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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Pesticide Exposure and Health
Lee, Won-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 81~93
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.081
Although pesticides have increased crop production and controlled disease, they have produced a number of adverse health effects. Pesticides have potential human toxicity and a variety of groups, such as farmers or industrial workers, as well as the general population, are exposed to pesticides. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to provide an overview of pesticide exposure and health through a literature review, focusing on exposure assessment, acute poisoning, chronic health effects, and future research needs. The exposure types and levels of pesticides vary by study subjects and need to be assessed by integrating several methods focused on the epidemiological purpose. Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the world. Paraquat is the main causative pesticide for acute poisoning in Korea and should be banned in order to save several thousands of lives every year. Occupational pesticide exposure also causes numerous chronic diseases among farmers and industrial workers, including cancers, respiratory diseases, depression, retinal degeneration, diabetes, and abnormal menstrual cycle. However, controversy exists regarding the long-term effects of low-dose environmental pesticide exposure. The area of pesticide study is relatively new with broad study populations and it has received little academic and policy attention, particularly in Korea. More detailed studies investigating the risk of pesticide-related health effects and intervention efforts to reduce the problems are needed in Korea.
Noise Exposure according to the Time Activity Pattern and Duties of Firefighters
Lee, Lim-Kyu ; Kang, Tae-Sun ; Ham, Seung-Hon ; Kim, Jung-In ; Yang, Young-Suk ; Yoon, Chung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 94~101
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.094
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the noise exposures of firefighters according to their time-dependent activity patterns. Methods: Personal exposure levels were measured for six days and nights using noise dosimeters; three days and nights for on-duty tasks, the other days and nights for off-duty activities. Results: The total amount of time spent in the workplace was 13,677 min (67%), outside areas 4,833 min (23%), in transit 1,002 min (5%), and other indoor area 807 min (4%) during a working period. However, during off-days they spent 10,858 min (76%) at home, 1,382 min (10%) outdoors, 1,225 min (9%) other indoors, and 493 min (3%) in transit. As a result of individual exposure levels, TWA did not exceed 90 dBA of the occupational exposure limit for the majority of the firefighters, whereas the levels of Lmax were 119 dBA, which were higher than the noise levels of firefighters in USA. Sometimes during dispatching the levels of Lpeak exceeded the ACGIH exposure standard (140 dBC). The Leq levels in transit were higher than the levels in home and other indoors even though the activity time is short. Conclusions: This paper characterized the noise exposure patterns of firefighters in Korea. We suggest that special noise sources, including sirens and speaker phones, should be readjusted to reduce noise exposure.
Cerebral Activity by Motor Task in Welders Exposed to Manganese through fMRI
Choi, Jae-Ho ; Jang, Bong-Ki ; Lee, Jong-Wha ; Hong, Eun-Ju ; Lee, Myeong-Ju ; Ji, Dong-Ha ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 102~112
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.102
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of chronic exposure by welders to manganese (Mn) through an analysis of the degree of brain activity in different activities such as cognition and motor activities using the neuroimaging technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The neurotoxic effect that Mn has on the brain was examined as well as changes in the neuro-network in motor areas, and the usefulness of fMRI was evaluated as a tool to determine changes in brain function from occupational exposure to Mn. Methods: A survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2010 targeting by means of a questionnaire 160 workers from the shipbuilding and other manufacturing industries. Among them, 14 welders with more than ten years of job-related exposure to Mn were recruited on a voluntary basis as an exposure group, and 13 workers from other manufacturing industries with corresponding gender and age were recruited as a control group. A questionnaire survey, a blood test, and an fMRI test were carried out with the study group as target. Results: Of 27 fMRI targets, blood Mn concentration of the exposure group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.001), and Pallidal Index (PI) of the welder group was also significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.001). As a result of the survey, the score of the exposure group in self-awareness of abnormal nerve symptoms and abnormal musculoskeletal symptoms was higher than those of the control group, and there was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05, respectively). In the correlation between PI and the results of blood tests, the correlation coefficient with blood Mn concentration was 0.893, revealing a significant amount of correlation (p<0.001). As for brain activity area within the control group, the right and the left areas of the superior frontal cortex showed significant activity, and the right area of superior parietal cortex, the left area of occipital cortex and cerebellum showed significant activity. Unlike the control group, the exposure group showed significant activity selectively on the right area of premotor cortex, at the center of supplementary motor area, and on the left side of superior temporal cortex. In the comparison of brain activity areas between the two groups, the exposure group showed a significantly higher activation state than did the control group in such areas as the right and the left superior parietal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and cerebellum including superior frontal cortex and the right area of premotor cortex. However, in nowhere did the control group show a more activated area than did the exposure group. Conclusions: Chronic exposure to Mn increased brain activity during implementation of hand motor tasks. In an identical task, activation increased in the premotor cortex, superior temporal cortex, and supplementary motor area. It was also discovered that brain activity increase in the frontal area and occipital area was more pronounced in the exposure group than in the control group. This result suggests that chronic exposure to Mn in the work environment affects brain activation neuro-networks.
