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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Nov 2002
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
A Study on Environmental Vibration generated from Machines
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 1~9
This study was performed to investigate vibration generated from machines that were used at factories and construction works. Vibrations were measured at three points in a straight line based on distance from the vibration sources, and analyzed to assess the vibration bevels. The average vibration level of factory machines was 65.4dBV at 2m, and that of construction machines was 74.0dBV at 5m. Vibration attenuations was 4.0~8.2dBV by double distance. All such data were applied to gain coefficients of attenuation equations for predicting vibration level by distance from the vibration sources. Data recorded on tapes were analyzed to understand the characteristics of frequency because these characteristics are important factors to design a Plan for installing the vibration-Proof devices. Finally, considering results from these analysis, assessment, and prediction, the methods for reducing vibration generated from machines were discussed.
Investigation and Analysis of Water Quality Environmental for Preparing a Natural Learning and Experimental Area in Bukchun and Boundary
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 11~22
This study analyzes the river system and water quality conditions of Bukchun in order to establish a basic plan for Preparing a natural learning and experimental area of environmental ecosystem in Bukchun, Gyeongju. It also tries to establish an integrated plan for water management of Bukchun stream based on water contaminants. In addition, after analysing the water quality at 13 points during the non-rainy season, the effluent of municipal wastewater was of relatively better quality with I ~ II grade, below the water quality standard of the river, except in points near Samsung apartments. However, analysing the Hyeongsangang and the effluent of Bomunho and Duckdongdam in rainy season, the water quality was II ~ III grade according to environmental standard. The water Quality of those samples was strongly dependent of non-point source.
Preliminary Design for Preparing a Natural Learning and Experimental Area in Bukchun and Boundary(I) - Analysis of Riverbed, Atmospheric and Ecological Environment-
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 23~39
This study focuses on the structure of geographical conditions, the riverbed, the meterological and atmospheric examination, the ecological environment, the food chain and the ecosystem, in order to establish a basic plan for preparing a natural learning area of environmental ecosystem in Bukchun and its surroundings, Gyeongju. The results could be summarized as follows. Bukchun is a first grade which extends 6km along the road from Bomun bridge to the junction of Hyungsangang. The basin area is 7.10
and the slope is 1/200~1/300. Gyeongju has good atmospheric conditions, i.e. SO
0.011 ~0.017ppm, CO 0.8~ 1.5ppm, NO
0.013~0.020ppm, TSP 85~142
/㎥, PM-10 47~90
/㎥ and Pb 0.057 ~0.129
/㎥, which is below the annual and daily averages, and is little lower than those of Pohang and Ulsan. The ecosystem of Bukchun is based on the structure of the food chain, which includes birds such as the grey and white herons at the top of the food chain. This study also considers the development of the river's in terms of culture, environment and ecology concept.
Development of Depolymerization Method on the Recycling of Waste Flexible Polyurethane Foam
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 41~49
Resource recovery and recycling of materials and products including polyurethanes are viewed as a necessity in today's society. The problems of recycling polyurethane wastes has major technological, economic and ecological significance because polyurethane itself is relatively expensive and its disposal by burning is also costly. In general, the recycling methods for polyurethane could be classified as mechanical, chemical and physical. In the chemical recycling method, there ate hydrolysis, glycolysis, pyrolysis and aminolysis. This study was carried out glycolysis using new method such as sonication and catalyzed reaction. There are kinds of recycled polyols were produced by current method(glycolysis) but, this study were with catalyzed reaction and sonication as decomposers and the chemical properties were analyzed. The reaction results in the formation of polyester urethane diols and then the OH value which is determined by the quantity of diol used for the glycolysis conditions. The glycolysis rates by sonication and catalyzed reaction for the various glycols, increased as: PPG
Study in the integrated watershade management for conservation of water resources(I) - Water Quality distribution and Environmental capacity of the Samchog Buk stream, Oship stream, Gagog stream nearby eastern coastal -
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 51~60
Concerning the water quality management plan about Buk-stream, Ohsip-stream and Gagok-stream water systems in this research, which objectives of abstract is as follows. The result of cleanness degree evaluation of water quality in this research, the first grade was 91% shared in Buk-stream water system. The most point of the middle and upper stream of Buk-stream was maintain extremely clean water quality. Among the researched water system, the first grade of water quality in Ohsip-stream water system was most poor, its first garde rate was 68%. In all water quality check point of Gagog-stream water system was accomplished extremely clean water quality condition of first grade of BOD. The calculation result of pollutant loading density, which were 8.2, 21.5, 4.0kg/day.
