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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
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A Study on the Composting Process of Food Waste by Seeding the Isolated Effective Microorganism
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 1~10
Although microorganisms play an important role in composting process, researches on the effective microorganism (EM) in composting process are rarely reported. In this study, three stages of work performed 1) investigation of composting facility 2) sample collection and isolation of the EM 3) lab-scale composting by seeding the isolated EM. For this, purpose, physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as temperature, moisture content, organic matter, pH population of microorganism, etc., were investigated during the process and the results were compared with those of a control(non-seeded). In the composting facility, the most active degradation of food waste was suppsed to occur in 10-11th day of composting by observing the temperature and CO2 emission. The population of bacterial and fungi was highest in thermophilic stage. Meanwhile that of actinomycetes and yeast was relatively uniform during the process. In the lab-scale test, the thermophilic stage was maintained longer(more than 9 days in 17 days of experiment) in the seeded which was favored for the high reduction of organic matter and moisture. Reduction rates of lipids and salinity were also increased in the seeded. It confirmed these results that the population of microorganisms in the seeded was observed higher in several orders than the control. However, pH of the seeded was maintained as low as about 4.5 throughout the experiment except the final period of the process. Meanwhile, pH of the control rose in the early stage of the experiment. This was probably due that the seeded microorganisms collected from the composting facility was adapted to the low pH environment.
Determination of Dioxin-like Components in the School Waste Incinerator Residues by EROD-microbioassay
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 11~17
There are among the most relevant toxic emissions from incinerators such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase(EROD) activity in mammalian cell culture(EROD bioassay) is thought to be a selective and sensitive parameter used for the quantification of dioxin-like components. In this study, the toxic emissions from several school waste incinerators were evaluated by determination of CYPIA catalytic activity and cytotoxicity using cell culture microbioassay. The incinerator residue and soil samples were collected from the schools located in Kyunggi province from April to June 1999. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus using toluene for 20 hours. In order to clean-up, concentrated crude extracts were applied to basic alumina column. The EROD activities of extracts in the H4IIE cells were from 1.91
0.32 ng-TEQ/g to 24.54
3.48 ng-TEQ/g of biochemical-TEQ value. In soil samples, CYP1A catalytic activity was 0.09~0.64 ng-TEQ/g. EROD bioassay, seems to be a useful short-term bioassay when information about the biological response of complex environmental samples is needed. Although further study is needed, these results indicate that the potent toxic emissions are produced from school waste semi-incinerators.
Study on the Characteristics of Concentrations and Compositions in
in Kunsan City
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 18~24
The collection of PM10 samples were collected by a PM10 hi-vol. air sampler from June, 1998 through May, 1999 in Kunsan located at western coastal region of Korea. We obtained 84 samples during sampling period. Samples were analyzed to quantify the concentration of ionic and metallic components such as SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Fe. Seasonal variations of the concentrations by wind directions of each component were studied. We found that PM10 concentration had the highest level in winter and the lowest level in summer. When the wind direction is from west to east, the concentration of most ionic and metallic species were higher compared to reverse direction. That implied the effect of air pollutants from industrial area. Also, substantial amount of Na+ and Cl- were observed, which was assumed to the effect from the sea.
Experimental Study on the Accumulation of Cadmium and Other Metals in the Fish Bodies(Oryzias latipes)
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 25~31
In order to assess the accumulation levels of cadmium and other metals(Zn, Cu, Ca and Fe) in fish bodies, an experimental study was performed by raising fry of "Oryzias latipes" in the water containing cadmium 0.03 ppm, cadmium 0.03 ppm + zinc 0.03 ppm and in the tap water(control group) were made. In the results the concentration of Cd in fish bodies were increased with advancing exposure time in Cd 0.03 ppm treated group and 0.03 ppm + Zn 0.03 ppm treated group, but there was no significantly different between both groups with Cd concentration in each week. The concentration of Zn in fish bodies was no changed with advancing exposure time in control group and Cd 0.03 ppm + Zn 0.03 ppm treated group were significantly different from control and Cd 0.03 ppm treated group. The concentration of Cu, Ca and Fe in fish bodies were increased with advancing exposure time, and control group was higher than any other groups. Simple correlation analysis showed that the positive correlation between Cd and Zn, Cu and Ca, Fe, Ca and Fe, but Cd was negative correlation with Cu, Ca and Fe. In conclusion, we investigated a tendency that the concentration of Cd and Zn in fish bodies tended to increase with the lapse of time, but Cu was unchanged and those of Ca and Fe were decreased in administrating the trace dose of Cd and Zn in water. in water.
