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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
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Difference in Methylmercury Exposure to Fetus and Breast-feeding Offspring: A Mini-Review
Sakamoto Mineshi ; Murata Katsuyuki ; Nakai Kunihiko ; Satoh Hiroshi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 179~186
The purpose of this paper was to concisely review the practical changes in MeHg concentrations in fetus and offspring throughout gestation and suckling from our recent animal and human studies. In the animal study, adult female rats were given a diet containing 5ug/g Hg (as MeHg) for 8 weeks. Then they were mated and subsequently given the same diet throughout gestation and suckling. On embryonic days 18, 20, 22 and at parturition, the concentrations of Hg in the brains of fetus were approximately 1.5-2.0 times higher than those in the mothers. However, during the suckling period Hg concentrations in the brain rapidly declined to about 1/10 of that during late pregnancy. Hg concentrations in blood also decreased rapidly after birth. In human study, Hg concentrations in red blood cells (RBC-Hg) in 16 pairs of maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were compared at birth and 3 months of age after parturition. RBC-Hg in the umbilical cords was about 1.6 times higher than those in the mothers at parturition. However, all the infants showed declines in Hg concentrations throughout the breast-feeding period. RBC-Hg at 3 months of age was about half that at birth. Both the animal and human studies indicated that MeHg exposure to the fetus might be especially high but it dramatically decreases during the suckling period. Therefore, close attention should be paid to the gestation rather than the breast-feeding period to avoid the risk of MeHg to human infants.
Analysis of Minerals in the Hair of Mental Retardation
Lee, Ju-Young ; Choi, Won-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 187~191
Several heavy metals are known to give some kinds of mental retardation although abnormal X-chromosome is closely connected with genetic disease such as mental retardation. This study dealt with the influence of minerals in the hair of mental retardation people. Minerals were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (Sciex Elan 6100, Perkin-Elmer corporation, Foster, CA, USA). The nutritional elements such as Ca, Na, K were higher level (p<0.01) in normal group than in the mental retardation group. The toxic elements such as Cd (p<0.01) and As were higher level in the mental retardation group than in normal group. But Pb is not significant difference among the all groups including normal group.
Cyanobacterial Toxins, Drinking Water and Human Health
Wickramasinghe Wasantha A. ; Shaw Glen R. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 192~198
The occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms has been reported worldwide and poses a threat to human health through drinking water exposure. The toxins they produce are highly water soluble and can leach into the water body. To eliminate any risk of drinking water exposure, removal of these toxins is essential before the water is consumed. Conventional water treatment techniques such as chlorination, if managed well, can be effectively used to remove some of these toxins, however, saxitoxin and its derivatives pose a problem. Little toxicological data are available to evaluate the real threat of these toxins.
Microbe Hunting: A Curious Case of Cryptococcus
Bartlett Karen H. ; Kidd Sarah ; Duncan Colleen ; Chow Yat ; Bach Paxton ; Mak Sunny ; MacDougall Laura ; Fyfe Murray ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 199~206
C. neoformans-associated cryptococcosis is primarily a disease of immunocompromised persons, has a world-wide distribution, and is often spread by pigeons in the urban environment. In contrast, C. gattii causes infection in normal hosts, has only been described in tropical and semi-tropical areas of the world, and has a unique niche in river gum Eucalyptus trees. Cryptococcosis is acquired through inhalation of the yeast propagules from the environment. C. gattii has been identified as the cause of an emerging infectious disease centered on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. No cases of C. gattii-disease were diagnosed prior to 1999; the current incidence rate is 36 cases per million population. A search was initiated in 2001 to find the ecological niche of this basidiomycetous yeast. C. gattii was found in the environment in treed areas of Vancouver Island. The highest percentage of colonized-tree clusters were found around central Vancouver Island, with decreasing rates of colonization to the north and south. Climate, soil and vegetation cover of this area, called the Coastal Douglas fir biogeoclimatic zone, is unique to British Columbia and Canada. The concentration of airborne C. gattii was highest in the dry summer months, and lowest during late fall, winter, and early spring, months which have heavy rainfall. The study of the emerging colonization of this organism and subsequent cases of environmentally acquired disease will be informative in planning public health management of new routes of exposure to exotic agents in areas impacted by changing climate and land use patterns.