. respectively and basin of Buk-stream and Gagok-Stream have high development potentiality.
Study in the integrated watershade management for conservation of water resources (II) - Water quality modeling and simulation of Oship stream -
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 61~69
Oship stream is located nearby south eastern coasts. This study was performed to find out waters quality modeling and then to predict water quality of Oship stream. Based on survey data, BOD, T-N, T-P calibration and verification result were in good agreement with measured value within mean coefficient variance(MSE) value, which were 13.9%, 9.0%, 26.5% and 19.5%, 12.0%, 16.5%, respectively. Sectional water quality predictions of the main stream of Oship stream are executed on the basis of the following cases 1) with sewage treatment of Dogye-eup 2) reduction of mine wastewater treatment of 80% in th basin. As a result, BOD, T-P improvement rates at down stream of Oship stream, case 1) were appeared 12.2%, 22.2%, case 2) maximum sulfate ion and conductivity reduction removal rate of Oship stream were 58%, 68%. The main pollution sources of Oship-stream were almost domestic wastewater and mine wastewater discharged from Dogye-eup which located in uppers stream. The large effects will appear after the construction of Dogye sewage water treatment plant which remove the organic matter and nutrients in these sewage water. The waste water from mine can not easily to treat for characteristics of effluence and economic problems. However, to achieve the goal of water quality in Oship-stream water system, treatments of those are necessary.
Effect of Cyclohexane Application to Rat Skin on the Skin Toxicity
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 71~80
To evaluate the skin toxicity of topical cyclohexane application (25mg/
) was sequentially applied to the rat skin for four days. On the histopathological findings in the light micrographs, neutrophils and engulfed neutrophils are seen, and many cytoplasmic processes were appeared in proliferated layer whereas in the dermis area, increased numbers of fibroblast, accumulation of neutrophil and lipid droplets are demonstrated. On the other hand, applying the cyclohexane to the rat skin led to the remarkable rise of cutaneous xanthine oxidase activity and similar activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content and declined activity of glutathione S-transferase compared with control group. Especially the remarkably decreased activity of aniline hydroxylase (AH) was appeared in skin as little as scarcely determined. Furthermore, the applying the cyclohexane to skin led to the significantly increased activity of hepatic AH and alcohol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that oxygen free radical and intermediate metabolite of cyclohexane may be responsible for structural changes in skin by cyclohexane application to rat skin.
Effect of Cyclohexanone Treatment on the Activities of Oxygen Free Radical Metabolizing Enzyme in the Liver Damaged Rats
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 81~88
Effect of cyclohexanone treatment on the activities oxygen free radical and cyclohexanone metabolizing enzyme in acute liver damaged rats, was investigated. Acute liver damage was induced in rats with pretreatment of 50%
in olive oil(0.1ml/100g body wt) intraperitoneally 3 times every other day. Cyclohexanone(1.56g/kg body wt, i.p.) was administered to the animals 24 hours after the last Pretreatment of CC1
. Rats were sacrificed at 4 hours after injection of cyclohexanone. On the basis of liver weight/body weight(％), serum levels alanine aminotransferase activity and hepatic protein content, cyclohexanone treatment to acute liver damaged animals led to the more enhanced liver damage. On the other hand, injection of cyclohexanone to the rats led to the increased activities of hepatic cytochrome P-450 dependent aniline hydroxylase and xanthine oxidase. Furthermore, by treatment of cyclohexanone to the acute liver damaged rats hepatic xanthine oxidase activity was more increased than the
treated rats. In case of oxygen free radical scavenging system, the hepatic glutathione content and the activities of hepatic glutathione S-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase were generally increased by injection of cyclohexanone to rats, and the hepatic glutathione content, catalase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities were more decreased in liver damaged rats by the treatment of cyclohexanone. In conclusion, the cyclohexanone treatment to acute liver damaged rats led to enhancement of liver damage that may be due to oxygen free radical together with cyclohexanone.
