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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Dec 2004
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Nov 2004
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Assessment of Korean Water Quality Standards for Effluent Discharged from the Dye Industry Based on Acute Aquatic Toxicity Tests Using Microbes and Macroinvertebrates
Kim, Young-Hee ; Lee, Min-Jung ; Choi, Kyung-Ho ; Eo, Soo-Mi ; Lee, Hong-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 185~190
Acute aquatic toxicity of effluents discharged from five dyeing plants in Gyeong-gi province were evaluated to assess whether the current Korean water quality standards(KWQS) could protect aquatic life. Chemical analyses of all parameters regulated under KWQS, except for E-coli, were also carried out to determine regulation compliance of the samples. All the effluent samples were satisfied with KWQS except for the color in only one sample. In acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests, significant mortality was observed in one of five samples and EC50 was 12.1%(95% confidence interval 9.1-16.2), which was in compliance with KWQS. The result of the Microtox assay indicated that acute microbial toxicity existed in effluents from three out of five plants, two of which were in compliance with KWQS. The agreement between regulation compliance of chemical concentrations of effluent and observed toxicity from various biological toxicity tests was very poor to fair (kappa = 0.194~0.250). The data presented suggest that exposure to dyeing wastewater which were in compliance with Korean water quality standards may not be safe to aquatic biota, and multiple tropical levels should be considered in aquatic toxicity monitoring of dyeing industry.
Relationship Between Urinary Melatonin Levels and Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields for the Selected Primary Schoolchildren Living Nearby and Away from Overhead Transmission Power Line
Cho, Yong-Sung ; Kim, Yoon-Shin ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Hong, Seung-Cheol ; Jang, Seong-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 191~206
The present study investigated the hypothesis that a extremely low frequency magnetic field partially suppresses the synthesis of melatonin in a group of 28 primary schoolchildren living nearby and 60 primary schoolchildren aged 12 years living far away from overhead transmission power lines from December 2003 to April 2004 in Seoul, Korea. The mean personal exposure levels of the primary schoolchildren living nearby overhead transmission power line were 0.37
T, whereas the value for the primary schoolchildren living away from overhead transmission power line 0.05 mT. From simple analyses, the mean melatonin levels in the primary schoolchildren living nearby were lower than away from overhead transmission power line, but not statistically significant differences in the levels of the melatonin (p=0.2421), whereas the statistically significant differences in the levels of the melatonin related to the distance from residence to power line less and more than 100 m by cut-off point (p=0.0139). In multiple linear regression analyses, distance from residence to power line (p=0.0146) and dietary habit about burned meat (p=0.0170) proved to be significant risk factors in the mean nocturnal melatonin levels in the primary schoolchildren. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that urinary levels of nocturnal melatonin are not altered in primary schoolchildren exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic field(ELF-MF) at overhead transmission power line.
Safety Investigation of Tap Water and Biofilm by Isolated Bacteria
Lee, Dong-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 207~213
For investigation of the food safety and influence of biofilm on the bacterial quality of tap water, it was detected by selective media, and identified by API kit and MIDI system. Biofilm and effluent showed much more colonies than influent. Although there were many presumptive positive colonies, no pathogenic bacterium detected. However opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas species, and members of family Enterobacteriaceae were detected. Compared to influent, biofilm and effluent showed more diverse bacteria. This study implies that there would be the negative influence of biofilm on the bacterial qualities of tap water.
A Study on the Treatment of Parathion Pesticide Using Marsh and Pond Type Constructed Wetlands
Kim, Se-Kyung ; Choi , Jong-Kyu ; Oh, Se-Hee ; Kang, Ho-Jeong ; Zoh, Kyung-Duk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 214~220
The microcosm type wetland systems were constructed in order to treat wastewater contaminated with parathion. The microcosm reactor consisted of marsh and pond type. The experiment was carried out using batch (marsh or pond) and continuous (marsh-pond and pond-marsh type) systems. In the batch reactor, marsh-type wetland completely removed parathion in water within 8 days, while pond reactor removed 97% of parathion during the same period. During parathion degradation, the amount of 4-nitrophenol production, one of the metabolites from parathion degradation, was higher in marsh-type batch reactor. In the continuous systems, both marsh-pond and pond-marsh combination systems effectively removed parathion from water, and the production of 4-nitrophenol was also minimal. In the extraction experiment, the parathion and its metabolite were not found in the wetland soil and the plant. In order to achieve both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the continuous wetland system combining marsh and pond type can be the alternative for the non-point source pollutants such as parathion pesticide.
