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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Nov 2001
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Microbial Air Pollution of Urban Living and Indoor Environment
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 1~9
This study was carried out to investigate the microbial characteristics of the urban air pollution in the subway stations, streets, department stores, wholesale markets, underground shopping centers, buildings, parks, houses and apartments in the Seoul and the suburbs area. Total cell count, total mold count and the presence of opportunistic pathogens(Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp.) were evaluated determine the microbial air quality. Total cell count and mold count of indoor air in the houses and apartments were 2.9
cfu/㎥ and 60-1.8
cfu/㎥, respectively, and the department stores and wholesale markets had much lower cell count than the houses and apartments. Ground level of commercial stations were 2.6 fold higher than the general subway stations, and Apergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. which could cause the bronchus and lung diseases were detected 17 sampling site out of 45. Dust were collected from the commercial facilities and houses, and total cell and mold count of the dust were 4.3
cfu/g and 2.3
cfu/g, respectively. Therefore the dust might be one of the main reservoir of microorganims.
Effect of Circadian Rhythms on the Xylene Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Rats
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 10~16
To evaluate an effect of circadian variation on the xylene metabolizing enzyme activities, 50% m-xylene in olive oil(0.25
/100g body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to the rats every other day for 6 days both in the night; 24:00 and the day; 12:00. Then animals were sacrigiced at 8hr after last injection of m-xylene. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450 contents were more increased both in control and xylene treated rats of night phase than those of day phase. But the activity of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) in control of night phase showed the similar value with that in those of day phase and xylene treated rats of day phase showed an increasing tendency of hepatic ADH activity as those of night phase showing similar activity. Furthermore, control rats of night phase than those of day phase. And by xylene treatment, enzyme activities of rats of day phase were higher tendency in rats of control but those of night phase were somewhat inhibited. Besides, xylene-treated animals of night phase showed increasing tendency of urinary methylhippuric acid concentration compared with those of day phase. On the other hand, liver weight per body weight(%), hepatic lipid peroxide content and serum xanthine oxidase activity were higher in night phase. And the activities of hepatic oxygen free radical metabolizing enzymes such as xanthine oxidase, gluthathione S-transferase, and xylene-treated rats of night phase than those of day phase. In conclusion, it can be hypothesized on the basis of the results that the accumulation rate of m-xylene intermediate metabolite, i.e. m-methylbenzaldehyde in liver tissus may be higher in night phase than in day phase and it may be responsible for higher liver toxicity in bight phase than in day phase.
The Study on the Dewaterability Improvement of Water Treatment Sludge Using Powdered Waste Oyster Shells
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 17~21
The object of this study is to find out the characteristics of waste oyster shells and determine the proper dosage of powdered waster oyster shells as the conditioning agent for water treatment sludge dewatering process. The large amount of waste oyster shells which discharges from the oyster farming, occurs serious environmental hazards. However, oysters shell contain large amount(about 38% by weight) of alkaline minerals, such as calcium and magnesium and so on, this natural material is thought to have the petential ability as a good conditioning agent. The results of this study are as follows. The optimum condition for improvement of the water treatment sludge dewaterability is when 6 g of waste oyster shell powder added to 200
of water treatment sludge. At optimum condition, the solid contents can reach to 31.78% and the specific resistance of conditioned sludge is 0.16
/g. However, exceeding the of powdered waste oyster shell is needed to get the effective result. Consequently, the waste oyster shell can be a recyclable material to improve the dewaterability of water treatment sludges.
