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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Volume 29, Issue 5 - 00 2003
Selecting the target year
Improving Coagulation Performance with pH Preadjustment in Drinking Water Treatment
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~6
This paper reports on a pilot scale comparison of PACS coagulation with and without pH preadjustment. The pH of the water was adjusted with carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid. Process performance was assessed on the basis of total organic carbon(TOC), UV absorbance, turbidity and disinfection by-product(DBP) precursors. Coagulation pH appeared to be a determining factor for maximum NOM removal. The optimum coagulation pH in order to decrease TOC and turbidity were pH 7. Preadjustment of pH 7 increased TOC removal to as much as 43, 47 percent with sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide. Moreover, coagulation at pH 7 caused a reduction in UV
, THMFP and HAAFP compared to the baseline coagulation. For preadjustment of pH 7 with carbon dioxide, the percentage of TOC, UV
, THMFP and HAAFP shows the reduction rate of 3.8, 0.5, 4.8, 9.4％ comparing to the coagulation rendition using sulfuric acid. Acid addition to depress pH during coagulation decrease Langelier Saturation Index(LSI), potentially causing increase corrosion in water distribution systems. LSI for carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid at pH 6 was -2.3, -3.3. Therefore, carbon dioxide was more effective at controlling corrosion than sulfuric acid.
Study on Anti-estrogenic Activity of DEHP as an Endocrine Disruption Chemical
Kim, Eun-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 7~15
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a widely used plasticizer known to be a suspected endocrine disrupter, but its exact effects on aquatic organisms are not yet known. When Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed from the time of hatching to 3 months of age to an aqueous DEHP solution at nominal concentrations of 1, 10, and 50
/l, DEHP treated female fish showed distinct reproductive effect. And the midge (Chironomus riparius.). an aquatic invertebrate, was exposed to DEHP to evaluate the effects on reproductive processes via sediment toxicity. The test endpoints included emergence, sex ratio, fecundity, and the viability of F1 offspring egg ropes. The result implied that the normal developmental and/or reproductive processes in C. riparius had been disrupted when exposed to DEHP, the effect also being displayed in the next generation. In summary, DEHP hinders the development of reproductive organs in the female Japanese medaka and C. riparius.
Effects of Butyl Benzyl Phthalate on Dams and F1 during Lactation Period of Rats
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 16~22
BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate), a widely used plasticizer. can enter the food and environment as consequence of its manufacture, use, and disposal. BBP was found to be developmental and teratogenic or endocrine disrupting chemical in rats. The effects of BBP were investigated in female rats (P) and second generation (F1) via lactations. Sprague-Dawley were given BBP by oral administration at 0, 5, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg on day 0 to 21 of lactation period. The results were as follows : At maternal findings, there were some significant changes (p<0.05) in relative organ weight, especially liver and uterus weight by BBP administration. In estrous cycle, high treated group was inclined to be proestrus or estrus compared to control group. BBP indues estrous cycle earlier than the control group. At fetal findings, there were some significant changes in relative liver and spleen weight, especially 100, 1000 mg/kg administered groups. The relative weight of ventral prostate was decreased, so it was represent to dose-response tendency. Parent rats (P) were detected monobenzyl phthalate (MBeP) 3.21~5.81
/ml in 100, 1000 mg/kg dose groups. MBeP of male and female fetuses (F1) were detected at the level of 1.21~2.63
/ml of serum. Male serum concentration oi MBeP was higher than the females'. Estrogen receptor
expression by BBP and bisphenol A in uterus and testis of F1 were studied. The ER
expression were increased in F1 male testis and female uterus. F1 male showed distint ER
expression, especially in the combined exposrue. Synergistic ER
expression was found by combined treatment group of BBP and bisphenol A. From the above results, it could be concluded that the effects of dams and F1 by BBP administration during lactation period were estrogenic, and BBP can transfer to F1 via lactation, and make estrogenic at F1 reproductive organs.
Effect of Cyclohexane Treatment on the Liver Cytochrome P-450 Dependent Aniline Hydroxylase Activity in Alcohol-pretreated Rats
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 23~28
To evaluate the effect of cyclohexane(CH) treatment on the liver cytochrome P-450 dependent aniline hydroxylase(CYPdAH) activity in alcohol-pretreated animals, CH(1.56 g/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to Sprague-Dawley male rats, which had been drunk 15％ alcohol in distilled water for 1,3 and 6 weeks. CH was injected to rats 4 times every other day and the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours after injection of CH. In the alcohol-pretreated rats, liver injuries were not demonstrated on the basis of the liver weight per body weight, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase activities. By the CH treatment, alcohol-pretreated animals showed the significantly increased activity of hepatic microsomal CYPdAH. Concomitantly
value in CYPdAH was more increased, whereas
value more decreased in alcohol-pretreated animals by the treatment of CH. In conclusion, the increasing cause of microsomal CYPdAH in CH-treated rats pretreated with alcohol may be due to induction of enzyme protein in rat liver.r.r.
