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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Volume 29, Issue 5 - 00 2003
Selecting the target year
Effects of Bisphenol A and Nonylphenol on Zebrafish Embryogenesis
Yeo, Min-Gyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 1~9
The effects of bisphenol A and nonylphεnol on the embryogenesis and the hatching rate of zebratish embryo，were investigated. Also, the changes of the catalase activitics for I week, 2 week‘and 4 week post hatching fries exposed to bisphenol A(
) and nonylphenol(
) during embryogenesis were investigated. Development stage was rapid in the group exposed to bisphenol A of
at 10.75 hpf(hour post fertilized) than the groups exposed during early embryogenesis pe디d. Specially, hatching rate was increased in thε group exposed to bisphenol A at 6.75 hpf, 8.75 hpf, 10.75 hpf, and 12.75 hpf. The effects of nonylphenol on development stage were studied. The process of development in the group exposed to nonylphεno l(
) at 8.75 hpf was rapid than the groups exposed during early embryogenesis periα1. But thε last period of development was observed tirst in the group exposed to nonylphenol of
at 4.75 hpf. Hatching rate was increased in the group exposed to nonylphεnol than control, but lower for 8.75 hpf compared with the other groups. Catalase activities for zebrafish fries exposed to bisphenol A of
during I week post-hatching were significantly lower, compared to the control. Somewhat, for zebrafish fries exposed to bisphenol A during 4 weεk post-hatching, catalasε uιtivities were signiticantly increased. Catalasε activities for 2 week, 4 week post hatching zebraflsh fries exposed to nonylphenol(
) during embryogenesis were significantly increased, compared to the control. In conclusion, the damages of an endocrine disrupter were highest in the group exposεd at the earliest development stage. And the damage have on effect on embryogenesis and growth period.
A Study on the Textile Wastewater Treatment by Sonochemical Process
Yu, Yeong-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 10~16
This study was carried out to investigate the treatment efficiency of textile wastewater by the sonication. Textile wastewater was exposed to 200kHz ultrasounds with a power of 6.0W/cm2 per unit volume in a sonochemical reactor under ambient temperature and pressure condition. TOC, CODMn, BOD5, N-NH4, color of textile wastewater were decreased with irradiation of ultrasounds. After sonication for 60 minutes, the removal efficiency was observed that TOC, CODMn, BOD5, N-NH4 and color of treated textile wastewater under the condition were reduced to 58%, 41%, 52%, 11% and 50%, respectively.
Emission Properties of Hazardous Air Pollutants in Solid Waste Incinerator
Jeong, Jong-Hyeon ; Son, Byeong-Hyeon ; Jeong, Deok-Yeong ; Kim, Hyeon-Gyu ; Lee, Hyeop-Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 17~26
Air pollution problems due to the emission of air pollutants from the various industrial facilities become serious issues and a lot of air pollution processes have been developed. The objective of this study is to investigate the hazardous air pollutants in various solid waste incinerator. The emission properties of air pollutants and heavy metals for the three types incinerators(small/medium/large scale) were analyzed with box plot which is graph data as a box representing statistical values. The box plot analysis was based on the data contained in several literatures and our determination results at three types incinerators. Thus, the results could be summarized as follows; In the case of the small scale incinerators, most of the incinerators were equipped with cyclone for dust removal and incomplete combustion. Based on the 25th percentile and 75th percentile in the box plot, it was revealed that the concentration of SO2, Cl2, CO, and dust were exceeded the new stringent emission standards(start in 2006). The results of heavy metal analysis showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Cd were satisfied to the current or future emission standards, whereas Cr, Zn and Ni exceeded the emission standards. For the medium scale and large scale incinerators, most of the air pollutants and heavy metals were satisfied to the current or future emission standards except dioxin, CO and dust in the medium scale incinerator. In order to meet the stringent emission standards in the near future, it is need to install an air pollutants control devices, to enact an intensified management standard, to make a special law to control small and medium incinerators, and to closedown an old facilities.