Skin Toxicity of Toluene on Liver Damage-Induced Rats
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 22~29
To evaluate the cutaneous injury in liver damaged rats by toluene application to the skin, toluene(35mg/㎤) was sequentially applied for 5 days to the dorsal skin of liver damaged rats with
(6 times ever other day:0.1
/100 g body weight-50%
in olive oil). The cutaneous ultrastructural changes were unexoectably not observed in liver from
-treated rats although necrotic liver damage appeared under light microscope. In these animals by the application of toluene to rat skin the cutaneous xanthine oxidase activity was significantly increased(p<0.05), but cytochrome P450 content was not different from that of the control or only
-treated rats. On the other hand, the cutaneous superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in liver damaged animals were significantly respectively(p<0.05, p<0.001), decreased by toluene application to the skin compared with control and especially the former enzyme activity was significantty decreased(p<0.01), compared with that of liver damaged rate rat but glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activities were not significantly different from those of the control or liver damaged rats. Futhermore, the reduced gluathione content of skin was also significantly decreased by toluene application to the liver damaged animals. In conclusion, the great deposits of cerrous peroxide and ultramorphological changes in skin tissue of liver damaged animals by toluene application may be responsible for the oxygen free radical.
Protection against Aerosols by particulate Respirators and Fit Performance
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 30~36
This review begins with a brief expression of aerosol capture mechanism of fibrous filter(s) and performance of particulate removing respirators. The more complicated and detailed discussion is not included in this articles. Filtration efficiency and pressure drop are introduced as quality factor (
) and the way in which filtration efficiency varies with particle size is discussed. Quality factors fro filters recently certified in USA were found to be very higher than those of filters made in Korea, China and USA filters certified with old certified standards. Electrically charged filters are widely used because they have high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop, but their efficiency decreases sharply at the condition occurring wet and oil mist. A discussion is given of respirator leakage through face seal and filter media with fit testing and total inward leakage testing. Since fit factor (FF) refers to the reciprocal of the fraction of the total air entering a respirator through face seal leakage , the degree of fitting performance for respirators is expected with FF. Because respirators made in Korea had generally lower FFs than respirators made in USA, it is necessary to develope respirators that fit properly for Koreans or establish regulations for fit testing.g.
Determination of the Bioconcentration Factor in Some Pesticides by Flow-through Fish Test
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 37~42
Photosensitization Effect and Structure-Activity on Mutagenic Potential by 4-(Nitrobenzyl)Pyridine (4-NBP) Test, of Epoxides, Olefins and Alkylating Agents
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 43~50
This paper reviews the results of a series of efforts to develop structure-activity models for slow-reacting chemicals and olefins whose toxicity may be enhanced by the ultraviolet radiation. Photoinduced toxicity of 14 compounds was found to be a different result of competing factors of structure, having carbon-carbon double bonds. To mimic the biological consequences of photooxidative damage in mammalian cells, the photochemical mutagenicith of 14 chemicals was tested in the CAS. Simple olefins were photochemically mutagenic or carcinogenic with irradiation, increasing the alkylating activity from zero level to 0.87(abs/gram) for styrene, 0.25 for 1-butene, 0.11 for 1-hexene, respectively, whereas no photochemical mutagenicity was observed with 1-octene in the absence of the CAS. Oxide compounds, however, showed a decreasing trend of photoalkylating activities in the presence or absence of the CAS. We found that the structure-activity relationship was not applicable to our data.
Water Environment Characteristics and Efficient Basin Management of Song Stream
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 51~59
Song stream is located in the upstream of the Namhan River. Normal times, the stream flows down to the east sea through the drainage pipe but at rainy season, it flows to the Namhan River. There are large stock farm, leisure town and cultivated land in this basin. The pollutants from these contamination source cause eutrophication at lake Doam and deterioration of water quality in namdai stream. In this case, this study was carried out to evaluate water quality and environmental capacity as well as economical efficiency of each industry. The basin shape factor of subject stream was 0.315, slope is higher than usual basin. The BOD, T-N and T-P productive contamination loading from each contamination source was 2,690, 974 and 194 kg/day, respectively, and major contamination source was stock farm and cultivated land. Annual BOD, T-N, T-P distribution(median value) of Song stream showed 1.0~2.2 mg/L, 3.16~5.85 mg/L and 0.024~0.197 mg/L Doam lake showed 1.1~1.9, 2.51~3.89 and 0.042~0.114 mg/L, respectively. Being compared of water quality at main stream between past and present, it showed that the water quality has improved since last five years. BOD improvement rate was 8~50%. Run off loading of BOD, T-N, T-P was 366, 1129, 17.2 kg/day, and run off rate was 13.6%, 86.2%, 11.3% respectively. Finally, the result of productivity survey of each industry, leisure town, cultivated land and large stock farm was 118, 46, 50 billion won, per T-P 1kg productive, and productivity portion was 100, 39, 42% respectively, and the highest economical efficiency industry was leisure facilities.