A Study on Indoor Radon Concentrations in Urban Area
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 89~98
This study was taken in general hospital, hotel, shopping center, underground cafe, school, house, for the purpose of investigating the distribution of indoor radon concentration in urban area, by E-PERM which approved U.S. EPA, between August and November 1999. There are two sampling Places were exceed 148 ㏃/㎥(4 pCi/L; U.S EPA remedial level), difference mean is 24.0㏃/㎥ when compared with underground vs. aboveground indoor radon concentration in the same building and ratio is 1.6, so underground area is higher than aboveground (p<0.05). Influencing factors were examined. They related to the location of sampler(detector) open or near the door is lower radon concentration than inside portion, which explains probably open area has better ventilated air and dilutes indoor radon concentration. Temperature has a negative relationship (p<0.05) with indoor radon concentration and relative humidity has a positive (p<0.05) Simultaneously to investigate water radon concentration, collected piped-water and the results were very low, which is the same in piped-water concentration other countries. In conclusion, underground indoor radon concentration is higher than aboveground. Concentration was related to sampling spot, open portion is lower than inside. Higher the temperature, lower the indoor radon concentrations. On the other hand higher the relative humidity, higher the indoor radon concentrations. Indoor radon concentration is influenced by sampling point, temperature, relative humidity.
Physicochemical Properties of Landfill Mined Wastes from Old Landfill Site
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 99~108
This study was carried out to evaluate the Physicochemical characteristics of mined waste(separated waste and soil) and to predict environmental effect of an old landfill site located at north of Seoul. Municipal solid waster(MSW) had been disposed of at the old landfill site used in this study for about 2 years(1990-1992). The old landfill site selected for this study had accepted mainly municipal solid waste. The landfill-mined waste contained separated waste (40.9%) and soil(59.1%) by wet weight basis. The separated waste consisted of combustible(91.0%) and non-combustible(9.0%). The combustible waste was mainly non-biodegradable plastics. The low heating value of the separated combustible waste, which is calculated by Dulong's equation, was as high as 3,470kcal/kg. According to the Korean Extraction Procedure, separated waste and soil were proved to be not hazardous. The total content of heavy metal in the separated waste and soil met standard of California State, USA. Therefore the separated waste may be relandfilled at a sanitary landfill site and/or burned up at an incinerator, and the separated old soil may be used ad landfill cover-soil at a sanitary landfill site. Water quality of two streams was grade IV, of which water could be used as industrial and agricultural water. The streams near the landfill site might not be contaminated by leachate from the old landfill site. It was estimated that organic matter in the old landfill site would not be actively biodegraded within a short period of time.
Field Validation of a Sampling and Analytical Method Developed for Preventing Airborne Hexavalent Chromium Collected on PVC Filter from Reduction
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 109~116
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new sampling and analytical method for the determination of airborne hexavalent chromium, Cr(Ⅵ), in a field plating operation. The procedures of this new method (Shin & Paik's Method) are as the following: Airborne hexavalent chromium is collected on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filter according to the National Institute iota Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7600, and the filler sample is placed in a screw-capped vial and soaked with 2% NaOH/3% Na₂CO₃ solution immediately after sampling. The Cr(Ⅵ) sample is analyzed by ion chromatography/visible spectrophotometry (IC/VS) according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 218.6. The airborne Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations measured by this method were compared with those determined by three reference methods: One (NIOSH/EPA Method) consisted of sampling airborne Cr(Ⅵ) on PVC filters and storing the sample filters in strew-capped vials according to the NIOSH method, and analyzing Cr(Ⅵ) in samples using IC/VS according to the EPA method. The second method (Impinger Method/NaHCO₃) consisted of absorbing airborne Cr(Ⅵ) into 0.02 M NaHCO₃ solution in midget impinger, and analyzing the Cr(Ⅵ) in samples using IC/VS. The third method was the OSHA Method ID-215. Using these four different methods, lour replicates of air samples were collected at an electroplating process and analyzed simultaneously. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used to test difference among values determined by the methods. There was no significant difference and a strong correlation (r²:0.99) between Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations measured by the Shin & Paik's Method and an impinger method (p>0.05). However, Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations determined by Shin & Paik's Method were significant1y different from those by the NIOSH/EPA Method (p<0.05) or the OSHA method (p<0.05). The Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations of Shin & Paik's Method were significantly higher than those of the NIOSH/EPA Method or the OSHA method. This result indicated that the Shin & Paik's Method may prevent Cr(Ⅵ) losses caused by reduction and give more reliable results of airborne Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations in work environments.