The Assessment for the Removal Effect of Odorous Compounds due to Algae in Water Treatment Plants
Sin, Ho-Sang ; An, Hye-Sil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 27~33
The removal effect of odorous compounds due to algae in three water treatment plants was studied. A simple LLE-GC-MS-SIM procedure was used to the routine analysis of odorous compounds. We detected two odorous compounds of geosmin(GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol(2-MIB) in both raw and finished water. Concentration of 2-MIB and GSM ranged from ND to 12.5 and from ND to 66.0 ng/l in the raw and finished water, respectively. 2-MIB and GSM were not generally removed during conventional water treatment, but increased during chlorination owing to cell lysis. The flocculation or the filtration before the chlorination may be effective at reducing 2-MIB and GSM concentrations in the finished water throughout most of the season. Optimal coagulation agent, which does not cause lysis of cells of algae is necessary for the removal of cells in healthy state, with no additional release of GSM.
Size Distribution of Metals and Ions in Industrial Complex Aerosols in Kunsan(Korea)
Kim, Seong-Cheon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 34~41
The size distribution of metals and ions in aerosols has been studied in Kunsan city. Industrial complex particles were collected with a cascade impactor, which effectively separates the particulate matter into nine-size ranges. Eighty-one samples were collected in October, 2001-July, 2002. Each filter was extracted with a mixture of nitric and percloric acids. The acid solutions of the samples were analysed in three-particle fractions by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry(AAS; Varian SpectrAA 220), UV(U/V Spectrophotometer, Model Smart 325), and IC(Dionex, DX-500). The impactor stage fractionation of particles shows a typical bimodal distributions, one corresponding to the fine mode bellow 2.1-3.3m (42.6%), and the other to the coarse mode around 10m (57.4%). With regard to the size distribution of metals and ions, we concluded that potentially toxic metals, such as cadmium, cromium, and lead, NO3, PO43, NH4+, Na+, and K+ are mainly accumulated in the smaller particles, with percentages of 77, 54, 67, 68, 62, 65, 53, and 62%, respectively. Lead and SO42 have a concentration of 26.28 ng/m3 and 26.38g/m3 more than cadmium and chromium(2.24 and 23.77 ng/m3). And NO3, NH4+, Na+, K+, and PO43, have a concentration of 7.29, 0.69, 19.7, 0.9g/m3, and 211.93 ng/m3. And iron, Cl, SO42, and Mg2+ are mainly accumulated in the coarse particles, with percentage of 32, 26, 47 and 40%. Iron, Cl, SO42, and Mg2+ have a concentration of 668.6 ng/m3, 1.88, 26.38, and 0.51g/m3.
A Correlation between Microorganisms and Bulking on the Characteristics of Industrial Wastewater
Jeong, Jun-O ; Gwon, Hyeok-Gu ; Lee, Jang-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 42~51
To examine bulking conditions of industrial wastewater, DO, F/M ratio, nutrient, milk fat and pH, which were known to be influencing factors in the industries, were adjusted and observed the filament appearance to relate the SVI. Wastewater samples were obtained from food process industries which included dairy, bakery, liquor, and food industries. The increase of milk fat in dairy wastewater resulted in the better control of bulking by showing ideal filament formation in flocs even though the SVI was as high as 392 ml/g. When the starch contents were increased in the bakery wastewater, the average SVI was 207 ml/g and the pH was decreased to 4.9. The deflocculation of flocs were observed in the wastewater and fungi were predominant with some of filaments such as Type 0041, Type 1852 and Beggiatoa. when organic content were increased in liquor wastewater, the SVI were averaged 183 ml/g and the nonfilamentous viscous bulking was predominant even though some of S. natans and Type 0041 were observed. The food wastewater was sensitive in temperature change and showed relatively high SVI of 208 ml/g and a little low pH of 6,6. In the earlier stage of reaction, the predominant filament was Type 021N and as reaction was progressed, limited number of S. natans was observed. However, fungi was the most predominant microorganism which probably due to the low temperature of wastewater. The S. natans and Type 0041 were the most common filaments found in the food process wastewater.
