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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
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A Survey of THMs Formation in J Water Purification Plant and Its Reduction by PAC Treatment during Summer
Hwang, Gap-Soo ; Lee, Jang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 1~6
This study was conducted to survey trihalomethane(THMs) levels in finished water of J water treatment plant and examine its reduction by powder activated carbon(PAC) treatment. Samples were collected weekly based and head-space technique was employed to determine THMs levels by G.C-ECD. THMs levels in finished waters were highest in August and showed close relationship with water temperature. All the samples satisfied the drinking water limit(100
g/l) for THMs. The individual formation rates of THMs were 64.8% for CHCl
, 28.4% for CHCl
BR, 6.5% for CHClBr
and 0.3% for CHBr
, respectively and showed little monthly difference. The reduction efficiency of THMs formation by PAC treatment was 67% during July and August. Bromine substituents were more efficiently reduced than CHCl
The Effect of Nutrient Amendments on Biodegradability of Kerosene and Growth of Kerosene-degrading Microorganisms
Chung, Kyu-Hyuck ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 7~12
Bioremediation is the technology to harness nature's biodegradative capabilities to remove or detoxify pollutions that threaten public health as environmental contaminants. Composting may become one of major bioremediation technologies for treating soils contaminated with petroleum if the fate of contaminants during composting is better understood Most composting research of petroleum was primarily focused on removing contaminant by optimizing composting conditions. Accordingly, laboratory feasibility studies may be useful to establish a realistic basis in co-composting complex substrate such as petroleum hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study was to assess the optimal conditions of kerosene biodegradation following supplementation with nutrient amendments under simulated composting conditions. Although it increased the growth of bacterial consortium, addition of co-substrates 0.5%(w/v) such as acetic acid, citric acid, glucose, and malic acid was not beneficial. Combination of nitrogen and phosphorous source enhanced kerosene biodegradation and reduced VOC evolution. These results showed that kerosene was able to utilize in bioremediation technology.
Water Quality Management of Simple Piped Water Supply System and Its Satisfaction of the Residents
Chae, Han-Uk ; Park, Jae-Yong ; Moon, Hyo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 13~22
For the purpose of inquiring into the actual conditions of water quality management of Simple Piped Water Supply(SPWS) and the satisfaction and attitudes of inhabitants about utilizing water-supply, this research was done through the questionnaires, the investigation of surrounding environment and water quality analysis in the Sangju city, Kyungsang-pookdo during 4 months from March to June, 1998. The fountainhead of SPES using ground water accounted for 65.3%, which was the highest rate in the group. Most of them was at least 10 years in the number of utilization year. 79.6% of them were exposed to many sorts of surrounding pollution origins. The examination of water was performed only through a test about water purification and 24.5% of them disinfection by chlorine also no residual chlorine was detected at all. All the waterworks did not have any education to the managers of water quality and 81.5% of them held physical examination. As a result of the water examination about SPWS, 65.3% of them were found incongruity and the valley and springing water accounted for higher than the underground water in the rate of incongruity. Looking into the details of the result in the water examination, a category of colon bacilli was ranked in the highest rate and the next one was general bacilli, nitric acid nitrogen and turbidity in order. In the satisfaction degree of the water quality, the satisfied accounted for 44.6%, and 29.2% each. Over the state of satisfaction about the ways of water examination, satisfaction accounted for 44.6%, and unsatisfaction 28.3%. Summarizing the result of the above-stated, the state of Water Quality Management of the SPWS was in a poor condition. Thus for the water Quality Management, systematic and scientific water Quality Management mainly by the administrative organization other than voluntary management by the village should be done beyond doubt. Additionally the opinions and demands of inhabitants utilizing the water supply have to be positively reflected in the affairs of water Quality Management so that the distrust of inhabitants to the SPWS should be settled.
Removal of Phosphate by Using Wasted Sludge of Seafood Processing Factory
Choi, Bong-Jong ; Lee, Seung-Mok ; Kim, Keun-Han ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 23~28
Phosphate removal through adsorbent, such as activated alumina, powdered aluminum oxide, flyash, blasted furnace slag and other materials, is commonly and widely practiced. The purpose of this study was to improve the removal efficiency of phosphorus in waste sludge earned at seafood processing factories. To investigate the utility and the feasibility of this sludge disposal process, experiment was carried out with a batch process. As a result, phosphate removal appears to increase with increasing adsorbent does, but shows no changes at an adsorbent does over 5g/l. With increasing ratios of initial phosphate concentration to adsorbent does, the amount of removed phosphate is increased while phosphate removal(%) is decreased. Wasted sludge, treated with zinc chloride chemically, represented a better efficiency than the untreated activated sludge and zinc chloride itself, when they reacted with phosphate solution.
