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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Marine Environmental Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Nov 2006
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Aug 2006
Volume 9, Issue 2 - May 2006
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Biologic Effect of Effluents from Shipyard and the Adjacent Stream Water on Four Cultured Organisms
Seo, Jin-Young ; Kim, Gi-Beum ; An, Joon-Geon ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 187~192
In order to know the biological effect of effluent from shipyard and the adjacent stream water on four organisms (flatfish, rockfish, sea squirt and arkshell) cultured around the shipyard, lethal rate and DNA damage were measured after 48 hr exposure and carried out by a single cell gel electrophoresis, namely comet assay.
(48 hr) could not be calculated in any organism 48 hours after exposure to effluent from shipyard and stream water, because all organism showed a lethal rate lower than 20%. Regardless of no acute toxicity, DNA damage of flatfish and rockfish was detected higher in Jang-Pyoung stream than in control, whereas sea squirt revealed higher DNA damage in laundry waste water. From these results, Jang-Pyoung stream seemed to have a relatively higher genotoxicity rather than effluent from shipyard.
A Leg Analysis on the Discharge of Cargo Residue at Sea
Hong, Gi-Hoon ; Park, Chan-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 193~202
The Consultative Meeting of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other matter, 1972 (London Convention 1972) has requested to International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee to collaborate and help clarify a boundary issue between International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Shops, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) and the London Convention concerning 'dumping' versus 'discharges' during normal operations of ships in 2004, and subsequently established a Joint London Convention/MEPC Correspondence Group. The Contracting Parties to London Convention expressed their environmental concerns on the broad interpretation of the "cargo-associated wastes" by the States, which could be discharged by ships under MARPOL. Regulatory regimes for the cargo residues appear to vary among states. Some countries require fur ships to discharge their cargo wastes into the port reception facility and IMO also recommends doing so. This paper examines the related current national and international legal texts for the regulation of disposal of wastes from ships in order to analyze the current global concern on the marine pollution associated with waste discharge during operations of ships. In particular, we attempt to evaluate the likely marine environmental consequences arising from the disposal of cargo residue using an hypothetical case for the coal cargo residue among bulk cargos in this paper, since location, magnitude and frequency of the discharge of coal cargo residues into the sea adjacent to Korean Peninsula are not readily available. The cargo residues may be discharged to the sea according to MARPOL 73/78; however, its marine environmental consequences can be significant depending upon the characteristics and amounts of wastes to be discharged. Also the public tolerance of the environmental consequences would be widely different among nations. Multilateral environmental agreements, in general, more strictly apply their rules if there are other options to disposal at sea, i.e. port reception facility in this case. Therefore, port reception facilities for the wastes generated by ships are recommended to be further constructed in major national ports in order to reduce the risk of environmental damages during the operations of ships.
Spatio-temporal Distributions of Organic Matter in Surface Sediment in the Central Part of the South Sea, Korea
Noh, Il-Hyeon ; Yoon, Yang-Ho ; Park, Jong-Sick ; Soh, Ho-Young ; Kim, Dae-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 203~215
Field observations on the spatio-temporal distribution of organic matter of the surface sediment were carried out at 15 stations in the central parts of the South Sea of Korea from April 2002 to January 2003. The range of water temperature and salinity in bottom waters, mud content and water content of surface sediment were
, respectively. Measured parameters on the surface sediments of ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (CODs), phaeopigment, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) also ranged in
, respectively. The spatio-temporal distribution of organic matter demonstrated higher concentrations offshore than at lesions near the coastal line. Higher concentrations occurred in the summer and spring. The results indicated that the origin of organic matter in surface sediments in the central part of the South Sea was autochthonous rather than allocthonous because the organic matter had an average C/N ratio of 6.44 (
). However, the composition of autochthonous organic matter was mainly derived from detritus rather than living phytoplankton, which was Indicated by the results of the POC/phaeopigment ratio. A principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that 73.2% of the variability in the data was described by two factors: 1) an 'environmental factor concerning the accumulation of materials (57.3%)' and 2) 'origin of organic matter and the composition by primary production (15.9%)'. The sedimentary environment in the central part of the South Sea was divided into four regions from the factor score of the PCA by the concentrations of organic matter and the composition ratio of organic matters from phytoplankton in surface sediments.
The Characteristics of Oxygen Deficient Water Mass in Gamak Bay
Kim, Jeong-Bae ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Yu, Jun ; Choi, Yang-Ho ; Jung, Chang-Su ; Lee, Pil-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 216~224
To clarify the formation process and characteristics of oxygen deficient water mass in Gamak Bay, oxygen deficiency was weekly observed from 17 June to 12 September 2005. Surface water temperature was significantly lower in the outer bay than in the inner bay, whereas the bottom water temperature was higher in the central area of bay than in the outer and inner bay. The vertical stratification of water mass was strongly formed during the period, and thermocline was observed between 3 and 5m deep. The oxygen deficiency in the bottom layer began to appear at early July in the inner bay and gradually spread to the center area of the bay in early August. The mean transparency and light attenuation coefficient(
) in water mass was 4.0m and 0.47, respectively. Average concentrations of nutrient and chlorophyll
in the bottom layer were significantly higher than those in surface, and those concentrations were significantly higher in the inner bay than in the outer bay. During the formation of oxygen deficiency in the bottom layer, oxygen penetration depth in the bottom sediment were extremely shallow, and oxygen consumption rate in the bottom sediment were lower than that in the area where oxygen deficient water mass disappeared. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the bottom layer are negatively correlated with nutrient concentrations, whereas those in the surface layer did not show a significant relationship with nutrient concentrations. Elevated loss of oxygen in the bottom water mass was attributed to the increase of the oxygen consumption rates in sediments and the decomposition of organic matter by microorganism.