Research on Pulmonary Functions and It`s Influence Factors in Korean and Chinese Schoolchildren
Kim, Dae-Seon ; Cha, Jeong-Hun ; Yu, Seung-Do ; Park, Gyeong-Ryeol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 52~60
To evaluate the health effects caused by air pollution, we conducted a preliminary study on pulmonary function and it's related factors as a first year's work of a cooperative research project between Korea and China. 200 schoolchildren, grade 3 to 6, from two schools on Beijing and Helong in China were recruited to perform the pulmonary function test(PFT). A questionnaire concerning medical history and potential influence factors(such as passive smoking, heating or cooking fuels, use a stove or keep a pet in indoor, crowding within a room, and family income) was filled out by children's parents. Regression analysis was utilized to determine which potential influence factors were significantly correlated with PFT measure(FVC and FEV1). We also compared the pulmonary functions of Chinese children with those of other studies of Korean children. The results of regression analysis between potential influence factors and PFT measure were not statistically significants. As the results of comparison of the pulmonary functions(controlled by height, weight, and age) of Chinese children with those of other studies of Korean children, FVC and FEV1 were lower in Korean children(FVC 0.015L, FEV1 0.026L in boys; FVC 0.128L, FEV1 0.136L in girls) compared with Chinese children. In this study, we could not present causation between air pollution and health effect because of some limitations(such as absent of air pollution data), but the results will be used usefully for design of next year's study which is to assess acute effect of air pollution(especially, PM10, PM2.5) on pulmonary function.
Inspection of Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems at Small Size Workplaces in Ulsan Industrial Complex and Suggestion on their Improvement
Lee, Pil-Yong ; Han, Don-Hui ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 61~70
The purpose of this study was to discuss problems and propose improvement on local exhaust ventilation systems (LEVSs) following evaluating the conditions of LEVSs at medium and small size workplaces. The inspection of hood and duct of LEVSs was carried out at small size factories (117 process in 45 factory) in Ulsan Industry Complex from March, 2001 to October, 2001. The hood were evaluated with hood material, hood tapered angle, capture distance, hood type and control velocity. The duct was investigated with duct material, and connection condition of elbow and branch. The rating or level of evaluation was based on ACGIH and Korean Standards. The relationship between airborne concentrations of contaminants and level of LEVSs was analysed. Good level of hood/duct referred to meet all of rating items (hood 5 items, duct 3 items). Bad level of hood/duct was defined as the condition of LEVSs that has even improper one of 5 items or 3 items. Good level at total evaluation rating referred to meet all of items of hood and duct. Good level of hood was found 18 of 117 systems (15.4%) and good level of duct showed 80 of 117 systems (68.4%). 14 of 117 systems (12.0%) showed good level at total evaluation rating, indicating that a large number of the existing ventilation systems was in bad condition. Even if LEVSs were most constructed by the authorized environmental protection manufacturers, a large proportion of them was found to be improper LEVSs. The condition of LEVSs was not related with the construction year. To improve LEVSs intensive training of professional manpower, continuous public relations, education of the employers, and development of technical audit program of permission process for LEVSs were recommended.
The Study on the Removal of Organics by Small-decentralized Sewage Treatment in Kangwon-do
Lee, Seung-Mok ; Sin, In-Su ; Eo, Myeong-Cheol ; Choe, Bong-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 71~77
This study is to provide a basic data for the treatment of wastewater in small-decentralized sewage treatment of Kangwon-Do by measuring total removal efficiencies of organic compounds and nutrients. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of organic compounds was 80% when the volumetric loading has been below the 5 kg/day. The removal efficiencies were 92.3% of the initial BOD, 95.2% of SS by the Contact Oxidation Process Covered with Top-soil. By Capillary Perforation Trench Process, 88% of the initial COD was removed. Nutrient removal efficiency was so low to 30%. So the removal efficiency of nutrients was lower than that of organic matters. Effluent water quality of Enhanced-combined Septic Tank in August was 35 mg/l of BOD, 47.3 mg/l of SS. And T-N, T-P was similar to all processes on seasonal variation measurement. Effluent water quality in August was higher than the discharge quality standard. For the most of facilities, evasion of responsible management and lack of awareness by the residents to the facility were found.