A Study on Air Pollution in Indoor Gymnasiums
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 32~37
Nowadays, a new word called SBS(sick building syndrome) has been come into existence. At the point of time when an interest about indoor air pollution and, according to this, countermeasure plan are internationally. Moreover institutional countermeasure should be attended at national level since indoor air quality in public places where many people gather is directly connected with national health. Especially indoor pollution of indoor stadia where all sorts of sports are held can give rise to every kinds of respiratory ailments to players as well as audiences. So it is presented as a main factor that indoor space of stadia is crowded with players and audiences compared with other kinds of indoor space. Therefore, in this research to analyze pollution degree of indoor circumstance for gymnasium and exercising room of folk wrestling. basketball, judo, wrestling, hapkido, swordsmanship and boxing making indoor gymnasium and exercising room an object, when 7 items were measures such as thermocircumstance(temperature, relative humidity, air current, intensity of illumination), dust, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide being based on the indoor environmental standard of the first clause of Article 45 of public utilization service which is showed at public hygiene of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, it was showed that indoor temperature, relative humidity, air current and intensity of illumination were over standard amount at the most of folk wrestling gymnasium and exercising room. Indoor density of carbon monoxide was preserved to the extent of standard amount (10ppm) at all gymnasiums but carbon dioxide was not in excess of standard amount(1,000 ppm) at most of gymnasiums. Indoor density of dust induced from respiration exceeded the standard amount (150
/㎥) at all gymnasiums of the folk wrestling. Since the folk wrestling players and participants feel physical subjective symptom seriously, in other words the degree of indoor air pollution at gymnasiums and exercising rooms of the folk wrestling is very high, fundamental solution and countermeasure plan should be presented.
Effect of variation of Nitrogen Content by Cattle Feces on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 38~42
This study was performed to define the effects of the cattle feces on aerobic composting of food wastes in vessel system. Weights of cattle feces added to food wastes of 3kg were 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50kg, respectively. Reactors were operated with stirring for 1 hour per day by 1rpm and aeration for 2 hours per day. When the weight of cattle feces was increased, the highest temperature of sample was increased, the duration period of higher temperature was elongated, and the fluctuatio of pH was severs. When the weight of cattle feces was decreased, the final density was increased. The more cattle feces were added, the more porosity was increased, C/N ratio, salinity and conductivity were decreased. There facts denotes that the addition of cattle feces increases the efficiency of composting process and the final product of composting, namely compost.
Phosphorus Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by Waste Oyster Shells
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 43~49
A laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effects of several factors on the phosphorus removal by waste oyster shells. The waste oyster shells used in this experiments were crushed particle, calcined particle and extracted solution. A higher efficiencies of phosphorus removal were observed, when a particle size of crushed and calcined particle were smaller. The effluent concentration of phosphorus was around 1.6mg/ι in continuous column experiment which packed with crushed particle of waste oyster shell at the influent concentration of PO4-P of 10 mg/ι. But the clogging of column occurred with increasing of throughput volume of influent. The efficiency of phosphorus removal increased with increasing of dosage amount of crushed, calcined particle and extracted solution. When the calcined particle which contained only about 1/10~1/100 of crushed particle was used, the efficiency of phosphorus removal was correspondingly equivalent to the removal efficiency obtained from crushed particle. The efficiency of phosphorus removal by calcined particle after 9 runs repeated use was decreased about 21.5% as that of the first run. The removal efficiency of 100% could have been achieved at the HRT of 18 hours during the continuous treatment of phosphorus by the solution extracted from calcined particle.
A Study on the Error Associated with Ventilation Rate Calculation Using Different Sampling Intervals
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 50~54
Ventilation rates can be measured directly by a tracer decay method, although little is known of the effects of different sampling intervals on decay rte calculations. This study determined variations in decay rates calculated by three techniques using residential ozone decay data. The calculation techniques were a regression technique, decay techniques using half-life and average-life, and finite difference techniques using two different time intervals. Variation associated with regression technique calculations for residential ozone decay rates based on data from both sample intervals were within 10% (2.81
1.88 hr-1). However, both half-life and finite difference technique calculations using a shorter-time interval were significantly different from those obtained with the regression technique(p<0.05). Therefore, the use of short sampling intervals in tracer decay may cause significant error in decay rate calculations.