A Feasibility Study on Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Straw
Park, Jong-An ; Hur, Joon-Moo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 29~35
Quantity and composition of biogas from semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of straw were obtained experimentally in laboratory scale digesters fed with 1 liter of 5% straw-water mixture and maintained at 35
. Experiments were carried out for hydraulic retention time(HRT) of 8, 10 and 15days, respectively. The amount and composition of biogas produced were measured until steady-state was achieved for each run. The amount of biogas and methane percent go through a maximum and decrease continuously towards the steady-state after three times operation of hydraulic retention time(HRT). Methane gas production rates at steady-state increase with the increasing of HRT. Biogas production of 0.45 liter/day with 25% methane, 0.42 liter/day with 33.7% methane and 0.492 liter/day with 31.7% methane were obtained for 8, 10 and 15days of HRT, respectively. The high proportion of soluble carbohydrates present in straw makes the volatile fatty acids to build up within the digester causing a drop in pH that inhibits digestion. Regular control of pH is therefore necessary by adding alkalinity. Reductions in COD increase with increase in HRT. The stratification of plant material within the digester is different from that of manure, and modifications in design and operation of digesters may be necessary if they are fed with plant matter.
Determination of Biodegradation Rate on Dichlorvos and Methidathion
Min, Kyung-Jin ; Cha, Chun-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 36~43
The present study was performed to investigate biodegradation rate of dichlorvos and methidathion. In the biodegradation test of two pesticides by the modified river die-away method from June 17 to August 22, 1998, the biodegradation rate constants and half-life were determined in Nakdong(A) and Kumho River(B). Biodegradation rate of dichlorvos was 4.51% in A sampling point, 6.88% in B sampling point after 7 days. Biodegradation rate constants and half-life of dichlorvos were 0.0066 and 105 days in A sampling point, 0.0102 and 67.9 days in B sampling point, respectively. Biodegradation rate of methidathion was 23% in A sampling point, 36% in B sampling point after 7 days. Biodegradation rate constants and half-life of methidathion were 0.0377 and 18.4 days in A sampling point, 0.0641 and 10.8 days in B sampling point, respectively. Biodegradation rate of methidathion was faster than that of dichlorvos. This suggested that the difference in biodegradation of pesticides was due to difference in the water quality and standard plate counts in the Nackdong and Kumho Rivers. The result of correlation analysis between biodegradation rate constants of the pesticides and water quality(DO, BOD, SS, ABS, NH
-N, and NO
-N) showed significant correlation with BOD, SS and NH
-N at the 5% significant level. A significant linear equation was obtained from regression analysis at the 5% significant level, whereas, dependent variables were BOD, SS and NH
-N, and the biodegradation rate constant was independent variable. It is suggested that dichlorvos will be mainly degraded by hydrolysis, and for methidathion was both hydrolysis and biodegradation. A significant QSAR equation was obtained from regression analysis at the 10% significant level, whereas, dependent variable is biodegradation rate constants of BPMC, chlorothalonil, dichlorvos and methidathion, vapor pressures, partition coefficients and water solubilities of the pesticides are independent variables. Also, a significant linear equation was obtained from regression analysis at the 1% significant level, whereas, dependent variable is biodegradation rate constants of BPMC, chlorothalonil, dichlorvos and methidathion, hydrolysis rate constants of the pesticides are independent variables. It is suggested that the pesticides will be degraded by main degradation factor when the pesticides was affected both hydrolysis and biodegradation.