Characteristics of Temperature and Salinity observed at the Ieodo Ocean Research Station
Oh, Kyung-Hee ; Park, Young-Gyu ; Lim, Dong-Il ; Jung, Hoi-Soo ; Shim, Jae-Seol ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 225~234
Using the data from the sea water monitoring system installed at the Ieodo Ocean Research Station, we have analyzed the water properties around the station as well as the characteristics of the fresh water from the Changjiang River and the influence of typhoons on the sea water. In general, the accuracy and stability of the temperature data are high, but those of the salinity data are worse than the specification of the instruments. The daily variation of temperature and salinity is mainly controlled by the vertical motion of a water column due to semi-diurnal tide and diurnal change in the solar insolation. Seasonal change is prominent in temperature data. The freshwater from the Changjiang River is the main cause of large salinity variation. In August 2003 and August 2004, about 10 days before fresh water was observed near the Jeju Island, low salinity water was observed at the Ieodo Station. On the other hand, in July 2005 fresh water was observed at the station but not at around the Jeju Island. In other words, the fresh water observed at the Ieodo Station does not always expand to the Jeju Island. Two strong typhoons passed by the station in September 2003 and August 2004. The effects of the typhoons were lasted for 3 to 4 days.
Methodological Comparison of the Quantification of Total Carbon and Organic Carbon in Marine Sediment
Kim, Kyeong-Hong ; Son, Seung-Kyu ; Son, Ju-Won ; Ju, Se-Jong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 235~242
The precise estimation of total and organic carbon contents in sediments is fundamental to understand the benthic environment. To test the precision and accuracy of CHN analyzer and the procedure to quantify total and organic carbon contents(using in-situ acidification with sulfurous acid(
)) in the sediment, the reference material s such as Acetanilide(
), and BCSS-1(standard estuary sediment) were used. The results indicate that CHN analyzer to quantify carbon and nitrogen content has high precision(percent error=3.29%) and accuracy(relative standard deviation=1.26%). Additionally, we conducted the instrumental comparison of carbon values analyzed using CHN analyzer and Coulometeric Carbon Analyzer. Total carbon contents measured from two different instruments were highly correlated(
, n=84, p<0.0001) with a linear relationship and show no significant differences(paired t-test, p=0.0003). The organic carbon contents from two instruments also showed the similar results with a significant linear relationship(
, n=84, p<0.0001) and no significant differences(paired t-test, p<0.0001). Although it is possible to overestimate organic carbon contents for some sediment types having high inorganic carbon contents(such as calcareous ooze) due to procedural and analytical errors, analysis of organic carbon contents in sediments using CHN Analyzer and current procedures seems to provide the best estimates. Therefore, we recommend that this method can be applied to measure the carbon content in normal any sediment samples and are considered to be one of the best procedure far routine analysis of total and organic carbon.
Influence of the Increase of Dissolved
Concentration on the Marine Organisms and Ecosystems
Lee, Jung-Suk ; Lee, Kyu-Tae ; Kim, Chan-Kook ; Park, Gun-Ho ; Lee, Jong-Hyeon ; Park, Young-Gyu ; Gang, Seong-Gil ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 243~252
Influence of the increasing carbon dioxide concentration in seawater on various marine organisms is assessed in this article with regard to the impacts of anthropogenic
introduced into surface or deep oceans. Recent proposals to sequester
in deep oceans arouse the concerns of adverse effects of increased
concentration on deep-sea organisms. Atmospheric introduction of
into the ocean can also acidify the surface water, thereby the population of some sensitive organisms including coral reefs, cocolithophorids and sea urchins will be reduced considerably in near future (e.g. in 2100 unless the increasing trend of
emission is actively regulated). We exposed bioluminescent bacteria and benthic amphipods to varying concentrations of
and also pH for a short period. The
unit decrease of pH adversely affected test organisms. However, amphipods were not influenced by decreasing pH when HCl was used for the seawater acidification. In this article, we reviewed the biological adverse effects of
on various marine organisms studied so for. Theses results will be useful to predict the potential risks of the increase of
concentrations in seawater due to the increase of atmospheric
emission and/or sequestration of
in deep oceans.
Collision Analysis between FRP Fishing Boats According to Various Configurations
Jang, In-Sik ; Kim, Yong-Seop ; Kim, Il-Dong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 253~262
In this paper, collision analysis is carried out between two FRP fishing boats. A computer simulation with finite element method is used to accomplish this objective. At first, a detailed geometric model of the boat is constructed using 3-D CAD program. The formation of a finite element from a geometric data of the boats is carried out using HYPERMESH that is the commercial software for mesh generation and post processing. Twelve collision configurations are established by combining two kinds of contact angle(
) and three different speed(5, 10, 15knot) for small and large boats. Collision analysis is accomplished using DYNA3D. Stress distribution and deformation shape are investigated for each collision condition. In general,
collision angle generate larger stress than
case and the collision for two moving boats showed larger maximum stress than the case that one is moving and the other is stationary. When analysis is carried out until 150ms contact parts of two boats are broken for 10 and 15knot collision speed, in which maximum stress is larger than ultimate strength of the material.