A Study on the Content Variation of Metals in Welding Fumes
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 117~129
Concentration of welding fumes and their components is known to be hazardous to welder and adjacent worker. To determine the generation rates of metals in fumes,
flux cored arc welding on stainless steel was performed in well designed fume collection chamber. Variables were different products of flux cored wire(2 domestic products and 4 foreign products) and input energy(low-, optimal- , high input energy). Mass of welding fumes was determined by gravimetric method(NIOSH 0500 method), and 17 metals were analysed by inductively coupled plasm-atomic emission spectroscopy(NIOSH 7300 method). Flux cored wire tube and flux were analysed by scanning electron microscopy to determine their metal composition. 17 metals were classified by their generation rates. Generation rates of iron, manganese, potassium and sodium were all above 50mg/min at optimal input energy level. Generation rates of chromium and amorphous silica were 25~50mg/min. At 1~25mg/min level, nickel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum were included. Copper, zinc, calcium, lead, magnesium, lithium, and cobalt were generated below 1 mg/min. Generation rates of metal components in fumes were influenced by input energy, types of flux cored wire. Flux cored wire was consisted of outer shell tube and inner flux. Iron, chromium, and nickel were the major components of outer tube. Flux contained iron, chromium, nickel, potassium, sodium, silica, and manganese. The use of flux cored wire can increase the hazards by increasing the amounts of fumes formed relative to that of solid wire. The reason might be the direct transfer of elements from the flux, since the flux is fine power. Ratio of metals to the fume of flux cored wire was lower than that of solid wire because non-metal components of flux were transferred. Total metal content of fumes in flux cored arc welding was 47.4(24.3~57.2) percent that is much lower than that of solid wire, 75.9 percent. We found that generation rates of iron, manganese, chromium and nickel, all well known to cause work related disease to welder, increased more rapidly with increasing input energy than those of fumes. To reduce worker exposure to fumes and hazardous component at source, further research is needed to develop new welding filler materials that decrease both the amount of fumes and hazardous components.
Uptake and Elimination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) and 3,3 ,4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl(PCB126) in Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes)
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 131~139
Effects of Rice Straw as Bulking Materials on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 141~148
This study was performed to examine the effects of rice straw as bulking materials on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction, porosity, C/N ratio, salinity, and conductivity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to rice straw in reactor control, RS-1, RS-2, RS-2 and RS-4 were 4:0, 4:1. 4:2. 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Reactors were operated for 24days with 1 hour stirring by lrpm and 2hours aeration per day. The values of pH of food wastes and rice straw were 4.39 and 7.4, respectively. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to rice straw resulted in the high reaction temperature and the fast weight and volume reduction rates. C/N ratio in control was larger than that in rice straw containing reactors. Salinity and conductivity in reactors were condensed and increased by reaction days.
Analysis of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community and Biological Evaluation of Water Quality in the Gapyung Region of the Upper North Han River, Korea
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 149~160
Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and biological estimation of water quality by the benthic macroinvertebrates from the Mt. Myungji(1267m), Mt. Kalbong(840m), Mt. Daegeum(704m) and Mt. Jubal(489m) region of Gapyung-gun, Kyunggi-do were investigated from April to November, 2001. Total taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates were 105 species, 38 families, 13 orders, 5 classes in 4 phyla. Aquatic insects were 33 species in ephemeroptera, 5 species in odonata, 13 species in plecoptera, 2 species in hemiptera, 1 species in megaloptera, 27 species in trichoptera, 3 species in coleoptera and 13 species in diptera, respectively. Non-insects were 1 species in platyhelminthes, 5 species in gastropoda, 1 species in oligochaeta, 1 species in crustacea, respectively. Ephemeroptera, trichoptera and plecoptera as indicators in clean water were very abundantly. Occurrence species at each survey area was 67 species at Mt. Myungji and 69 species at Mt. Kalbong, 48 species at Mt. Daege.um and 47 species at Mt. Jubal, respectively. Mean species diversity indices at Mt. Myungji, Mt. Kalbong, Mt. Daegeum and Mt. Jubal were 3.30, 3.33, 2.59 and 3.43, respectively. According to the saprobic system based on the species diversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates, Mt. Myungji, Mt. Kalbong and Mt. Jubal are determined as Limnosaprobic area, respectively, but Mt. Daegeum is determined as
A Survey of the Temperature Control of Refrigerators and Freezers in Retail Food Shops
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 161~171