The Pattern of PCBs Level in Adipose Tissue and Serum of Breast Cancer and Normal Women
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 29~37
The purpose of this study was to identify the distribution of non-ortho and mono-ortho PCB congeners and homologues in adipose tissues and sera of women with breast cancer. The collected samples were 25 adipose tissues and 33 sera from women with breast cancer. The samples from the control group were 49 adipose tissues and 52 sera. The levels of three non-ortho and eight mono-ortho PCBs identified in adipose tissue and serum samples were determined by GC/MSD and GC/ECD analyses. Non-ortho and mono-ortho PCB congeners were more dominant in the control group than in the case group for serum samples. The Tetra-PCB and the Hexa-, Hepta-PCB were more dominant in tale and control groups, respectively. The level of PCB homologues in normal women was similar to that of the normal human milk samples. However, the levels of PCB homologues from breast cancer patients were almost same the level of sample from environment. As a result of this study, it is suggested that breast cancer could be related to environmental factors such as PCB level in stack gas and soil sample. More extended research should be to verify this result.
A Survey on the Contents of Fluoride, Calcium, and Magnesium of Reservoir Water on a Stream in the Jeon-buk Area of Korea
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 38~44
This study was performed to investigate the levels of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in water samples taken from five reservoirs or direct sources on a stream used for agricultural or domestic water in the Iksan and Wanjoo areas, Jeon-buk, Korea, and to find a possible link between Ca or Mg and fluoride in water sources in theses areas. The samples were collected by the recommendation methods of the World Health Organization and analyzed by the recommendations of the Japanese Standard Methods. Statistical analyses were performed by the analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The F levels in water samples wire 0.80~2.53 ppm. In four sampling sites the water fluoride levels exceeded 1 ppm. which if the recommended level for fluorosis/caries control. The Ca levels in water samples were 6.82~12.98 ppm, and the Mg levels were 0.30~1.97 ppm, which are lower compared with the natural levels of water sources previously reported by other investigators. This study showed a positive correlation between Ca and Mg (r= 0.8779. p<0.01) and a negative correlation between F and Ca (r=-0.6974, p<0.05) and also between F and Mg (r=-0.5581) in the water samples. However, the study did not find remarkable relationships in fluoride levels between sampling sites. These results support the fact that there were epidemics of dental fluorosis in this area. The lack of significant positive correlations in fluoride levels between sampling sites suggests that there may be some pathways for the transfer of the metal to the water through other environmental media besides the water course. Long-term epidemiological studies are needed on the relationship between high F together with low Ca and Mg levels in the water, and total human health in this community. There should alto be a long-term monitoring of the water quality in this area.
A Study on the
Removal with Utilization of Seashell Waste(I) -The Characteristics of Sulfided Reaction Using Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer-
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 45~49
In this study, lots of methods have been studing to utilize energy and decrease contaminated effluents. There has been great progress on IGCC (Integrated gasification combined cycle) to reduce thermal energy losses. The following results have been conducted from desulfurization experiments using waste shell to remove H
S. According to TGA results, temperature had influenced on H
S removal efficiency. As desulfurization temperature increased, desulfurization efficiency increased. Also, maximum desulfurization efficiency was observed at 80
. Desulfurization was related to calcination temperature. Considering temperature ranges of exhausted gas from hot gas gasification equipment were 400~80
. Thus, desulfurization efficiency would be increased desulfurization temperature situation at highly. Experiments by TGA showed that particle size of sorbents had influenced on desulfurization capacity. Maximum desulfurization capacity was observed at 0.631 mm for oyster and clam. Rest of sorbents showed similar capacity within 0.171~0.335 mm particle size range. So, particle size would be considered. When would be used waste shells as IGCC sorbents. According to the results about desulfurization capacity by TGA, oyster had the best desulfurization capacity among limestone and waste shell. We would be identify to substituted oyster for existing sorbents
Synthesis and Isolation of Monoacetyl-DCB and Diacetyl-DCB from 3,3대-dichlorobenzidine(DCB)
Lee, Jin-Heon ; Lee, Beom-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 50~55
3,3-dichlorobenzidine is suspected to be cancinogenic in experimental animal and human. Several studies have investigated excretion of metabolites in urine, hemoglobin adduction and cancer incidence among workers occupationally exposed to 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. In these researches, metabolites of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine had a very important role, and were required as highly purity. The purpose of this study was synthesis and isolation of its metabolites from 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine was partially dissolved in benzene, ether, ethanol and methanol, and completely dissolved in 70% acetic acid on mixtures of citric acid containing less than 1% DCB, pyridine, a mixture of 0.5N NaOH and toluene(1:2), and phenol saturated with 20 mM TRIZA base. DCB, monoacetyl-DCB and diacetyl-DCB were measured by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS). Detection for checking them was nitrogen phosphorous detection mode(NPD), and for identifying them was selected ion monitoring mode(SIM). The base peaks were 252 m/z in DCB, 252, and 294 m/z in monoacetyl-DCB, and 252, 294 and 336 m/z in diacetyl-DCB, respectively. Diacetyl-DCB was synthesized by titrating DCB solution of pyridine with sufficient acetyl chloride. Precipitation was diacetyl-DCB, which was purity of 98.7%. And its supernatant was composed of DCB, monoacetyl-DCB and diacetyl-DCB. By using acetic acid as controller of acetylation, monoacetyl-DCB was isolated from diacetyl-DCB . And residual pyridine was removed by using acetone. The purity of monoacetyl-DCB was 98.8%.
