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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Review on Toxic Substances in the Liquid and Gas Phases of Electronic Cigarettes
Shin, Ho-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 39, issue 6, 2013, Pages 483~491
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.6.483
Objectives: Electronic cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert a nicotine-containing liquid into an inhalable vapor. The device aerosolizes nicotine so that it is readily entrained into the respiratory tract, from where it enters the bloodstream. Information on the safety of E-cigarettes is required. Methods: Seventeen articles on studies analyzing toxic substances in the liquid and gas phases of electronic cigarettes were reviewed. Results: Tobacco-specific nitrosamines, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, known to be carcinogenic agents in humans or animals, were detected in the liquid and gas phases. In addition, diethyl phthalate, acetone, ethanol, cresol, xylene, propylene, styrene, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, pentaethylene glycol cis-3-hexen-1-ol, methyl cinnamate and undecane were identified in the liquid and gas phases of E-cigarettes. Propylene glycol, glycerin, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, 1-hydroxy-2- propanone, acetic acid, 1-menthone, 2,3-butanediol, menthol, carvone, maple lactone, benzyl alcohol, 2-methyl-2-pentanoic acid, ethyl mantel, ethyl cinnamate, myosamine, benzoic acid, 2,3-bipyridine, cotinine, hexadecanoic acid, and 1`1-oxybis-2-propanol were detected in the vapors of E-cigarettes. Conclusion: The hazardous compounds identified in the liquid and gas phases of E-cigarettes should be controlled for the lowest concentrations in the raw materials and production procedures.
The Impact of Environmental Health Factors on Extreme-heat Vulnerability Assessment in a Metropolitan City
Lee, Won-Jung ; Kang, Jae-Eun ; Kim, Yoo-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 39, issue 6, 2013, Pages 492~504
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.6.492
Objectives: This analysis seeks to evaluate the impact of environmental health factors (EHF; e.g. hospital beds per capita, employees of medical institutions) on extreme-heat vulnerability assessment in Busan Metropolitan City during 2006-2010. Methods: According to the vulnerability concept suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), extreme-heat vulnerability is comprised of the categories of Exposure, Sensitivity, and Adaptive Capacity (including EHF). The indexes of the Exposure and Sensitivity categories indicate positive effects, while the Adaptive capacity index indicates a negative effect on extreme-heat vulnerability. Variables of each category were standardized by the re-scaling method, and then each regional relative vulnerability was computed with the vulnerability index calculation formula. Results: The extreme-heat vulnerability index (EVI) excepting EHF was much higher in urban areas than in suburban areas within the metropolitan area. When EHF was considered, the difference in the EVI between the two areas was reduced due to the increase of the Adaptive capacity index in urban areas. The low EVI in suburban areas was induced by a dominant effect of natural environmental factors (e.g. green area) within the Adaptive capacity category. Conclusions: To reduce the vulnerability to extreme heat in urban areas, which were more frequently exposed to extreme heat than others areas, public health and natural environments need to be improved in sensitive areas.
Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenones in University Students and Association with Cosmetics Habits
Oh, Seungeun ; Ho, Sungwook ; Kim, Hyunsuk ; Lee, Sehoon ; Park, Nayeon ; Kho, Younglim ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 39, issue 6, 2013, Pages 505~512
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.6.505
Objectives: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation may cause skin cancer, photo-ageing, erythema, and sunburn. Benzophenone (BP) is commonly used to protect skin from UV radiation. In Korea, sunscreen, sunblock, socalled `blemish balm` (BB) and `color correcting` (CC) creams, and foundation may contain from 0.5 to 5% benzophenone in order to protect skin from UV radiation. The purpose of this study is to understand the levels of benzophenone derivatives in urine among a group of university students and identify the contribution of cosmetics use. Methods: Forty volunteers (20 women and 20 men) were asked about skin type, frequency of use of cosmetics, and recognition of related health effects, etc. in a survey. Subjects were divided into several subgroups and were compared for concentration of benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3). Their urine was pretreated with enzyme hydrolysis and solid phase extraction. Determinations of BP-1 and BP-3 in the urine were made with LC-MS/MS. Results: Among the study subjects, 82.5% used basic cosmetics at least once per day, and 77.5% used sunscreens at least once per day. The concentrations of BP-1 and BP-3 of the males were 4.36 ng/mL and 9.16 ng/mL, respectively. Those of the females were 3.98 ng/mL and 5.07 ng/mL, respectively. The use of cosmetics was positively related to urinary benzophenone levels. Conclusions: BP-1 and BP-3 were widely detected among the university students. Cosmetic use was identified as a potential source. Implications of such exposure deserve further investigation.
