accounting, 6) Trans-Boundary Effects, 7) Accounting of Associated Project Emissions (Leakage), 8) Risk and Safety Assessment, and 9) Liability Under the CDM Scheme. The CMP, by its decision 7/CMP.6, invited Parties to submit their views to the secretariat of Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), SBSTA prepared a draft modalities and procedure by exchanging views of Parties through workshop held in Abu Dhabi, UAE (September 2011). The 7th CMP (Durban, December 2011) finally adopted the modalities and procedures for CCS as CDM project activities (CMP, Decision-/CMP.7). The inclusion of CCS as CDM project activities means that CCS is officially accredited as one of
reducing technologies in global carbon market. Consequently, it will affect relevant technologies and industry as well as law and policy in Korea and aboard countries. This paper presents a progress made on discussion and challenges regarding the issue, and aims to suggest some considerations to policy makers in Korea in order to demonstrate and deploy the CCS project in the near future. According to the adopted modalities and procedures for CCS as CDM project activities, it is possible to implement relevant CCS projects in Non-Annex I countries, including Korea, as long as legal and regulatory frameworks are established. Though Korea enacted 'Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth', the details are too inadequate to content the requirements of modalities and procedures for CCS as CDM project. Therefore, it is required not only to amend the existing laws related with capture, transport, and storage of
for paving the way of an prompt deployment of CCS CDM activities in Korea as a short-term approach, but also to establish the united framework as a long-term approach.