Ecotoxicity Assessment of Industrial Effluent in Gyeonggi-do
Cho, Won-Sil ; Kim, Sang-Hoon ; Yang, Hyoung-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 113~123
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.113
Objectives: Industrial development in Korea results in a rapid increase in the number of chemicals, some of which may be responsible for toxicity to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the types of hazardous chemicals included in industrial effluents have gradually increased. Therefore, chemical analysis alone is not enough to assess ecological effects of toxic chemicals in wastewater. Methods: In response to new regulations as whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests for effluent discharge of 15 publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and 25 industrial effluent treatment plants in Gyeonggi-do, which will be effective from 2011, a necessity of studies emerges that investigates toxicity levels. Results: In case of the public treatment plants, none of them had exceeded the criteria for ecotoxicity. As for individual wastewater discharge facilities, on the other hand, two types were found to exceed the criteria: pulp and paper manufacturing facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. For the pulp and paper manufacturing facilities, monitoring results could not help determine the exact toxicant identification. However, Daphnia magna inhibition effect or death was found to leave white plums, suggesting that suspended solids treated and the polymer used in coagulant dose. In case of pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, the general water quality parameters cannot affect Daphia magna. However, conductivity and salinity can have an effect to be 14,000
, 8.1‰ by salts, respectively. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) and Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) procedures results appeared to be effective for identifying toxic compounds in
. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop control measures for water treatment chemicals and salts used for processes such as coagulation in individual wastewater discharge facilities in order to achieve the goal to protect aquatic ecosystems in public waters.
Structure and Characteristics of Bacterial Community on Biofilm of Food Wastewater Treatment System in Winter
Lee, Dong-Geun ; Yoo, Ki-Hwan ; Park, Seong-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 124~132
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.124
Biofilm and aeration tank of pilot and full RABC (rotating activated Bacillus contactor) plant were analyzed to characterize and determine bacterial community structure in food wastewater treatment system at winter. Concentration of heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus group was
CFU/ml, respectively, at biofilm of pilot-plant while others represented
CFU/ml, respectively. Five and eight phyla were detected at biofilm of pilot- and full-plant, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequencing. Biofilm of pilot-plant was dominated by
-Proteobacteria (22.4%), and Bacteroidetes (12.2%), and the most dominant genus was Zoogloeae genus (22.4%). Candidate division TM7 (12.5%) was only detected at biofilm of full-plant and it was dominated by Bacteroidetes (33.3%),
-Proteobacteria (29.2%), and
-Proteobacteria (20.8%). Clostridium genus specific primer set enabled to detect the sequences of Clostridium genus. These suggested that anaerobic and aerobic bacteria were coexisted even from the initial period of biofilm formation and
-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were major phyla in biofilm of food wastewater treatment system at winter.
Antimicrobial Activity and Bactericidal Activity of Caesalpinia sappan L. Extract
Lee, Jin-Young ; Min, Kyung-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.133
Antimicrobial activity and bactericidal activity of Caesalpinia sappan L. extracts were investigated against five food-borne pathogens, E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhimurium, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes. Methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. revealed antimicrobial activities against five pathogens. In particular, by paper disc diffusion the highest activity was shown against L. monocytogenes. Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts showed the most potent activities, but hexane fraction had no activity. Fractions of ethyl acetate and butanol turned out to have higher antimicrobial activities against Gram(+) bacteria than Gram(-) bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration against five food-borne pathogens was 1.563 mg/ml on Gram(+) bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on Gram(-) bacteria. The result of antimicrobial activity in a shaking flask method showed that bacterial growth rate fell by more than 99.999% at 3.125 mg/ml of methanol extract. The highest rate of viable reduction (99.998%) was shown at 0.781 mg/ml of methanol extract against L. monocytogenes. After five minutes of reaction between test strains and methanol extracts, the growth rates of five kinds of bacteria were reduced by more than 99.999% at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Therefore, it is suggested that methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L. can be developed as a natural sanitizer or disinfectant.