Efficiency of Removal for PM10 and
by Air Cleaner in Residential Indoor Environment with Monte-Carlo Simulation
Lee , Cheol-MIn ; Kim , Yoon-Shin ; Lee , Tae-Hyung ; Kim , Jong-Cheol ; Kim , Jung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 221~229
We estimated decreasing rate of indoor air pollutants which are PM10 and
by the air cleaner in indoor environment. This study respectively examined concentration of PM10 and
two times in 34 sites located in Seoul and Kyung-gi Do from April to September in 2003. Sectional period was respectively divided for operating the air cleaner and non-operating the air cleaner. Moreover, questionnaire was executed to grasp physical characteristic of objective building and residential characteristic of residents by using method of self-entry. There was a trend that concentration of PM10 and
separated number of residents during operating period respectively decreased among indoor air. According to the existence of smoker in indoor, both concentration of PM10 and
during operating period decreased in each case, and according to existence of pets, both cases decreased concentration of pollutants by operating the air cleaner. We used Monte-Calro simulation to remove uncertainty and identify efficiency of eliminated pollutants such as PM10 and
by the air cleaner. Average efficiency of removal for PM10 and
23.04% and 48.67
Effect of Continuous Exposure to Reactive Oxygen Species on
-Glutamyltranspeptidase Expression and Activity in HepG2 Cells
Kim, Young-Whan ; Choe, Dal-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 230~238
The adverse health effects of a number of environment pollutions are related to the formation of free radicals. Induction of antioxidant defensive system in the response to an oxidative attack is an essential element of the cell to survive. CYP2E1 is easily induced by organic solvents and induces continuous formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
GT) plays an important role in glutathione metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. To evaluate the characteristic of oxidative stress which induces GGT expression and to understand human antioxidant defensive response against oxidative stress induced by CYP2E1, we studied regulation of
GT enzyme expression in response to various oxidative stresses in human HepG2 cells. The
GT activity was not modified after exposure of acute oxidative stress inducing agents (ferric nitrilotriacetate, cumene hydroperoxide, ADP-Fe, O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, tumor necrosis factor-alpha). To induce continuous exposure of cells to ROS, HepG2 cells were transfected by human CYP2E1 gene transiently. The CYP2E1 activity was verified with chlorzoxazone hydroxylation. Transfection of CYP2E1 showed continuous 60% increase in intracellular ROS and 240 % increase in microsomal ROS. CYP2E1 overexpressing cells showed increased
GT activity (2.5-fold). The observed enhancement of
GT activity correlated with a significant increase of
GT mRNA (2.1-fold). Treatment with antioxidant strongly prevented the increase in
GT activity. The CYP2E1 overexpression did not modify toxicity index and increased glutathione levels. These results show that continuous exposure of cells to ROS produced by CYP2E1 up-regulates
GT; This may be one of the adaptive antioxidant responses of cells to oxidative insult. Present study also suggests that the induction of
GT could be used as a marker of oxidative stress induced by exposure to organic solvents.
A Study on Improving Dewaterability and Determining Optimum Condition of Digested Sludge Using Limestone
Kim, Ean-Ho ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 239~244
The purposes of this study were to examine applicability of limestone as a conditioning agent and to determine the optimum conditions for improving dewaterability of digested sludge. The optimum conditions for temp., pH, dosage, particle size, time, and pressure was
, 7, 45 g/l, 100 mesh, 30 min., and
, respectively. On the basis of induced optimum conditions, if adding limestone in digested sludge, it estimated that its specific resistance was
. Therefore, it seemed that we could utilize limestone as conditioning agent for improving dewaterability of digested sludge.
The Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds Using a Pilot-Scale Biofilter
Son, Hyun-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 245~252
Two biofilter tests were conducted under different operating conditions. Test # 1 was performed to treat VOCs generated from a paint booth. The second test was performed to treat VOCs generated from chemical manufacturing processes. The volume of biofilter media was 4.3
. For the test # 1, the biofilter was operated for 30 days with 99.9% reduction ratio. Range of temperature of each stage of the biofilter media was measured between
. All the temperatures of stages reduced gradually after the initial dramatic increase. For the test # 2, the biofilter experiment was conducted for 14 days. In this case, the biofilter was installed outdoor and the experiment was performed during wintertime. Therefore, temperature management for the biofilter was needed. Seven-centimeter thick fiberglass insulation and
steam heating were used to overcome the outside freezing cold weather during test # 2. Temperature of stage # 5 was measured the highest and that of stage # 1 was the lowest. More acclimation time and test period was needed to determine the maximum loading rate.
A Study on the Conditioning with Polymer and the Particle Size Distribution of Intermittent Aerobic Digestion Sludge
Kim, Hee-Jun ; Kim, Seong-Hong ; Choi, Jae-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 253~258
Synthetic organic polyelectrolytes can be used to condition sludges to enhance their dewaterability. Intermittent aerobic digestion is an useful digestion technology and has many advantages like neutral pH, low installation cost and easiness to operation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the dewaterability of intemittent aerobic digestion sludge and to find the relationship between dewaterability and particle size distribution change under the conditioning of intermittent aerobic digestion sludge by cationic polyelectrolyte. Digested sludge from intermittent aerobic digestion was used and cationic polyacrylamide polymer was added as a conditioner. CST(capillary suction time), TTF(time-to-filtration) were tested as a dewaterability index and the number of particle distribution was analyzed using particle size analyzer. The results indicate that cationic polyelectrolytes is useful to enhance dewaterability of intermittent aerobic digestion sludge. Mean particle diameter was increased as polymer dosage increased and its value was reached up to 100 mm on the condition of optimal cationic polymer dosage. CST and TTF are well correlated with mean particle diameter when the weighting order is 1.7. By the optimal conditioning with cationic polymer, particles in the filtrate are also reduced significantly and this means that conditioning is helpful to main stream by reducing SS loading from return flow.
Variation of Formaldehyde Concentration in Preschool Facilities by Location and Indoor/Outdoor
Yoon , Chung-Sik ; Jeong , Jee-Yeon ; Yi , Gwang-Yong ; Park , Dong-Uk ; Park , Doo-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 259~263
This study was performed to investigate airborne formaldehyde concentration in preschool facilities. Arithmetic mean of indoor formaldehyde concentration in urban area was 34.9 ppb(Geometric mean 24.4 ppb) whereas outdoor concentration was 21.5 ppb(GM 11.9 ppb). In rural area, formaldehyde concentrations were 36.4 ppb(GM 28.7 ppb), 4.1 ppb(GM 4.1 ppb), respectively. There is no statistical significance between the formaldehyde concentrations of urban classrooms and those of rural area. We verified that the distribution of airborne formaldehyde concentration was log-normal characteristic using Shapiro and Wilk test. The 6.7% of urban indoor samples was exceeded the domestic standard limit of indoor air quality. From our study and other study, we concluded that the major emission sources of formaldehyde in preschool facilities was in indoor rather than outdoor.
Fate of Di-2-ethylhexyl Phthalate in Aquatic Food Chain
Kim, Eun-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 264~271
An aquatic food chain was constructed to provide information of bioaccumulation of DEHP as followed: phytoplankton(Scenedesmus subspicatus)
fish(Oryzias latipes). After 10 days of exposure to DEHP, the fish and culture water were analyzed for residual concentration of DEHP and BAF(Bioaccumulation Factor) was determined. In addition, BCF(Bioconcentration Factor) was calculated in exposure tank in which fish were only exposed DEHP by culture water. These experiments provide the relative importance between BAF and BCF. In this study, BCF and BAF did not show any significant difference. Another work in this study was model construction and application to investigate the effect of food chain structure to BAF in higher organism (fish). The model constructed in this study considered the biological characteristics of DEHP such as metabolic parameters, as well as the chemical characteristics such as solubility. This model could be used in prediction of bioaccumulation level in dependent of various food chain structures, when the target organisms or chemicals would be changed.