Application of a Wire code in Domestic Residential EMF Studies
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 55~60
Wire codes, introduced by Wertheimer and Leeper, are interesting largely because several case-control studies have reported associations between them and certain types of cancers, including childhood leukemia. This paper is concerned with the reliability of wire codes as a surrogate for residential electric and magnetic field, divided into four categories based on the electrical wiring within 40m of homes. To examine the correlation between spot measurements and wire codes, EMF was measured by using HI-3604 and classified by wire codes. The correlation between long-transformed RMS of magnetic field and wire codes was 0.81. But the correlation between log-transformed RMS of electric field and wire codes was 0.27. The results led us to determine a four category from of the Wertheimer and Leeper code that 1) may be useful in domestic epidemiological studies and 2) is not suitable for electric field exposure. Thus, the critical point of exposure assessment in residential magnetic field is to classify a wire code precisely.
Advanced Oxidation Processes of Secondary Effluent for Reuse
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 61~68
The use of photo-catalytic processes in pollution abatement and resource has a significant economic importance. Therefore, the applications of photochemical oxidation of secondary effluent driven by UV, TiO2, TiO2/UV, H2O2/UV and TiO2/H2O2/UV, have been investigated in order to treat the secondary effluent from municipal sewage. Various experimental parameters such as BOD, CODcr, Nurbidity, total P, and SPC were examined in each photo-catalytic reaction system. The results showed that the application of single oxidant such as UV, TiO2 only has a minor effect on parameters reduction (CODcr, BOD, etc) to treat the secondary effluent, whereas the combinations of oxidants increase the removal efficiency. The best removal efficiency in every parameters was achieved by the combination of TiO2, H2O2 and UV. It was also found that the optimum amount of TiO2 for the treatment was 1g/ι to achieve water reuse standard. From the results, the photocatalytic reaction system can be an alternative as a post-treatment to treat the secondary effluent from municipal sewage.
A Study on the Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Depending on Existence of Cilia Media in Sewage in Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic Process
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 69~75
This study was carried out to investigate the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in municipal sewage according to the variation of volumetric ratio in the reactor. It also was performed to provide basic data necessary to the development and improvement of the process which is Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic(A2O). In the removal of BOD and COD, the best efficiency of the process showed in the condition of using the media, 1Q of internal recycle rate and 1:3:2 of the volumetric ratio in Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic process. In most cases, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of the process using the cilia media was superior to that of the process which didn't use the media. In the removal of T-N and T-P, the best efficiency of the process showed in the condition of using the media, 1Q of internal recycle rate and 1:3:2 of the volumetric ratio in Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic process.
A Comparison on Performance of Rubble Support Media coated with Perlite and non-coated Media
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 76~80
The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of rubble support media coated perlite and non-coated media. As rubble was coated perlite, the porocity of reactor was increased 5.6%, whereas packing weight was decreased 17.6%. When rubble was coated perlite, microorganisms were attached on the surface of support media after 2 hours. TCOD removal efficiency of the reactor packed with rubble support media coated perlite was higher 4~9% than that of rubble. The end of experiment, MLVSS of rubble support media and rubble coated perlite was 1858.8mg/ι, 2785.9mg/ι, respectively.
Development of the Small Wastes Incinerator with High Combustion Efficiency
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 81~85
In order to reduce emission of air pollutants from spot incineration, it is required to develope the combustion chamber of small wastes incinerator having combustion efficiency. The characteristics of combustion of the incinerator with combustion chamber having tangential angels with surface of 45
of air supply nozzles were studied in accordance with non-grate, fixed-grate and shaking-grate in the combustion chamber. Combustion conditions were evaluated with combustion efficiency, emission of hazardous gases, temperatures, ignition loss of ash and so on. Combustion efficiencies were shown 73.9% for non-gate, 81.1% for fixed-grate and 89.0% for shaking-grate. Emissions of CO were revealed 6.52 ppm for non-grate, 273 ppm for fixed-grate and 224 for shaking-grate. Comprehensively evaluated, combustion conditions got better in order of shaking-grate, fixed-grate and non-grate. This study suggests that small wastes incinerator should have shaking-or fixed-grate in combustion chamber to get better combustion condition even though at expensive cost of manufacturing.
