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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Nov 2001
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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Relationship between Workers′ Exposure to Airborne Chromium and Blood and Urine Chromium Levels in Plating Process
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 1~10
This study was performed to evaluate chromium in air and chromium concentrations in whole blood and urine of workers at chrome plating factories, and to determine the correlation between environmental and biological chromium levels. This study involved 29 workers as study group and 24 undergraduate students as control group. The geometric means(GM) of airborne hexavalent chromium and total chromium concentrations in the plating factories were 3.4
/㎥ and 10.8
/㎥, respectively. Hexavalent chromium levels in two of total 29 measurements exceeded the korean occupational exposure limit and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value(ACGIH-TLV) of 50
/㎥. Only one sample for total chromium exceeded the Korea occupational exposure limits, the ACGIH-TLV, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Recommended Exposure Limits(NIOSH-REL) of 500
/㎥. The GM of chromium concentrations in blood and urine of workers exposed to chromium were 8.4
/L and 11.9
/L. The GM of chromium concentrations in blood and urine of workers exposed to chromium were 8.4
/L and 11.9
/L, respectively, whereas the chromium concentrations in blood and urine of the controls were 1.6
/L and 3.8
/L, respectively. There were statistically significant differences of blood and urine concentrations between study group and control group (p<0.01). The chromium concentrations in urine were most highly related to hexavalent chromium, concentration in air(r=0.642, p<0.01). Also, there was a relatively high correlation between the hexavalent chromium concentrations in air and chromium concentrations in whole blood(r=0.557, p<0.05). These results indicate that whole-blood chromium with urinary chromium could be an indicator of chromium body burden caused by exposure to chromic acid mist in plating operation.
Biological Treatment of Textile Wastewater by Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactor System
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 11~20
An anaerobic sludge-aerobic fixed-bed biofilm(packed with ceramic support carrier of 1 inch size) reactor system was built up to treat textile wastewater. The efficiency of reactor system was examined by determining the effects of textile wastewater ratio(from 25% to 100% at HRT 24 h). The influent range of SCOD concentration and color were 1,036~1,357 mg/L, and 1,487~1,853 degree, respectively. When textile wastewater ratio was 100% and hydraulic retention time was 24 hours, SCOD removal efficiency by the anaerobic stage were 39.2% 100% and hydraulic retention time was 24 hours, SCOD removal efficiency by the anaerobic stage were 39.2% and the removal efficiency of the whole system were 75.8%. Color removal efficiency by the anaerobic stage were 45.4%(soluble color), and the removal efficiency of the whole system were 70.2%. In the A/A reactor system, the aerobic stage played an important role in removing both color and COD as well as anaerobic stage.
Effects of Compost Derived from Food Wastes on Germination and Growth of Vegetables
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 21~26
This study was performed to define the physicochemical characteristics of food waste and food wastewater, and to find the effect of salinity variation experiment, the samples of 1, 2, 3 and 4 were prepared by the salinity of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5%, respectively. In experiment, aerobic composting reactors were operated by the model which was composed of half an hour's stirring and 2 hour's aeration per day, for 45 days. Seeds of vegetables of Chinese cabbage and red pepper were seeded at compost-free control, compost 1, 2, 3 and compost 4 for the sake of investigation of germination rate and growth rate of those. The followings are the conclusions that were derived from this study. 1. In food waste, the moisture content was 60%, organic compound content was 95%, total carbon was 47.5%, total nitrogen was 1.6%(therefore, C/N ratio was 30). The values of pH were 4.0 and 3.8 the values of salinity were 0.9% and 1.2%, and the values of conductivity were 7.8 mS/cm and 18.0 mS/cm, respectively. 2. In salinity experiment, the reduction rate of volume was increased(40%) when the salinity was decreased(1.0%). Also, the reduction rate of mass was increased(52%) when the salinity was decreased(1.0%). This fact denotes that salinity hinders the process of composting. 3. Germination rate and growth rate of Chinese cabbage are more excellent than those of red pepper(97.14%, 5.2:2.5 cm). 4. In Chinese cabbage, germination rate and growth rate at compost with the lowest salinity are more excellent than those at compost-free control(97:94%, 5.2:4.5 cm).