Occurrence of Indicator Bacteria and Identification of Total Coliforms Using 16S rRNA Gene in Drinking Spring Water in Seoul
Yoon, Tae-Ho ; Lee, Hyang ; Choi, Geum-Sook ; Lee, Seung-Joo ; Lee, Mok-Young ; Eo, Soo-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 39, issue 6, 2013, Pages 513~521
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.6.513
Objectives: This study was performed in order to detect indicator bacteria in drinking spring water (DSW) samples in Seoul Metropolitan City, and to identify their genus through 16S rRNA sequencing and then assessing the genetic relation of their strains. Methods: For indicator bacteria detection and identification of total coliforms, we analyzed DSW between the spring and summer seasons. In particular, DSW samples were chosen from sites repeatedly found unsatisfactory in recent years. Results: Heterotrophic plate counts of DSW in the spring and summer season were investigated in the range of 0-550 and 0-800 CFU/mL, respectively. Total coliforms of these were 0-1,900 and 0-2,100 CFU/100mL, fecal coliforms were 0-600 and 0-550 CFU/100mL, and Escherichia coli were 0-7 and 0-326 MPN/100mL. The detection ratio of fecal pollution indicators and that of fecal coliforms increased to 58.6% in the summer from 12.5% in the spring and Escherichia coli increased to 51.4% from 4.7%. As a result of genetic analysis on the isolated bacteria, the genus of total coliforms was classified in the order of Enterobacter spp. 12.7%, Serratia spp. 7.3%, E. hermanii 6.4%, Rahnella spp. 5.5%, Hafnia spp. 4.5%, Escherichia coli 3.6%, Klebsiella spp. 3.6% in the spring season. In the summer season, it was classified in order of Klebsiella spp. 16.6%, Enterobacter spp. 13.0%, Escherichia coli 11.0%, Serratia spp. 8.6%, Raoultella spp. 7.0%, Kluyvera spp. 5.6% and Citrobacter spp. 3.0%. Conclusions: The increase of fecal pollution in summer indicates that special attention to drinking DSW is required.
Study on Consumer Awareness for the Development of Personal Protective Equipment for Hog Raisers
Hwang, Young-Mi ; Kim, Kyung-Ran ; Lee, Kyung-Suk ; Chae, Hye-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 39, issue 6, 2013, Pages 522~531
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.6.522
Objectives: A field survey was conducted in a hog-raising industry in order to help develop personal protective equipment for workers which would secure the safety and the health of these workers. The attempt by this study will help enhance safety in the livestock industry and contribute to the advancement of the industry. Method: The study first selected a total of 111 workers from the hog-raising industry as research participants and designed a survey with questions on general characteristics, indoor and outdoor working environments, how the workers would in practice wear or purchase the working clothes, what needs to be improved in these new working clothes, how much the workers would be likely to accept the working clothes and protective equipment, and lastly, conditions of the communicable disease control overgarment. The collected data underwent frequency analysis and cross analysis with SPSS 21.0. Result: The research targets` average age was 50 years. Work efficiency by environmental factor was normal, but all age groups had experience of accidents (79.3%). Major wounded parts were under elbow and under knee. Protective equipment most commonly worn was helmet (83.4%), gloves (98.2%) and boots (99.1%), and satisfaction with them was normal at 3.41. Working clothing most commonly worn was old clothing (31.8%) and everyday wear (17.6%) and satisfaction with it was low. Considering the improvement of working clothing, they required attached pouches, elasticity and deodorization. The acceptability of improved working clothing was high at 69.2%. Conclusion: After problems have been addressed in relevant future research, what has been learned from the concerned study will be referred to as a useful basic reference when the relevant field works to develop high-quality working clothing and protective equipment for workers in the hog-raising industry.
Review of Exposure Assessment to Obtain Exposure Factors of Consumer Products
Park, Ji Young ; Lee, Kiyoung ; Shin, Ho-Sang ; Yang, Wonho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 39, issue 6, 2013, Pages 532~540
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.6.532
Background: Exposure factors for consumer products have been developed since the 1980s. Such exposure factors are important in risk assessment. Since the exposure/use patterns of consumer products in a country may reflect its respective cultural, meteorological, and socio-economic circumstances, unique Korean exposure factors for consumer products are needed. Such exposure factors are required for newly-enacted chemical regulations in Korea. For this review, published papers and survey reports on exposure factors of consumer products were examined for their assessment methodologies. Results: Investigation into exposure factors for consumer products used a variety of methods: home visit, online, telephone, and mail surveys using questionnaires; face to face interviews; modeling using a constructed database; and direct measurement. To collect more accurate exposure information or to check the reliability of the sampling method, some studies were repeated using the same questionnaire, in-home observation, direct measurement of usage, and videotaping. In Korea, nationwide exposure surveys were conducted five times over five years to obtain Korean exposure factors. However, with the exception of the
-year study, the surveys were online questionnaires and only the
-year study validated the accuracy of exposure information by re-visits and direct measurement. Conclusion: Accurate exposure factors are an essential part of risk assessment to assure safe use of consumer products. For better and safer management of consumer products, accurate exposure factors in Korea should be assessed for various exposure pathways.
Characteristics of Hazardous Air Pollutant Level in Road Tunnels in Seoul
Park, Jin-A ; Lee, Won-Young ; Kim, Jin-A ; Kim, Ik-Su ; Kim, Hyun-Su ; Jeong, Jong-Heup ; Yun, Jung-Seop ; Jung, Kweon ; Eom, Seog-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, volume 39, issue 6, 2013, Pages 541~549
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2013.39.6.541
Objectives: We analyzed the characteristics of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in road tunnels in Seoul. Methods: Particle matter (
), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 16 species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two road tunnels (NS tunnel and HJ tunnel) were sampled and analyzed from 2007 to 2011. Results: Levels of
and carbon ingredients which were mainly emitted from diesel-fueled vehicles showed a declining tendency in both road tunnels. PAHs levels in HJ were declining slightly while PAHs levels in the NS tunnel fluctuated considerably and showed an increasing tendency. Conclusions: These results suggested that the abatement project of diesel vehicle emissions by the Seoul metropolitan government from 2007 has had an impact on the reduction of DVE into the air, though there exist many things to consider for analyses.