Quantitative Analysis for the Behaviour of Phosphorus and TOC in Biological Wastewater Treatment
Choi, Suk-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 44~50
A Study on Ni, Cr and Cu Concentrations of Ambient Air Adjacent to Heavy Traffic Road Side in Seoul and Correlations between Those and Traffic Volume by Types of Car
Jo, Jun-Ho ; Park, Seok-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 51~57
This study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of Ni, Cr and Cu, to analyze the correlations among those, and between concentrations and traffic volumes by type of car in roadside ambient air at Chongro-, Chungkechon- and Kangnam terminal- area in Seoul from October 1st to October 31st in 1997. The results were as follows ; 1. The means of concentrations of Ni in roadside ambient air were 34.1, 25.1 and 23.6 ng/m
at Chungkechon, Kangnam terminal and Chongro area, respectively. The highest concentrations of Ni by time were 26.8 in the evening, 45.5 in the evening and 49.4 ng/m
in the forenoon at Chongro, Chungkechon and Kangnam terminal area, respectively. 2. The means of concentrations of Cr in road side ambient air were 97.7, 80.1 and 70.9 ng/m
at Chong, Chungkechon and Kangnam terminal area, respectively. The highest concentrations of Cu by time were 205.3 in the evening, 114.4 in the evening and 92.3 ng/m
in the forenoon at Chongro, Chungkechon and Kangnam terminal area, respectively. 4. The tendencies of concentrations of Ni and Cr by time were similar to each other. Especially, at Kangnam terminal area, correlation coefficients between concentrations of Ni and Cr and the traffic volume of bus were high(r=0.997,0.975). 5. The tendency of concentration of Cu and the traffic volume of passenger car at each area were high(r=0.832, 0.968) 6. Correlation coefficients between Cu and Zn, and between Ni and Cr were 0.762 and 0.842, respectively. This means that the possibility of co-existence of Cu-Zn or Ni-Cr is very high.
Application of Rats According to Molecular Weight of Chitosan
Jung, Duck-Chae ; Lee, Ki-Chang ; Yoon, Cheol-Hun ; Kim, Pan-Gyi ; Shin, Dong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 58~63
Biodegradable films were prepared by solution blend method in the weight ratio of chitosan for the purpose of useful biomaterials. The possibility of biomaterials prepared from natural polymer as a skin substitute was evaluated by measuring biocompatibility. These films were inserts in the back of rat and their biodegradability was investigated by the film weight and hematology as a function of time for the biotransformation. The result of rat test showed that medium, high viscosity chitosan induced some suspects of inbiocompatibility in the tissue by goreign body reaction 48 and 72 hours after implantation. Also, we prepared the official burn ointment which is made by low viscosity chitosan. This burn ointment was covered on the skin wound of artificial burn and their effect of healing was investigated by the evaluation of the naked eye and hematological change as a function of time. The result of rats test showed that burn ointments made from chitosan was effective reductio of inflammation than negative group.
A Study on the Factors Affecting Removal of Chromium(VI) Using
Photocatalyst in a Circular Type Reactor
Kim, Hyun-Yong ; Cho, Il-Hyoung ; Lee, So-Jin ; Ki, Won-Ju ; Lee, Hong-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 64~69
This study was carried out the removal of Cr(VI) which was known to the toxic pollutant in industry using the process of UV and TiO
photocatalyst in a circular type reactor. In this experiment, the series of photocatalytic process for the removal of Cr(VI) has been selected as a model reaction in a circular type reactor in order to obtain the basic data on the influence of various experimental parameters such as circulation flow rate, pH of solution, initial Cr(VI) light illumination and TiO
dosage, and salicylic acid concentration. The results of this study were as follows; 1. With both UV light illumination and TiO
present, Cr(VI) was more effectively eliminated than with either UV or TiO
alone. 2. As the circulation flow rate of solution increased, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was increased. However, over 2.4 l/min of circulation flow rate, the efficiency wa limited. 3. A increase in the photocatalytic removal of Cr(VI) was noticed with decreasing pH. 4. An increase in the photocatalytic removal of Cr(VI) was noticed with decreasing Initial Cr(VI) concentration and first order kinetics was observed from the result at different initial concentration of Cr(VI). 5. Photocatalytic removal efficiency of Cr(VI) increased with increasing TiO
dosage. However, over 1.0 g/l of TiO
dosage, the efficiency reached a plateau. 6. As low concentration of saliculic acid were added, there was an increase in the removal efficiency of Cr(VI). However, over 300 mg/l of salicylic acid, the efficiecy was decreased. It eas found that application of photocatalysis to water treatment that contains both Cr(VI) and salicylic acid was possible.