The Degradation of Phenolic Compounds by Lignolytic Streptomyces strains
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 86~91
The purpose of this was to investigate the degradation efficiency of phenol compounds(catechol, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid) by Streptomyces halstedii scabies SAI-36, Streptomyces avendulas SA2-14, and Strptomyces badius(ATCC 39117, control group). The results were as follows: Catechol showed the degradation efficiency that is lower than 50% in three strains. Ferulic acid and vanillic acid showed high degradation efficiency of 98.8% and 94.5% respectively by Streptomyces lavendulas SA2-14. protocatechuic acid and syringicacid showed high degradation efficiency of 89.6% and 77.9%. The degradation efficiency of catechol by Streptomyces halstedii scabies SAI-36, Streptomyces lavendulas SA2-14 and Streptomyces badius(ATCC 39117) was low as 49.2%, 40.2% and 20.2% respectively. But the degradation of other phenolic compoumds except catechol by Streptomyces laven-dulas SA2-36 and Streptomyces badius(ATCC 39117). The results demonstrated that two experimental strains are superior ability to control group in degradation of phenol compounds and Streptomyces lavendulas SA2-14 was superior of two experimental strain. This results were consistent with previous research results that Streptomyces lavendulas SA2-14 was the best strain in degradation ability for lignin, decoloration abilities for variousdyes, and various enzyme production abilities. Therefore, it is suggested that lignin can be used as a indicator when selecting Actinomycetes for degradation of non-degradable materials such as phenol compounds.
A Study on the Treatment of Incinerator Wastewater with Biofilm Reactor
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 92~97
The treatment of the washout from small scale incinerator was performed physically, chemically and biologically. The results are as follows. 1. SS, FS removal efficiency of washout wastewater from incinerator was 67.4%, 37.4%, while SS, FS of sewage wastewater was removed 63.2% 35.4% respectively. 2. The optimal conditions for chemical coagulation turned out to be pH 7.5, alum(Al2O3 10%) 30ml/ι and polyelectrolyte(A-601P 0.1%) 4ml/ι. SS 86%, FS 89.5%, BOD 42.5% and CODMn, 63.5% was removed and the removal efficiency of some metals are shown as Pb 93.5%, Zn 86.5% and Fe 80.6%. The concentration of the effluent was SS 9mg/ι, BOD 98.4mg/ι, and CODMn 138.4mg/ι. 3. The removal efficiency in treating washout wastewater of incinerator through HBC-briquet media was getting higher with increasing HRT, and mixed wastewater with 1:1, 1:2 ratio could be met up to the standard limit with higher HRT than 12hr. Under the condition of 1:2 mix ratio and HRT 24 hr, removal efficiency of SS, BOD, CODMn, T-N and T-P was 92.1%, 90%, 87%, 48.2% and 48%, respectively, and the concentration of treated wastewater was SS 2.9 mg/ι, BOD 10.3mg/ι, CODMn 14.1mg/ι, T-N 11.6 mg/ι and T-P 1.3 mg/ι, respectively.
The Nitrogen Removal of Municipal Wastewater with HRT using CNR Process
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 98~102
The aim of this study was to evaluate on the removal effect of total nitrogen in municipal wastewater by decreasing hydraulic retention time(HRT) from 6 hour to 4 hour on CNR process. CNR-A(Cilia Nutrient Removal) is the process combining A2/O process with cilium media of H2L corporation. The removal efficiencies for T-N were 63.1% in A-1 reactor, and 73.5% in A-2 reactor and 77.0% in A-3 reactor. The specific nitrification(g-NH3-N/g-MLVSS.d) of Oxic in CNR-A process was 0.07-0.32. The specific denitrification in Anoxic and the specific nitrification inOxic was higher in HRT 4 hour because of optimum F/M ratio.
Emission Rate Calculation in the Kwang-ju Area
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 26, issue 3, 2000, Pages 103~110
This study was conducted from January to December in Kwang-ju city, 1999. Calculated methods were studied by emission factors in each industrial species. The results was that total emission rate of VOC was calculated at a mount of 12305 ton/year as coating(49.4) > vehicles(27.4) > gasoline vapors(6.1) > petroleum refineries(5.6) > graphic arts(4.4) > road covering(4.1) > dry cleang(3.0%) respectively. In vehicles emission rate, passenger car and taxi were about 2,700 ton/yr(60%) of total vehicle emission(3,300 ton/yr). The amount of building emission rate was about 1,900 ton/yr(30%) of total coating emission 6,083 ton/yr.