Sick House/Building Syndrome in JAPAN -Current Status and Practical Research on Indoor Air Quality-
Sekine Yoshika ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 207~214
Many Japanese today are suffering from health disorders related to their living environment, such as allergies and hypersensitivity to chemical substances. The Sick House/Building Syndrome has been a serious problem since 1996, due to low level exposure to hazardous chemicals such as formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in airtight houses. This paper aims to show current status of the syndrome in Japan and practical researches to promote prevention of, and improvement to indoor air pollution due to chemicals.
Air Pollution Monitoring in Taiwan: An Application of Tethersonding in Coastal Central Taiwan
Cheng Wan-Li ; Hsu C. H. ; Huang J. D. ; Shi J. L. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 215~220
The atmospheric transportation and dispersion processes of air pollutants are important issues in dealing with air pollution problems. Air pollutants originated from biological and anthropogenic activities are not only limited to the local emission sources, but could also be transported and dispersed to other regions by synoptic weather systems. Besides, the complexity of topography of central Taiwan helps accumulating air pollutants to promote high-concentration episodes. The techniques of tethersonding were applied to monitor the vertical profiles of winds, air temperatures and humidity, as well as to collect air samples, to be analyzed for pollutants
from the ground up to 1000m. A time period of about one week, 19-26 October 2002, was chosen as the sampling period due to the high frequency of episode occurrence in autumn based on the past records. Associating with the analysis of weather patterns, the atmospheric characteristics over high-concentration areas can be resolved in more detail. The result of the tethersonding studies showed that weak northerly sea breeze (with thickness about 300m) with low wind speed (about 1 to 2 m/sec) could help develop high ozone concentrations in the down-wind areas. It is also important to have a built-up aloft of precursors and ozone to develop high concentration on the previous day.
Purification of Isoflavone from Soybean Hypocotyls using Various Resins
Choi Yeon-Bae ; Kim Kang-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 221~226
Isoflavone was extracted with various concentration of aqueous methanol using whole hypocotyls as the starting material. Whole hypocotyls were preferred as the raw material because the residue could be easily removed from the solvent after the extraction process. Extraction yield was almost constant at the methanol concentration of
. Most of the isoflavone was extracted within 1 hr, and the extraction yield remained almost constant thereafter. When the concentration of methanol was
, the content of total solid was reduced due to the reduced extraction of contaminating protein as the result of protein insolubilization. Among resins tested, Diaion HP-20, Amberlite XAD-16, and Amberlite IRC-50 showed the highest capacity to absorb the compound. Open column chromatography with Diaion HP-20 showed that
aqueous ethanol was most efficient as the eluting solvent with final recovery of the phytochemical being more than
. Maximum adsorption of the phytochemical occurred at the acidic pH 2-4. When the spatial velocity was increased to 15 and more, the degree of adsorption was decreased, whereas below spatial velocity of 15, the adsorption capacity of isoflavone to the resin was almost constant. The purity of the isoflavone purified by column chromatography was
Several Human Pharmaceutical Residues in Aquatic Environment may Result in Endocrine Disruption in Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes)
Kang, Hee-Joo ; Kim, Hyun-Soo ; Choi, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Kyung-Tae ; Kim, Pan-Gyi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 31, issue 3, 2005, Pages 227~233
This study was conducted to determine the endorcrine disruption effects of the several major pharmaceutical residues in water using adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Four frequently used pharmaceuticals including caffeine, ketoconazole, acetaminophen, and diltiazem were investigated for the vitellogenin(Vtg) induction in the medaka using Western blotting and ELISA.
,-estradiol was used as a positive control. Vtg was qualified and quantified through Western blot and ELISA. Following SDS gel electrophoresis, the dominant protein band was identified to molecular weight approximately 205 kDa in whole body samples of vitellogenic female. With female medaka exposed to
, no significant difference in total protein induction was noted. In contrast, three to five day exposure of male fish to
, increase of total protein comparing to that of control males (p<0.01). Vtg induction in male fish was observed with all the test pharmaceuticals: At concentrations greater than 1ppm of diltiazem, 2 ppm of caffeine, 4 ppm of acetaminophen, and 10 ppm of ketoconazole, Vtg induction was monotonously increased in a dose dependent manner. This study is one of the first reports suggesting potential endocrine disruption mechanism of common human pharmaceutical products in aquatic ecosystem. Although the effect concentrations obtained from this investigation are environmentally unrealistically high, endocrine disruption should be considered as one of the important consequences of pharmaceutical pollution in aquatic environment, and warrants due attention in future researches.