Phosphorus Removal from Domestic Sewage by Electrolysis with Aluminium Electrodes
Cheong, Kyung-Hoon ; Choi, Hyung-Il ; Jung, Oh-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 70~76
A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the phosphorus removal using the activated sludge-electrolysis reactor which consisted of A
/O system and aluminium electrodes as cathode and anode. In this system, the phosphorus was removed by aluminium ion, which was eluted from aluminiumelectrodes by electrolysis. In the batch experiments, when the current densities were 0.026, 0.052 and 0.08 A/dm
, the phosphorus removal efficiencies for synthetic sewage were 66.4, 86.4 and 98.7% respectively. These results showed that the phosphorus removal efficiency increased with the increase of the current density. When the current values were 13, 26 and 40 mA respectively, the amounts of Al
eluted from electrodes according to Faraday's law were 0.049, 0.07 and 0.12 g and Al/P mole ratio were 1.1, 2.0 and 3.41. In the continuous experiments, As hydraulic retention time(HRT) increased, COD and total nitrogen(T-N) removal efficiencies for domestic sewage increased. The average phosphorus removal rates of the activated sludge-electrolysis system were 97, 91, 80 and 80% at the HRT of 48, 24, 18 and 12 hours, respectively. Especially, the phosphorus removal rate in the activated sludge system with aluminium electrodes was higher than that in the system without aluminium electrodes.
A Study on the Characteristics of Chloramination as an Alternative Disinfectant in Drinking Water
Kim, Pung-Chung ; Woo, Dal-Sik ; Nam, Sang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 77~82
This study was carried to investigate the characteristics of chloramination as a disinfection in drinking water distribution system. The raw water comes from midstream of Han river. In the range of pH 6~8, preformed chloramine of
ratio 5:1 had the HPC inactivation of more than 99% with lower pH and shorter contact time and available chloramine residual was decreased a little. In the chloramines of
ratio 3:1~5:1, the higher
ratio, the much inactivation of HPC was increased, but as contact time was longer, HPC inactivation of
ratio 3:1~5:1 were equaled. Bactericidal activity of three chlorine and postammoniation was influenced by free available chlorine completely and that of preammoniation was as follows : free chlorine
Trihalomethane Formation by Chlorine Dioxide in Case of Water Containing Bromide Ion
Lee, Yoon-Jin ; Lee, Hwan ; Nam, Sang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 83~88
This study was carried out to examine the behavior of THM formation in water treated with chlorine dioxide where humic acid was used as THM precursor. THM was not detected in bromide-free water, but formed in water containing bromide. When 10 mg/l of chlorine dioxide was added to water containing 5 mg/l of humic acid and bromide respectively, 20.46
g/l of THM was formed. It is postulated that chlorine dioxide oxidize bromide to hydrobromous acid, which subsequently reacted with humic acids similar to chlorine reaction. The formation of THM could be reduced at low pH. Among THM formed, CHBr
was the predominant species in the alkaline solution, while CHCl
in the acidic solution. A sample pretreated with chlorine dioxide for 24h before addition of chlorine showed a reduction of 75.1% in THM formation, compared with a sample not pretreated with chlorine dioxide and a sample treated by chlorine for 24h prior to addition of chlorine dioxide also showed a reduction of 37.8% in THM formation, compared with a sample not added with chlorine dioxide. It may explain that chlorine dioxide oxidizes directly a fraction of THM.
Studies on Immunity and Sex Hormone Activity of Bis(tributyltin) oxide
Choi, Han-Young ; Ra, Kyu-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 89~93
The purpose of this study finds out the effect of red ginseng extract(1.0 g/kg) on bis(tributyltin)oxide(TBTO)(10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) which poisons against some organs like thyroid gland, liver, kidney, testis, ovary. Serum immunity and sex hormone activity of rats are examined by gastric tubing for 3 weeks. The weights of each in treated group were increased, especially liver in females and those of testis in males were signignificantly increased at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg (P<0.05, P<0.01). In group treated with TBTO(10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) for females, the serum IgG level was significantly reduced in comparison with control group(P<0.05). The group of females which were poisonned by TBTO and rGe was significantly recovered in TBTO 10 mg/kg + rGe 1.0 g/kg and TBTO 20 mg/kg + rGe 1.0 g/kg. In case of sex hormone activity of each sex, the estradiol activity of females and testosterone activity of males were signignificantly decreased rather than the control group. And control group by bis(tributyltin) oxide and red ginseng extract is just increased estiradiol activity.