Work Environments and Work Conditions Associated with Stress Symptoms Among Korean Manufacturing Factory Workers
Park, Kyoung-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 272~282
Stress is a primary health promotion issue in worksite research because psychological distress is closely related not only to workers health status but also to their job performance. This study identified the work environment and work condition factors affecting workers stress symptoms among the Korean manufacturing factory workers. A total of 7,818 factory workers employed in 1,562 manufacturing companies participated in the Korean nation-wide occupational health survey conducted by the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency in 2003. Participants were selected by the stratified proportional sampling process by standardized industry classification, company size, and locations. Trained interviewers visited the target companies and interviewed the factory workers randomly selected in each company. Work environments included physical work environments (temperature, noise, hazardous organic compounds, and so on) and psychological work environments (job demands, job control, and social support at work), and work conditions included daily working hour, rest time, and so on. Men were 71.5% and the mean age was 34.0 years old. The average working period in the present company was 6.9 years. The average stress score was 26.2 under the perfect score, 50, which means the moderate level of stress. Perceived stress had significant correlations with young age, poor physical work environment, high fatigue, bad perceived health status, and high job demands in Pearson's simple correlation analysis. Perceived health status and perceived fatigue explained 21% variance of stress symptoms and the work environment factor explained 4.8% of that; however, work condition did not have the sufficient effect. In particular, psychosocial work environment variables (job demand, job control, and social support at work) had a clear effect on stress symptoms rather than the physical work environments. Poor perceived health status, severe perceived fatigue, poor physical work environment, high job demands, low social support, heavy alcohol consumption and little exercise were significantly related to high stress symptoms in the Korean manufacturing workers.
Specific Reaction to Road-traffic Noise
Koh, Dai-Ha ; Youm, Jung-Ho ; Kwon, Keun-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 283~292
Valid evaluation of community reaction to road-traffic noise exposure is important for the policy making and quality of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between community reaction and nighttime road-traffic noise. The study measured nighttime roadside noise caused by high traffic which is greater than LAeq(22:00-07:00) 65dB(A) and lower than 65dB(A) at Chonju city, from March to April, 2003. Three hundred sixty seven subjects, aged from 20 to 65, were selected from those who are residing close to the major roads. They were asked to answer the questions regarding noise source, stress(PWI-SF), annoyance, disturbance of specific activity, disturbance of sleep, somatic symptom, and four suggested confounding factors. The relationship between annoyance, somatic symptom and noise exposure was not significant. Adjusted odds ratio(95% C.I.) for disturbance of communication and disturbance of attention and rest were 1.59(1.03-2.71), 1.64(1.06-2.81), respectively. On the other hand sleep disturbance was indicated as 1.34(0.77-2.32). The results suggested that federal policy-making about road-traffic noise should consider community reaction evaluated by various perspective including annoyance, disturbance of specific activity, disturbance of sleep, and confounding factors.
Development of Vehicle Emission Model with a High Resolution in Time and Space
Park, Seong-Kyu ; Kim, Shin-Do ; Park, Ki-Hark ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 30, issue 3, 2004, Pages 293~299
Traffic represents one of the largest sources of primary air pollutants in urban area. As a consequence, numerous abatement strategies are being pursued to decrease the ambient concentration of pollutants. A characteristics of most of the these strategies is a requirement for accurate data on both the quantity and spatial distribution of emissions to air in the form of an atmospheric emission inventory database. In the case of traffic pollution, such an inventory must be compiled using activity statistics and emission factors for vehicle types. The majority of inventories are compiled using passive data from either surveys or transportation models and by their very nature tend to be out-of-date by the time they are compiled. The study of current trends is towards integrating urban traffic control systems and assessments of the environmental effects of motor vehicles. In this study, a model of vehicle emission calculation by using real-time traffic data was studied. Traffic data, which are required on a street-by-street basis, is obtained from induction loops of traffic control system. It is possible that characteristics of hourly air pollutants emission rates is obtained from hourly traffic volume and speed. An emission rates model is allocated with a high resolution space by using geographic information system (GIS). Vehicle emission model was developed with a high resolution spatial, gridded and hourly emission rates.