Heavy Metals in the Tidal Sediments Occurring along the Western Coast of Korea
Hwang, Gap-Su ; Kim, Gang-Ju ; Lee, Jang-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 78~85
Heavy metal contents and distributional characteristics in sediments from the tidal flats along the middle west coast of Korea were investigated. The averages of heavy metal contents in sediments from 12 sampling sites range from 10.54 to 47.41 mg/kg for Zn, from 6.17 to 19.14 mg/kg for Cr, from 3.53 to 12.03 mg/kg for Ni, from 1.80 to 7.79 mg/kg for Cu, from 0.004 to 0.040 mg/kg for Cd, and from 5.46 to 13.19 mg/kg for Pb(on dry weight basis). The literatural comparative study showed that the study area has been little affected by heavy metal contamination. On the whole, heavy metal content, ignition loss rate(%) and clay+silt content(%) in sediments were higher in the southern part area than in the northern part area, regionally divided by S6 and S7 sites(Osikdo). In the present study, it is suggested that methodological selection of acid digestion, particle size fraction for analysis and normalization should be carefully deliberated to make the comparative study of heavy metal contamination more objective.
Developement of HACCP System Model for Matured Raw Fishes and Its Application
Park, Wan-Hui ; Lee, Seong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 86~100
The matured raw fish is a nεw kind of raw fish food in Korea. Raw fish flesh cut into big piεces are refrigerated for maturation for some time. They are to be eaten after being cut into slices. The sea food company selected for this research processes matured raw fish and sells them on the large-scale supermarkets. They cut raw fish into two pieces and seal them up in vinyl film. The filmed packages are kept in ice during the distribution stages. The HACCP(Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) system is a systematic and continuous way of food control, and is very efficient in securing food safety and cutting down its expenses at the same time. This research aims at developing a HACCP-system model for matured-raw-fish processing and checking up its efficiency. If its efficiency is ascertained, the result will be established as a standard system for similar sea food manufacturers. The plan of a HACCP-system model was set up according to the HACCP application guidelines of Codex in close cooperation with the field workers of that company The plan was structured in the following order: HACCP-team organization, decision of HACCP scope and purpose, decision of processing skills and consumers' intention, drawing-up of processing flow diagram and scene investigation, hazard analysis and taking preventive measures, CCP(Critical Control Point) discrimination, CL(Control Limit) decision, systemization of CCP monitoring , taking improvement measures, making verification procedures, and recording and documenting. Disinfection procedure in the CCP was to be washed and treated with sterilized cold water. This procedure was administered according to the HACCP plan. To verify the effectivεness of the newly-developed HACCP model, the microorganism investigation was carried out. Common bacteria were not found or below criterion in the main processing procedures and instruments; colon bacilli were not found; the examination of the four kinds of bacilli causing food poisoning was resulted negative. So the new HACCP model turned out to be effective in controlling the maturedraw- fish processing.
Analysis of Uncertainty and Variability in Environmental Epidemiology and Health Risk Assessment Studies in Korea
Park, Jae-Seong ; Kim, Dae-Seon ; Jeong, Hae-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 101~109
To describe characteristics of uncertainty/variability in some environmental epidemiological and health risk assessment studies in Korea, reference review was performed with each three categories of uncertainty and variability concepts. Types of uncertainty/variability of 31 selected subject references were classified with related tools available to address including probabilistic simulation, correlation and regression analysis, additional measurements, scenario modeling, standardization, expert judgment, non-linear and multi-media modeling. Major sources of uncertainty have been originated from 1) measurement of exposure and health effect, 2) insufficient discussion of study design and methodology, 3) incomplete description of subject markers. Identified factors related to variability have been 1) yearly and spatial variation, 2) variation of measurement state (temperature, humidity etc.), 3) variation from regional environment specificity. Countermeasures concerning these uncertainty are 1) more detailed instruction of measurement information, 2) exact discussion on applied tools and methodology, 3) extended reference review for studied materials and markers. Over 50% of variability are coped with 1) showing and comparing statistics like standard deviation for yearly (time) and spatial variation, 2) notifying changes of analysis condition through time and standardized analysis method, 3) statistics of regional variability between sampling districts. Further research is required to propose more illustrative means to understand uncertainty/variability for decision makers and general public.