The number of food establishments selling raw and convenience foods are increasing in Korea, and people enjoy purchasing and eating foods at these shops. However, there are only a few reports on the temperature control of the refrigerators and freezers at retail food shops. This study was performed to investigate the temperature control of refrigerators and freezers in retail food shops in Daegu. The survey was carried out from July 20 to August 30 in 2001. The trained surveyors visited the twenty retail food shops (four department stores, eight marts/supermarkets and eight convenience stores) in the 8 major areas of Daegu and inspected the temperature control of 48 refrigerators for dairy products, fruits & vegetables, and rolled rice & sandwiches, and 52 freezers for ice cream & sherbet, frozen food, and frozen fish. The percentage of the refrigerators, and freezers with unsafe temperatures higher than the recommended safe temperature (10℃ for refrigerators, and -18℃ for freezers) was 42%; 45.8% in refrigerators; 38.5% in freezers. On an average, the bigger the size of the shop, the better than the other freezers. On the other hand, the temperature control of refrigerator for fruits & vegetables was the worst because they were usually open. Actual temperatures in the refrigerators and freezers were found to be significantly higher than the reading on the thermometers attached to the refrigerators and freezers(p<0.05). These results indicate that temperature control of refrigerators and freezers at retail food shops should be monitored several times each day, and should have strict inspection. There should be more detailed legal standard and specification for temperature control of refrigerators and freezers at retail food shops to prevent foodborne illness from unsafely stored food.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Workers at Restaurants in Seoul Metropolitan City
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 173~182
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke(ETS) increases the risk of lung cancer and other diverse health effect for nonsmokers. Health risk assessment of nonsmokers related to ETS exposure requires large and exact data of ETS exposure to nonsmokers. This study presented the data of ETS exposure to workers at three category of restaurants(Korean restaurant, coffee shop, wine shop) in Seoul. Markers of ETS exposure measured in this study were area and personal NO
, area and urine nicotine, area respiratory suspended particulate(RSP) and urine cotinine. The mean concentration of RSP and nicotine of all restaurant indoor samples was 177.8
/㎥) and 7.8
/㎥). The mean concentration of urine cotinine measured for the biomarker of ETS exposure was 77.3ng/mL(range:17.3~174.6ng/mL). In all measurements, the concentration of ETS markers at the wine shop was higher than those at other restaurants. The correlation coefficient among the ETS markers measured in the study was significant between area RSP and nicotine concentration and between area NO
and nicotine concentration.
Residence s Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Indoor Air Characteristics
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 183~192
Indoor air quality is affected by source strength of pollutants, ventilation rate, decay rate, outdoor level and so on. Although technologies exist to measure these factors directly, direct measurements of all factors are impractical in most field studies. The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative methods to estimate these factors by multiple measurements. Daily indoor and outdoor NO
concentrations for 21 days in 20 houses in summer and winter, Seoul. Using a mass balance model and linear regression analysis, penetration factor (ventilation divided by sum of air exchange rate and deposition constant) and source strength factor(emission rate divided by sum of air exchange rate and deposition constant) were calculated. Subsequently, the ventilation and source strength were estimated. During sampling period, geometric mean of natural ventilation was estimated to be 1.10
1.53 ACH, assuming a residential NO
decay rate of 0.8 hr
in summer. In winter, natural ventilation was 0.75
1.31 ACH. And mean source strengths in summer and winter were 14.8ppb/hr and 22.4ppb/hr, respectively. Although the method showed similar finding previous studies, the study did not measure ACH or the source strength of the house directly. As validation of natural ventilations, infiltrations were measured with
tracer gas in 18 houses. Relationship between ventilation and infiltration was statistically correlated (Pearson r=0.63, p=0.02).
Detection of Coliform and Escherichia coli in Spring Water by Polymerase Chain Reaction
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 28, issue 2, 2002, Pages 193~202
The polymerase chain reaction(PCR) of target lacZ and uidA genes were used to detect total coliform and Escherichia coli for determining water quality, respectively. Of 109 spring waters, coliform were detected from 38 spring waters by lacZ PCR method but 21 spring waters by culture method accepted by the Ministry of Environment for water quality monitoring. The lacz PCR method gave the results statistically equivalent to those of the culture method(kappa=0.62, McNemar=17.00). The uidA PCR method gave the same results to those of the culture method. The sensitivity and specificity of coliform and E. coli by PCR method were 100% and 80.7%, respectively. Therefore, PCR can be used for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli and coliform in potable water using uidA and lacZ.