Performance of Organic Treatment with Shape Modify of Ceramic Support Carrier
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 27~34
This paper discussed the shape effect of ceramic support carrier in order to facilitate biomass immobilization. The shape of ceramic support carrier was modified hollow pipe type into hollow gear type. After seeding, microorganisms were attached in crevices where protection from shear forces or surfaces where easy to contact with support carrier surface. In case of hollow gear type carrier, initial attachment rate was faster than that of hollow pipe type and obtained thick biofilm. Synthetic wastewater(COD:75~880 mg/L, organic loading rate:0.36~4.22 kgCOD/㎥.d) was treated aerobic fixed bed biofilm reactor where 100% of the volume was filled with the ceramic carrier. COD removal efficiency of reactor filled with gear type support carrier was a little high withing 70 days, and then showed similar removal efficiency. It was found that highly loaded operation with up to 4.22 kgCOD/㎥.d was possible in both reactor. Total biomass amounts of pipe type was higher than gear type, however, attached biomass of gear type was higher than that of pipe type.
Stochastic Characteristics of Water Quality Variation of the Chungju Lake
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 35~42
The characteristics of water quality variation were predicted by stochastic model in Chungju dam, north Chungcheong province of south Korea, Monthly time series data of water quality from 1989 to 2001;temperature, BOD, COD and SS, were obtained from environmental yearbook and internet homepage of ministry of environment. Development of model was carried out with Box-Jenkins method, which includes model identification, estimation and diagnostic checking. ACF and PACF were used to model identification. AIC and BIC were used to model estimation. Seosonal multiplicative ARIMA(1, 0, 1)(1, 1, 0)
model was appropriate to explain stochastic characteristics of temperature. BOD model was ARMa(2, 2, 1), COD was seasonal multiplicative ARIMA(2. 0. 1)(1. 0, 1)
, and SS was ARIMA(1, 0, 2) respectively. The simulated water quality data showed a good fitness to the observed data, as a result of model verification.ion.
Treatment of Polyester Weight Loss Wastewater Using Strains Degrading Ethylene Glycol and Terephthalic Acid
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 43~48
Terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol resulting form the weight-reduction process of polyester make trouble in the operation of activated sludge process. Also, polyester weight loss wastewater shows high pH, high organic strength and wide variation of organic loading. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to improve treatment efficiency by activated sludge process with Pseudomonas sp degrading components of polyester weight loss wastewater. The CO
of the waste wastewater were 560~3,000 mg/
and 8000~3,000 mg/
, respectively. pH was 11.8~12.3. COD removal efficiency by activated sludge-coagulation process with Pseudomonas sp was 94.1~95.8% for 35 hr of hydraulic retention time. Total organic carbon removal efficiency was 97.1%. Ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid in the wastewater were completely degraded during 32 hr of hydraulic retention time.e.
Prediction of water quality in Tan stream of the Han river
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 49~56
The water quality simulation was carried out to predict water quality in Tan stream of the Han river using water quality model, QUAL2E. In the end, the future variations in water quality of Tan stream were simulated and the prediction of the impacts of Tan stream on water quality in the Han river was carried out by applying the Tan stream simulation results into the model. The results are as follows. The predicted results of future water quality of Tan stream suggested that the concentrations of BOD, T-N and T-P at Chungdam bridge would increase to 0.68~0.77 mg/
, 1.33~1.62 mg/
and 0.05~0.06 mg/
, respectively in 2006 and 2011 and that with the implementation of advanced treatment in Sungnam and Tanchun sewage treatment plants, the concentration of T-N would be reduced more as the amount of treated sewage increase, while the concentration of T-P would stay 0.49 mg/
. The results obtained from simulation of the impacts of future Tan stream water quality improvement on the main stream of the Han river showed that with implementation of advanced treatment in both Sungnam and Tanchun sewage treatment plants, the concentration of T-N, T-P and chlorophyll-a at Hangang bridge and Heangju bridge would be reduced by 11.6%, 7.7% and 20.9%, respectively in 2..6 and by 13.6%, 9.4% and 22.2%, respectively in 2011, which indicates that the effect on the reduction of T-N and T-P would be relatively significant while the effect on the decrease of algae would be slight.
Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil on the Playgrounds for Children in I area
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 57~62
The study was conducted to measure the heavy metal pollution of soils at the playground for children and to investigate the characteristics of heavy metals distribution I city. The studied area was divided into two: the residential area and the industrial area. The samples of the sands and soils were collected from both areas. The results were obtained as follows. All average concentration of 6 different heavy metals was found to be lower than the standard of soil pollution. Zn, Pb and cu concentrations were higher than other species of heavy metals. The contents of heavy metals in the soil were higher than the sands. The average contents of Zn, Pb, Cu, As, Hg and Cd in soil were 38.36, 9.53, 7.31, 0.03, 0.18 and 0.09 mg/kg respectively. Comparing with the residential area, heavy metal concentrations of the industrial area were 4.60, 1.49, 2.60 and 4.29 times for Zn, Pb, Hg and Cd in soils, respectively.
Carcinogen-DNA adducts in Liver and Bladder of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with benzidine in drinking water
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 63~70
To identify and evaluate the benzidine-DNA adducts in liver and bladder, we exposed the 80 ppm benzidine to 40 sprague-dawley rats by drinking water for 4 weeks(6.2 mg/kg body wt./day). Only one benzidine-DNA adduct was found at the same site of thin layer chromatogram of
P-postlabeling method in the liver and bladder of exposed rats. So we know the DNA adduct formed at liver and bladder were similar to each other, which was N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N'-acetylbenzidine. Relative adduct labeling(RAL) of DNA adduct was similar to each other for 1 and 2 weeks, but that in liver was significantly higher than in bladder for 3 and 4 weeks. RAL
of DNA adduct were 84.45
11.31 and 152.8
5.53 in liver, and were 24.76
7.06 and 38.00
10.57 in bladder for 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. Regression equation between liver and bladder was Y=-3.801+2.507 X(r=0.6036, p<0.01). In conclusion, benzidine-DNA adduct formed in liver was significantly higher than that in bladder, with the similar compound structure in sparague-dewley rates treated benzidine in drinking water.
Patterns of Mercury Concentrations in Blood and Urine After High Mercury Exposure
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 71~80
Blood and urine mercury level of three workers were monitored during 60~80 days after high exposure to mercury at the silver refining plant. Mercury was used to form silver-mercury amalgam from plating sludge. Workers were exposed to mercury about 70 days at the several processes, such as hand held weaving, vibration table, and heating from the furnace. mercury was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy-vapor generation technique. Recovery from the biological sample was 95.51% and pooled standard deviation was 0.033. At the time of study, there was no work at the workplace. So, airborne mercury concentration was measured with area sampling 5 days after the work, ranged from 0.1459 to 1.2351 mg/㎥(Arithmatic mean 0.4711 mg/㎥, Geometric mean 0.3566 mg/㎥) at the inside of the plant, that is far above the ACGIH's TLV(0.025 mg/㎥) and ranged from 0.0073 to 0.0330 mg/㎥ at the outdoor. Blood mercury levels at the beginning of the monitoring were 4~14 times greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Biological Exposure Index(ACGIH BEI, 15 ug/L). Blood mercury levels were decreased logarithmically, that is, rapidly at the high level and slowly at the low level but sustained above the level of the ACGIH BEI 60~80 days after the work. Urine mercury levels at the beginning of the monitoring were 8~16 times greater than the ACGIH BEI(35 ug/g creatinine). Urine mercury levels were decreased logarithmically, but correlation between urine level and off-days were lower than those of blood. Decreasing pattern of blood mercury levels were little affected than that of urine levels when the chelating agent, D-penicillamine, was administered. There was correlation between blood mercury level and urine mercury level(0.81~0.83) but it didn\`t mean that the highest blood mercury level corresponded the highest urine mercury level. In our study, Case 1 always shows the highest level in urine but case 3 always shows the highest level in blood. Creatinine correction represented better correlations between urine mercury levels and blood levels, and between urine levels and off-days rather than by urine volume. Spot urine sampling had a wide variation than that of whole day urine sampling. So, We recommend spot urine sampling for screening and whole day urine sampling for exact diagnosis.
The Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal of Municipal Wastewater with CNR Process using Influent as a Carbon Source
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 81~85
The aim of this study was to evaluate on the removal effect of total nitrogen and posphorus in municipal wastewater by decreasing hydraulic retention time(HRT) from 6 hour to 4 hour on CNR process using influent as a Carbon Source. CNR(Cilium Nutrient Romoval) is the process combining
/O process with cilium media of H2L corporation. The removal efficiencies for BOD
, T-N and T-P were 81.1%, 61.4%, 61.4%, respectively. The removal efficiency of nitrogen and posphorus were low by decreasing hydraulic retention time(HRT) from 6 hour to 4 hour on CNR process.s.
A Study on Volatile Organic Compounds(VOC) in Environmental Tobacco Smoke(ETS) at Indoor Office Environments
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 87~98
There has been increased interest in the health effects of the Environmental Tobacco Smoke(ETS) as a confirmed human carcinogen. It has been known to be extremely difficult to make an accurate assessment of exposure to ETS since it is consisted of a variety of components and there are a number of labile chemicals. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain, to interpretate and to provide the data of quantitative exposure assessment to ETS in the field of environmental health. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the concentration of ETS using VOC in indoor office environments. The correlations and concentrations of benzene, RSP, 3-EP, nicotine that are indicators for ETS were investigate with smoking density, air change per hour(ventilation rate). Air samples were taken in smoking room(7 sites), smoking allowed office (3 sites), corridor outside smoking room(7 sites), non-smoking office (9 sites). The concentrations of benzene showed significant difference according to category of indoor office environments. The geometric mean concentration of benzene were 23.56
/㎥) in smoking rooms. 6.16
/㎥ in smoking allowed offices, 1.32
/㎥ in the non-smoking offices respectively. The ratios of the concentration of benzene between outdoor air and smoking room, smoking allowed office, and non-smoking indicators concentrations, SD, and SI were 0.82(benzene and nicotine). 0.76(benzene and RSP), 0.60(benzene and SD), 0.76(benzene and SI). It is proposed that benzene is a good indicator for ETS.
Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by Intermittently Activated Sludge combined with Aluminium Corrosion
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 99~106
A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate phosphorus and nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater by intermittently activated sludge process packed with aluminium plate. Three continuous experimental systems, I. e. an intermittently activated sludge process(Run A), an intermittently activated sludge process with an aluminium plate packed into the reactor(Run B), and a reactor post stage(Run C) were compared. In the batch experiments, the phosphorus removal time in the reactor packed with copper and aluminium plate simultaneously was faster than that of the reactor packed with only an aluminium plates. However, the reactor packed with only an aluminium plate could be used for phosphorus removal. Move phosphorus was removed with an increase of surface area of aluminium plate and electrolysis(NaCl) concentration. The efficiency of COD and nitrogen removal was not affected in Run B. However, the phosphrus removal efficiency decreased because of reaction products and activated sludge which gradually covered gradually the surface of the aluminium plate. The efficiency of phosphorus removal in Run C was 86.3% at the HRT of 3.2 hours. Especially, the efficiency of phosphorus removal in Run C was higher than that in Run B.
Separation of Cr(VI) from Heavy Metal Salts Mixed Solution by using Hollow Fiber Module
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 27, issue 3, 2001, Pages 107~112
This work reports the application of a hollow fiber module(HFM) for Cr(VI) extraction from heavy metal salts mixed solution by using microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber module. In HFM configuration, the organic extraction used for the extraction of Cr(VI) was di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid(D2EHPA) diluted with n-heptane. The study of HFM includes the influence of hydrodynamic and chemical condition, i.e., the flow rate of feed solution, the time of reactive extraction, the concentration of feed solution, and the pH of aqueous phase solutions. Several experiments with synthetic solution of different mixed components system of Cr(VI) solutions established optimum condition to achieve a clean separation of Cr(VI). It was possible to separate Cr(VI) in the presence of metal salts mixed solution, such as Zn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) using the HFM technique.