Effect of Chaff on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 56~61
This study was performed to examine the effects of chaff as a bulking material on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction and salinity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to chaff in reactor of Control, Ch-1. Ch-2, Ch-3 and Ch-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4. respectively. Reactors were operated for 24 days with 1 hour stirring by 1 rpm and 2 hours aeration per day. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wasted to chaff resulted in the reaction at higher reaction temperature and the elongation of the high temperature reaction period. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff resulted in the more faster pH increase. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff resulted in the more faster reduction in the weight and the volume of wastes. Salinities were condensed by reaction days. The final salinity of Control and the final range of salinities of chaff mixtures were 2.79%, and 2.18~2.37%. respectively.
Determination of Lead(II) at Nation-Coated Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified by Tetren-Glycerol
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 62~68
Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using nafion-coated glassy carbon electrodes modified with Tetren(tetraethylene pentamine)-glycerol showed sensitivity for determining lead (II) at low concentration. The Lead (II) was accumulated on the electrode surface by the formation of the complex in an open circuit, and the resulting surface was characterized by medium exchange, electrochemical reduction, and differential pulse voltammetry. Various experimental parameters, such as the composition of modifier, preconcentration time, pH of electrolyte (0.1 M acetate buffer), and parameters of differential pulse voltammetry, were optimized. The initial potential was applied for 50 s, the electrode was scanned from -0.9 to -0.3 V, and the anodic peak current was measured at -0.604 V
0.015 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The calibration plot was obtained in the range 1.0
M with pH 4.5 buffer solution. The detection limit (3
) it as low as 5.0
M. This method is applied to the determination of lead(II) in a certified reference material and the result agrees satisfactorily with the certified value.
Comparison of Sampling Filters for Airborne Hexavalent Chromium in Plating Operation
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 69~76
Hexavalent chromium may reduce on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filter during sampling and storage of sample. Recently, new or modified filters for preventing Cr(VI) from the reduction has been introduced. Thus, this study was performed to compare the reduction behaviors of Cr(VI) on several sampling filters and to find the most appropriate filter for airborne Cr(VI) sampling in plating operation. The results were as follows. 1. There were statistically significant differences among PVC, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). glass fiber (GF) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) filters in recovery rates of spiked Cr(VI) samples by storage time(p<0.05). There was no significant difference between PVC and PTFE filters(p>0.05). The PVC and PTFE filters showed higher recoveries than GF and PVDF filters(p<0.05). 2. The quartz fiber(QF) filter treated with an alkali solution(2% NaOH/3% Na
, 1% NaOH) showed a significantly higher recovery of Cr(VI) by storage time than other filters(GF and QF filter)(p<0.05). There was no difference in recovery of Cr(VI) between alkali-treated and untreated GF it filters(p>0.05). But the QF filters treated with two alkali solution showed a significantly higher recovery than the untreated QF filter(p<0.05). There was no significant difference in recovery of Cr(VI) between QF filters treated with 1% NaOH and 2% NaOH/3% Na
(p>0.05). In conclusion, treatment of QF fillers with alkali solution was most effective in protecting from the reduction of Cr(VI).