A Study on the Binding Characteristics of
Choe, Jong-Gyu ; Jo, Gyeong-Deok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 110~115
Surfactants, such as -cyclodextrin (-CD), have frequently been used to desorb hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from the soil and to enhance the bioavailability of HOCs. This study was performed to investigate the binding characteristics between toluene and -CD with batch experiment and the column study. The results showed that -CD formed an efficient complex with toluene. As the -CD concentration increased, the amount of toluene complexed with the -CD rapidly increased, up to 40% of the initially added concentration at equilibrium. The effect of -CD on the desorption of toluene from the soil in a water/soil system showed that as the -CD concentration increased, the amount of toluene desorbed into the water increased up to 100% of their initial toluene concentrations. In the column experiment, toluene was effectively transported through the column in the presence of -CD without sorption or retardation.
Estimations of Deposition Flux and Dry Depositon Velocity of Dustfall in Kunsan
Kim, Seong-Cheon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 116~125
From Septemper 1997 to August 1999, dustfall samples were collected to calculate deposition of dustfall and metallic elements(e.g. Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Fe) at four different sites : industrial, commercial, residental and Kunsan National University site at Kunsan in Korea. Significant differences of the deposition metallic elements were obsered in two stages of yellow sand: first stage is in Spring 1998, and the second is winter, 1998 and 1999. Deposition flux of dustfall and Zn, Cr and Fe was high in the first stage, but was not high in the second stage. Differences of regional and seasonal flux were also apparent. For the deposition flux of Cd and Fe was commercial > industrial > residental site, while that of Zn, Cd and Pb was industrial > residental > commercial site. Calculated water soluble ratio were 0.47 for residental, 0.42 for commercial, 0.59 for industrial site. The results indicate that industrial site was more affected strongly by anthropogenic sources, than commercial site was mass fractions of metallic elements showed very semilar values at commercial and industrial site, which seems to be effects of similar source and geological location.
Effects of Chemical Treatments on the Reduction of Aflatoxin Content in Corn
Yeo, Hyeon-Jong ; Kim, Jong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 126~132
This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin reduction resulting from the chemical treatments of corn. Aflatoxin was produced by Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517 on a type of corn imported from the United States. The aflatoxin-produced corn(AC) was treated in several different chemicals for 2 hours at room temperature. The AC was also treated with 1, 2, 3, and 5% of sodium hypochlorite for 24 hours, or treated with 10% of sodium hypochlorite for 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours. The aflatoxin content in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Out of the six chemicals tested as aflatoxin inhibitors, ammonium hydroxide 28% was found to be the most effective (99.11% reduction) (p<0.01) followed by sodium hydroxide 5%, sodium bicarbonate 5%, hydrochloric acid 0.1%, acetone 5%, and sodium hypochlorite 10%(p<0.01). A significant reduction of total aflatoxin in the AC treated with 1% solution of sodium hypochlorite was observed in 24 hours(p<0.01). The 10% solution of sodium hypochlorite showed a significant reduction of total aflatoxin in the AC in 2 hours(p<0.01). This study provides that atmospheric ammoniation of corn may be an effective method for feed. It could be emphasized, however, that approval for ammoniation of aflatoxin-contaminated corn has not been given by FDA, and it is likely that other safety studies using animals must be conducted before we can recommend the use of the process.
Bacterial Growth on GAC (granular activated carbon) in a Water Purifier
Lee, Dong-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 29, issue 5, 2003, Pages 133~138
Comparison of water qualities, including bacterial distributions and activities, in influent and effluent of a water purifier for drinking water was done to clarify the possibility of bacterial growth on granular activated carbon (GAC) in a water purifier. GAC of two filters, before and after reverse osmosis (RO) filter as pre-GAC and post-GAC filters, were also studied. HPC (heterotrophic plate count) of effluent (7.0×101~6.3공103 CFU/ml) were higher than influent (3.5 공101~1.9°ø103 CFU/ml) in the water purifier until 50 days (summer) and after 50 days, vise versa. HPC was 10 fold higher in pre-GAC than post-GAC filter. It may represent that RO filter can't eliminate all bacteria. Bacterial activities on GAC were 12.13~17.94 mg INT-formazan/g-GAC/h in pre-GAC and 10.68~18.42 mg INT-formazan/g-GAC/h in post-GAC. No pathogen was detected and Acinetobacter sp. were dominant bacteria on GAC. Moraxella, Clavibacter, Pseudomonas, and Corynebacterium sp. were also detected on GAC.