The Characteristics of Traffic Noise and Its Effects on Inhabitants' Life at an Apartment Area in Taejon City
Park, Chan-Ho ; Chang, Seong-Sil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 94~102
To estimate the effects of environmental noise on inhabitants' life in an apartment area at Taejon, noise levels and traffic volume of major roads were measured. 203 housewives were surveyed by questionaires including general factors, noise related factors and three items of life effects: subjective evaluations on the general environment, annoyance, and life disturbance due to environmental noise. At the boundary adjacent to the road with more traffic volume, noise level was higher; according to the time, the amount of noise level was in the morning, in the evening, at noon, and at night in order. Most of boundary noise levels were higher than those of recommended standard environmental noise levels in a residential area. The boundary noise level showed a very significant linear relationship with traffic volume of near roads. Noise level difference in the apartments adjacent to three roads was ranged 2.4~6.7dB between in windows open and close state. The apartments adjacent to 9 lane or 6 lane-road, which were protected by noise prevention wall and 20m or more distance from the roads, showed higher noise level at middle floors and high floors than those of low floors; but the buildings adjacent to 4 lane-road, with no protection, showed higher noise level at low and middle floors than those of high floors. Among 203 housewives, 120(59.1%) participated in this study, and 86(73.2%) of them answered that the most serious environmental noise was traffic noise from near roads. Comparing traffic noise levels with those of before-migration, 67.0% participants found the environmental noise became louder. Fifty eight(49.5%) of the participants wanted noise protection wall and 15(25.9%) of them were willing to charge the fee. Less perception on the present noise comparing to those before-migration, less traffic volume, and lower noise levels in the apartments were related to higher scores of self-evaluation on the environment. Higher susceptibility on the present noise, areas with more traffic volume, higher boundary noise levels, and higher noise levels showed higher scores of annoyance on environmental noise and life disturbance. Considering above all things, it was suggested that traffic noise in this area was the major problem of environmental noise, and its' effect was so serious that inhabitants needed some preventive measures for better life quality.
A Study on the Development of Analytical Method for Micro-odorous Compounds in Water
Kim, Eun-Ho ; Son, Hee-Jong ; Kim, Yeong-Ung ; Kim, Hyeong-Seok ; Sung, Nak-Chang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 103~107
Even if odorous compounds remain very low concentration in water, it cause strong odor. Because Geosmin and most of odorous compound had very low vaporization, those were difficult to analyze with GC/MSD and Purge & Trap. So, we needed pre-treatment method for decreasing amounts of extracting solvents, improving recovery efficiencies and increasing analytical efficiencies. This study developed efficient technology for analyzing odorous compounds, using various adsorbents and extracting solvents. The optimum adsorbent was XAD resins. Especially, XAD-2, XAD-7 and XAD-2010 were superior, but XAD-2 of these and the optimum extraction solvent is MTBE. Other extraction solvents' efficiency is in order of MTBE>Dichloromethane>n-Hexane>Diethylether. The optimum NaCl dosage for increasing efficiency is 5 g in liquid-liquid extraction method. The shaking time(0~24hr) has no concern with adsorption efficiency. The optimum adsorbent is XAD-2 resin and extraction solvent is MTBE. Dosing NaCl, adsorption efficiency is increased in liquid-liquid extraction method, but NaCl has no effect on liquid-solid extraction method. In this experimental results, this algae toxins(Mycrocystin, Anatoxin etc.).
A Study on Fume Formation Ratio on Flux Cored Arc Welding Process
Yoon, Chung-Sik ; Paik, Nam-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 25, issue 3, 1999, Pages 108~112
A study was conducted for the effects of input energy on fume formation ratios based on electrode(FFR
flux cored arc welding on stainless steel. Experiments were run in well designed welding fume box. Six types of flux cored wires were used and three levels of current and voltages were given. The measured values of
respectively. Fume formation ratios are not increased dramatically by input energy because of simultaneous increasing of melted electrodes, deposited metal and slag. The results indicate that the test of fume formation ratios in the research on production of low fume welding wire can be run at the fixed condition of input energy rather than various condition.