Improvement of Rapid Sand Filtration to Two Stage Dual Media Filtration System in Water Treatment Plant
Woo, Dal-Sik ; Hwang, Kyu-Won ; Kim, Joon-Eon ; Hwang, Byung-Gi ; Jo, Kwan-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 141~149
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.141
This study aimed for developing a two stage dual media filtration system. It has a sand and activated carbon layer above the under-drain system, and a sand layer above the middle-drain system for pretreatment. When retrofitting an old sand filter bed or designing a new one, this technology can substitute the existing sand filter bed without requiring a new plant site. The removal rate of total particle is 93, and 3~7
particles are all 97%. These high removal efficiencies of each pollutant due to adsorption and biological oxidation in activated carbon filter layer. The best backwashing method of two stage dual media filtration system is ascertained by air injection, air + water injection and water injection sequence. In this study, a pilot plant of two stage and dual filtration system was operated for 4 months in water treatment plant. The stability of turbidity was maintained below 1 NTU. The TOC, THMFP and HAAFP were removed about 90% by two stage and dual media filtration system, which is almost 2 times higher than existing water treatment plant.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Waste Catalyst and Their In-Process Products from Recycling
Park, Joon-Seok ; Jeun, Byung-Do ; Kim, Joung-Dae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 150~158
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.150
This research was conducted to estimate the physicochemical characteristics of waste catalyst and its in-process product from recycling and to suggest fundamental data for religious systems such as quality standards. Mo and V contents were increased from the waste catalyst to calcinated material and oxidized material. In the results of a heavy metals leaching test, Pb was not detected in any catalyst, calcinated and oxidized materials. Cu was not detected in the catalyst. However, it was detected in
1.16 mg/l for calcinated material and in 1.34~13.73 mg/l for
oxidezed material. Concentrations in recycling in-process products (calcinated and oxidized materials) were higher than those of waste catalyst. Oil content of catalyst waste ranged from 0.01-14.03 wt%. Oil contents of calcinated and oxidized materials were greatly decreased compared to the catalyst waste. Carbon and sulfur contents as chemical poisoning material of catalyst waste ranged from 0.33-76.08 wt% and 5.00-22.00 wt%, respectively. The carbon contents of calcinated and oxidized materials showed below 20 wt%. The sulfur content showed below 8wt% for calcinated material and below 0.22 wt% for oxidized material.
Cleanup of Fluorene-Contaminated Soil by Continuous Chemical and Biological Treatment
Lee, Byung-Dae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 159~164
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.159
We describe a method for effectively pretreating soil highly that has been contaminated with fluorene (
120 mg/kg soil), i.e., we apply Fenton oxidation in which ethanol is added to increase fluorene removal. To obtain maximum fluorene removal efficiency, a minimum of 1.0 ml of ethanol, 0.35 ml of
, and 0.2 ml of 0.5M
was needed per 1 g of fluorene-contaminated soil. Under optimal Fenton oxidation conditions, 13% of 9-fluorene was generated during Fenton oxidation of 43% fluorene. The biodegradability of 9-fluorenone was subsequently confirmed to be much more rapid than that of fluorene, i.e., biodegradability of 96% versus 35% over 31 days. These results demonstrate that the proposed treatment method can be effectively applied to remove fluorene prior to disposal at industrial waste sites.
The Cultural Analysis of 2010-2011 Foot and Mouth Disease Massacre in Korea
Kim, Seon-Kyung ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Paek, Do-Myung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 37, issue 2, 2011, Pages 165~169
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2011.37.2.165
Between January 2010 and March 2011, there were three outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea. Over 3.45 million animals (5,660 farms) were slaughtered, which was 33.3% of the existing pigs, 8.4% of dairy cows and 3.4% of cattle. FMD disaster costs were estimated at around three billion Korean won. Nine civil servants were killed, over 150 people were wounded and 4,788 landfills were confronted with a pollution problem. Vaccination and slaughter are the two basic alternatives for eradication of FMD. Altho ugh slaughter is more violent, risky and expensive than vaccination, the Korean government had chosen only slaughter eradication by the end of 2010. Even though over three million animals were killed, FMD spread out over most of the country. Finally, the government chose to begin vaccination. Following vaccination, outbreaks decreased dramatically. The purpose of this report is a cultural analysis of the related decision-making process, laws and systems. For the culture analysis, we utilize interviews, symposiums, laws, FMD manual, government reports and press releases. In conclusion, we found that the FMD massacre was influenced by cultural and organizational factors. The cultural factors were economism, cheapening of the value of life, biased perceptions and fears. The organizational factors were a closed process of decision-making, monopoly system, a small homogeneous group and group-think. Therefore, more studies will be needed for those factors of FMD disasters in national-scale cases.