Removal of Natural Organic Matter by Mixing Coagulants in Coagulation Process
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 60~66
Natural organic matters(NOMs) are found everywhere such as soil, surface and ground waters and consist of both humic and nonhumic components, and their heterogeneith makes each source unique. This study was carried to evaluate the removal characteristics of NOMs by mixing coagulants and the variation of apparent molecular weight distribution(AMWD) in coagulation process. Ratio of optimum coagulants dosage for removal of DOC and turbidity by mixing coagulants was 1.83 mM F
. DOC removal increased at lower pH. The pH6 control focused on the removal of organic matters could reduce the amount of coagulant consumption by 2 to 3 times based on the pH8.5 of natural water. The dissolved organic matters in the natural water from the mid-stream of Han River were composed of the low molecular weight(LMW,<1 K) of 59.7%, and the medium and high molecular weight(M.HMW, 1~30 K) of 40.3%, respectively. At pH6, the DOC removal efficiencies of LMW(<1 K) and M.HMW(1~30 K) in coagulation process were 27~35%, 62~72%, respectively. The fraction smaller than 1 K was not eliminated to a noticeable degree, while the fraction of 1~30 K was relatively well removed. In conclustion, mixing coagulants were fairly effective in the removal of natural organic matter.r.
A Study on Yearly Variation of Algae Community in Dongbok Reservoir
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 67~72
The algae in Dongbok reservoir consists of 6 class, 14 orders, 30 families, 63 genera, 145 species, 13 varieties, and 1 formula in 159 taxa during jan. 1995 to Dec. 1999. Species numbers according to major taxa were appeared as Chlorophyceae 80 taxa, Bacillariophyceae 28 taxa, and Cyanophyceae 17 taxa. The ratio of total standing crops were Bacillariopyceae 44%, Cyanophyceae 30%, and Chlorophyceae 225. Various species remarkably appeared during fall to early winter comparing with other seasons. Stnading crops of algae decreased from 1.1~3.7 million units/
in 1995 to below 1.0 million n\\units/
ever after 1996. Species number was very variable as 9~37 in down stram comparing with 12~34 in middle stream, 15~24 in upper stream. Species diversity indices were 1.1~4.0 in 1995, 1.5~3.5 in 1996~1997, 2.1~3.6 in 1998, and 0.3~3.4 in 1999. Dominant indices were 0.35~0.97 in 1995, 0.44~0.86 in 1996, 0.43~0.89 in 1997, 0.39~0.80 in 1998, and 0.45~0.97 in 1999.
Methylmercuric Chloride(MMC) and Reduction of the Fetal Ossification in Fischer-344 Rats during Organogensis
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 73~81
The purpose of this study was to determine the adverse effects of methylmercuric chloride(MMC) against the fetal growth and the ossification rate of fetal pectoral and pelvic girdle, stermebrae, ribs and tail in pregnant Fischer 344 rats administered orally on day 7 of gestation. The resulted obtained are as follows. The weight and size of fetus were highly reduced by MMC. The reduction of fetal weight and size were 16. 2%~24.5%(p<0.01), and 34.1%~48.8%(p<0.01), and that of the litter’s weight were 67.0%(p<0.01) and 89.2%(p<0.01) by 20 and 30mg/kg MMC, respectively. Ossification centers were never formed in pectoral and pelvic phalanges and sternebrae, and was reduced as much as 70% in tail by 30mg/kg MMC. And also those were 82.4%~ 91.2%(p<0.01) in ischium, and 52.4~66.7%(p<0.01) in the others(ilium, fenur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals)of pelvic girdle by 30 mg/kg MMC. Ossification of sternebrae was terrible. 5th bone of sternebrae was not ossificated by 20 and 30 mg/kg MMC(p<0.01), and 2nd was also not ossificated by 30 mg/kg MMC(p<0.01).And reduction of ossification rate was 84.8~97.8%(p<0.01) in the others of sternebrae by 30 mg/kg MMC. And then, the reduction of ossification rate was 26.65~49.8%(p<0.01) in fetal ribs by 30 mg/kg MMC, and they were trend to increased as following from center to each edge. In conclusion, it was observed that fetal weight, size, and ossification of each bone were highly significantly reduced by the increased dosage of MMC.