Distribution of Trochopus australis and Neobrachiella robusta in Gills of Darkblotched Rockfishes, Sebastes crameri
Chun, Kae-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 77~79
Seventeen metazoan parasites were recovered from Sebastes crameri collected from Newport fish market. Nine Trochopus australis and 8 Neobrachiella robusta were found on gill arches of canary rockfishes. The commonest sites of metazoan parasites were the posterodorsal region and second gill arches of Sebastes crameri. T. australis were most commonly found on the second gill arches, but in N. robusta. the first gill arches were the most frequented position. No N. robusta were discovered on the fourth gill arch. Metazoan parasites infected gill arches I, II, and posterodorsal regions of S. crameri, occurring less frequently on the gill arches III, IV anteriorventral and middle regions.
Effect of Cyclohexane Treatment on Serum Level of Glutathione S-Transferase Activity in Liver Damaged Rats
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 80~86
To evaluate the effect of cyclohexane(CH) treatment on the serum levels of glutathion S-transferase(GST) activity in liver damaged animals, damaged liver was induced with pretreatment of 50%
dissolved in olive oil (0.1 m1/100g body weight) intraperitoneally 17 times every other day. To
-treated rats, CH (1.56 g/kg body weight, i.p) was injected once and then the animals were sacrificed at 4 hours after injection of CH. The
-treated animals were identified as severe liver damage on the basis of liver functional findings, 1,e, increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), alkaline phosphate(ALP) and xanthine oxidase(XO) activities. On the other hand,
-treated animals injected with CH once(
-pretreated animals) showed more decreased serum levels of ALT and XO, and more increased those of ALP rather than
-treated animals. In case of comparing the GST with ALT activity in liver, both
-treated and pretreated animals showed similar changing pattern of enzyme actvity. Especially
-pretreated animals showed significantly increased serum level of GST actvity compared with the
-treated those, whereas those of ALT showed reversed tendency. In aspects of GST enzyme kinetics,
-pretreated animals showed higher Vmax of liver GST enzyme than
-treated animals. In conclusion, injection of CH to the liver damaged rats led to enhanced liver damage and more increased activity of serum GST which may be chiefly caused by the enzyme induction.
A Survey on the Sanitary Condition of Kitchens in School Food-service Programs
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 87~93
A survey including an inspection was conducted to assess the sanitary condition of kitchens in the school food-service programs and to prepare background data for improving the safety of school meals. The survey was carried out over a two-month period (September-October, 2001). A self-administered questionnaire recommended by the Korea Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development (MOEHRD) was offered to a random sample of dieticians of twenty-five elementary schools in one region of Korea about food, sanitation, and safety inspection of their kitchens. Air temperature, relative humidity, and airborne microbes in the kitchens were monitored during preparation, cooking, and service. The inspection results showed their sanitary rendition met the level B of the recommendation of the Korea MOEHRD. The range of air temperature of the kitchens was 21.4~22.4
. and the range of relative humidity was 62.4~69.6%. The microbiological evaluation of kitchen samples indicated aerobic plate count levels from 22..5 to 26.5 CFU/15 minutes. Although the results of inspection show that the levels of sanitary condition of kitchens in the schools were good, they are not satisfactory for safe food-servile because the temperature and humidity levels are high. This study indicates that the school kitchens should be monitored and strict inspection is necessary. The legal standards for school food-service should include standards for kitchen air temperature, relative humidity, and airborne microbes.
Environmental and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Vibrio spp. Isolated from Fish, Shellfish, Seawater and Brackish water samples in Gyeongbuk Eastern Coast
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 2, 2003, Pages 94~102
This study was carried out to investigated the distribution and characteristics of Vibrio spp. isolated from fish and shellfish, seawater and brackish water samples collected from Pohang, Uljin, Yeongduk and Gyeongju in Gyeongbuk Province from April 2000 to October 2000. Total 155 strains of genus Vibrio were isolated from 439 collected samples, and numbers of isolated strains of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were 140 and 15, respectively. The isolation rate from the samples collected in Pohang was the highest as 41.5% (76 strains), and wat the highest as 71.4% (30 strains) in brackish water, and was the highest as 55.7% (34 strains) in August. And the optimal pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration for growth of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae were 8.0, 3
and 2.0％, respectively. In a resistance test for environmental factors, heat and cold resistants of V. parahaemolyticus were higher than those of V. vulnificus, withstanding for 15 minutes at 6
and 6 days at -18
. The pH range for existence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were 4.5~l1.0 and 4.5~10.0, showing the similar resistance to pH. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus could grow in media containing up to 10.0% and 7.0% NaCl, respectively, Salt-tolerance of V. parahaemolyticus was higher than that of V. vulnificus. In an antibiotics sensitivity test against 16 strains of V. parahaemolyticus, twelve strains were resistant to ampicillin, eight strains were resistant to cephalothin. one strain was resistant to streptomycin, and one strain was resistant to ticarcillin.