A Study on the Protective Effect and Its Mechanism of Zinc against Immuno-cytotoxicity of Methylmercury
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 82~91
This study was carried out to elucidate the protective effect of zinc chloride(ZnCl
) and its mechanism against the immuno-cytotoxicity of methylmercury chloide(
HgCl). This study was observed in the culture of EMT-6 cells which are originated from mammary adenocarcinoma of Balb/c mouse. Cytotoxicity of metals was measured by cell viability and NO
, and mitochondrial function was evaluated by adenosine triphosohate (ATP) production.
HgCl significantly decreased the sythesis of nitric oxide(NO), ATP and glutathione(GSH) in a dose-dependent manner. ZnCl
significantly increased the synthesis of GSH in a dose-dependent manner, but synthesis of NO and ATP were not changed. The immuno-cytotoxicity of
HgCl was not fully protected when combined addition of ZnCl
, whereas ZnCl
prior to addition of
HgCl completly protected the Hg-induced immuno-cytotoxicity. Similarly, intracellular accumulation of mercury significantly decreased by ZnCl
. Degree of diminution of intracellular mercury was larger in ZnCl
prior to addition of
HgCl than in combined addition of ZnCl
HgCl.. Dithiothreitol(DTT) or buthionine sulfoximine(BSO) addition at 50
M or less, which was not toxic to the cells, did not affect synthesis of NO and ATP. DTT increased intracellular GSH level and DTT pretreatment protected toxicity induced by
HgCl as shown complete recover in the NO and ATP values. BSO decreased intracellular GSH level and BSO pretreatment exaggerated toxicity induced by
HgCl as shown synergistic reduction in the NO and ATP values. These results indicated that the protective effects of zinc against immuno-cytotoxicity of methylmercury associated with increasing cellular level of GSH. Increased intracellular GSH transports methylmercury to out of cells. In accordance with intracellular level of mercury decreased, immuno-cytotoxicity of methylmercury decreased. These result also suggest that the protective mechanism of zinc against the mercury toxicity would be exerted in the immune system in vivo.
A Study on the Biodegradability and Characteristics Based on Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution of Dissolved Organic Matter in Sewage
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 92~99
This present study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of dissoloved organic matter (DOC) in sewage. The results are summarized as follows ; The plateaux reached in 3~4 days by the biodegradability test on sewage samples based on DOC. 쏭 rations of BDOC to DOC were 48, 21, 13 and 11% for raw sewage, primary treatment effluent, secondary treatment effluent and final treatment effluent, respectively. As the SUVA values ranged less 3L/m.mg for the effluent of sewage treatment plant, the DOC is composed largely of non-humic materials, hydrophilic, less aromatic as compared to waters with higher SUVA values. Through the biodegradability test, Dissolved organics showed that the quantity of LMW(Low Molecular Weight) less than 1,000 daltons was decreased, HMW(High Molecular Weight) more than 30,000 daltons had a tendency to increase. Large portion of UV
in final treatment effluent was increased of MMW(Medium Molecular Weight). Also, average removal efficiency of DOC was 32% during sewage treatment.
A Study on the Air Pollution Management Using GIS Method(I)-Focus on VOCs concentration of Seoul-
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 100~107
On the planning for the systematic management and control of the air pollution display methods were used to evaluate the spatial pollutant concentration status. This study were conducted to investigate the practical using of Geographic Information System(GIS) technology on the air pollution control and management which were computer-based systems that were used to store and manipulate geographic information in the macro city. In this study 137 samples were corrected by passive samplers and analysed by GC/MSD for 16 VOCs in Seoul (25 distincts) distributed by TM-coordinate(2 km
2km), and finally displayed by Arciew program(version 3.2, ESRI Inc, USA) for windows. The concentration of benzene and toluene showed high level in whole area of seoul area of Seoul and distribution of butylbenzen, trothroloetylene, stylen showed high level in whole area of Seoul except a few distincts and the distribution of isopropylbenzene, 1,2-dichroloethane showed higher level in core area than that of Kangnam and Kangbuk area. In conclusion, products of this study of using GIS technology apply on the spatial distribution of VOCs concentration was very effective than that of other methods(e.g., contouring concentration method, pie or column chart, graduated symbols), especially in mapping and symbolization of pollution status evaluation.
Bioconcentration of IBP, Methidathion and Piperophos in Brachydanio rerio(zebrafish)
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 108~118
This study was performed to investigate the bioconcentration of IBP, methidathion and piperophos. The BCFs(bioconcentration factor), depuration rate constants for three pesticides in zebrafish(Brachydanio rerio) were measured by OECD guideline 305. The concentration of test pesicides were one-hundredth and one-thousandth concentration of 96-hrs L
in accordance with OECD guideline 305. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The average BCF values of IBP were 5.31(n=4) and 7.30(n=4) at one-hundredth and one-thousandth concentration of 96-hrs L
. The average BCF values of methidathion were 8.72(n=4) and 11.25(n=4), the average BCF values of piperophos were 34.30(n=4) and 42.60(n=4). Depuration rate constants of IBP were 0.09(
) and 0.08(
), half-life of IBP were 7.70 and 8.66 at each tested concentration. The concentrations of IBP in zebrafish at low and high concentrations rapidly decreased after 12(0.243
/g) and 12 hours(0.040
/g). Depuration rate constants of methidathion were 0.40(
), half-life of methidathion were 1.73 at one-hunderdth and of 96-hrs L
, repectively. The concentrations of methidathion in zebrafish at high concentrations rapidly decreased after 6 hours(0.18
/g). Depuration rate constant of low concentration was no measured because methidathion in zebrafish was depurated in 6 hours. Depuration rate constants of piperophos sere 0.15(
) and 0.44(
), half-life of piperophos were 4.62 and 1.58 at each tested concentration. The concentrations of piperophos in zebrafish at los and high concentrations rapidly decreased after 12(0.26
/g) and 6 hours(0.015
/g). It was suggested that high BCF of piperophos was due to high Kow(octanol-water partition coefficient). The possibility of bioconcenration was not likely to be high because of its
(depuration rate constant) in the evniroment. It was suggested that low BCF of methidathion showed lowest Kow as well as the most rapid
. Therefore, the possibility of bioconcentration was not occured in the enviroment. It was suggested that the BCF dtermined for IBP was lower than that of other pesticides due to high Sw(water solubility), show
. Therefore, IBP revealed little bioconcentration effect on in aquatic ecosystem.ystem.
A Comparison Between Reduction Methods for BOD Loadings to Achieve Water Quality Standards at the End of the Yeongsan River
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 119~126
The key point in establishing water quality management measures is how to decide the load reduction for pollution sources. This study was performed to compare reduction methods for BOD loadings to achieve water quality standards at the end of the Yeongsan river. The target year is 2006 and 2011 and reduction methods are uniform treatment and treatment by influence rate. Using QUAL2E model, the study was performed under the conditions of establishing and non-establishing the publicly owned treatment works(POTWs). Uniform treatment which allocate the same reduction rate to pollution sources showed that all streams into the river should be applied for the reduction. However, treatment by influence rate which allocate the reduction rate by the order of influence rate showed that achieving target quality might be possible with a few streams for the reduction. But total amount of load reduction of streams was not significantly different from two methods.
The Concentrations of Endocrine Disrupter (PCBs and DDE) in the Serumand Their Predictors of Exposure in Korean Women
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 127~137
Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are halogenated aromatic compounds with the empirical formula
(n=1~10), and are a mixture of possible 209 different chlorinated congeners. PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluids for capacitors and transformers, plasticizers, lubricant inks and paint addirives. Once released into the environment, PCBs persist for years because they are so resistant to degradation. In addition to their persistence in the environment, PCBs in ecological food chains undergo biomagnification because of their high degree of lipophilicity. In 1970s, the worldwide production of PCBs was ceased and the import of PCBs was prohibited since 1983 in Korea. In spite of these actions, many PCBs seems to be still in use. The environmental load of PCBs will continue to be recycled through air, land, water, and the biosphere for decades to come. This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of PCBs in the serum samples of 112 women by GC/MSD and GC/ECD. The main results of this study were as follows. 1. PCBs were detected in all samples. The mean
SD levels of PCBs in the serum were 3.613
0.759 ppb, and median were 3.828 ppb. 2. The correlation coefficients of the concentrations of 13 PCB congeners were from minimum, 0.7913 to maximum, 0.9985, and all was significant(p=0.0001). The correlation coefficient between the concentrations of PCBs and p,p'-DDE was 0.9641(p=0.0001). 3. There was a positive association between age and PCBs' concentrations (simple linear regression ;
=0.08023, p<0.001). 4. There was a positive association between total lipids in the serum and PCBs' concentrations (simple linear regression ;
=0.00486, p<0.001). 5. For possible predictors of PCBs and p,p' -DDE levels in the serum, age adjusted model (Y=
X) was applied. For BMI, major residential area, wether to eat caught fish by angling, where to eat caught fish by angling(by parents in the past), fish consumption, meat consumption, meat consumption, and dairy consumption, there was no association. For total conception frequency and lactation frequency and lactation period, there was negative association.ion.
천연 점토를 이용한 Pb(II)의 흡착에 관한연구
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 138~144
This study was carried out to investigate characteristics and Pb(II) removal effect of natural clays in the batch mode test. The effect of parameters such as temperature, adsorption time and coexisting cations on the sorption ability and characteristics was investigated to find out whether the clays could be used as adsorbents. Several natural clays from domestic have been investigated to have high specific surface area and have minerals such as SiO
. As a result, removal effects of Pb(II) on clays were reached at equilibrium in aqueous solutions by stirring about 20 minutes. The removal effect of Pb(II) was best for Kang Jin clay than other clays in terms of fixed time. Adsorption efficiency was not influenced by the possibility of continuous treatment system of wastewater which contain heavy metals by using natural clays from domestic.
Decay Rate of the Nitrogen Dioxide in Indoor Residence Using Mass Balance Model
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 2, 2001, Pages 145~152
The purpose of this study was to determine nitrogen dioxide(NO
) decay rate by reaction between NO
and interior materials in Korean residence. The results of this research could be helpful to choose the interior construction materials and to study on reduction of indoor air pollutants. The results of this research are as follows; For 30 residences in Seoul and Incheon from October 2000 to march 2001, the mean of infiltration rate was 0.70
0.44 ACH, and single-detached houses (7 houses) and apartments (19 houses) were 0.97
0.55 ACH and 0.61
0.34 ACH, respectively. The
decay followed approximately first-order process (
0.02). There existed a statistic significance in filtration rate between houses built in 1980’s and built in 1990’s by t-test (p<0.02). Mean of NO
decay rates in 26 residence3s except 4 residences was 0.94
, and also 0.86
in single-detached houses and apartments, respectively. Mean NO
decay rates in houses built in 1980’s were 0.78
, respectively. Nothing were showed statistical significance among indoor temperature, indoor humidity, and NO
decay rate. However, NO
decay rates had a tendency to increase by increase of temperature and humidity. Average volume/surface of participated houses was 0.55
0.07m and mean NO
deposition velocity was calculated as 1.46